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Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

Tifinagh

Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan 4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

Arabic 4 c. CE

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Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin 7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

Hangul
Hangul
1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

v t e

The Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan
Japan
in the form of Siddhaṃ. They are descended from the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
of ancient India, and are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, and Tai. They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Comparison

3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels 3.3 Numerals

4 List of Brahmic scripts

4.1 Historical 4.2 Northern Brahmic 4.3 Southern Brahmic 4.4 Unicode

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is clearly attested from the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in South India
India
and Sri Lanka. The most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BC and published by Coningham et al.,[2] but scattered press reports have claimed both dates as early as the 6th century BC and that the characters are identifiably Tamil Brahmi, though these latter claims do not appear to have been published academically. Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script
Gupta script
during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the Middle Ages, including Siddham, Sharada and Nagari. The Siddhaṃ script
Siddhaṃ script
was especially important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan. The syllabic nature and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most likely through the spread of Buddhism.[3] Southern Brahmi evolved into Old-Kannada, Pallava and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism
Buddhism
during 3rd century BCE and from where Buddhism
Buddhism
spread to east Asia. The present Telugu script
Telugu script
is derived from Bhattiprolu Script
Bhattiprolu Script
or "Kannada-Telugu script" or Kadamba script, also known as "Old Telugu script", owing to its similarity to the same.[4][5] Initially, minor changes were made which is now called Tamil Brahmi, which has far fewer letters than some of the other Indic scripts as it has no separate aspirated or voiced consonants.

Spread of Brahmic family
Brahmic family
of scripts from India.

Characteristics[edit]

Calligraphy

Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

v t e

Some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are:

Each consonant has an inherent vowel which is usually a short 'a' (in Bengali, Assamese and Oriya it is a short 'ô' due to sound shifts). Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark, known in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as a virama/halant, can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel. Each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not part of a consonant, and a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, above, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant. Consonants (up to 4 in Devanagari) can be combined in ligatures. Special
Special
marks are added to denote the combination of 'r' with another consonant. Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is also noted by separate signs. The alphabetical order is: vowels, velar consonants, palatal consonants, retroflex consonants, dental consonants, bilabial consonants, approximants, sibilants, and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops (with all four possible values of voicing and aspiration), and a nasal consonant.

Comparison[edit]

"May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods" by Kālidāsa
Kālidāsa
in different Brahmic scripts

Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph. Accordingly:

The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are later inventions. The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) pronunciation is given for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
where possible, or another language if necessary.

The transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919. Consonants[edit]

ISO ka kha ga gha ṅ ca cha ja jha ñ ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na ṉ pa pha ba bha ma ya ra ṟ la ḷa ḻ v śa ṣa sa h

Assamese ক খ গ ঘ ঙ চ ছ জ ঝ ঞ ট ঠ ড ঢ ণ ত থ দ ধ ন

প ফ ব ভ ম য ৰ

ৱ শ ষ স হ

Bengali ক খ গ ঘ ঙ চ ছ জ ঝ ঞ ট ঠ ড ঢ ণ ত থ দ ধ ন

প ফ ব ভ ম য র

শ ষ স হ

Devanagari क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न ऩ प फ ब भ म य र ऱ ल ळ ऴ व श ष स ह

Gujarati ક ખ ગ ઘ ઙ ચ છ જ ઝ ઞ ટ ઠ ડ ઢ ણ ત થ દ ધ ન

પ ફ બ ભ મ ય ર

લ ળ

વ શ ષ સ હ

Odia କ ଖ ଗ ଘ ଙ ଚ ଛ ଜ ଝ ଞ ଟ ଠ ଡ ଢ ଣ ତ ଥ ଦ ଧ ନ ନ଼ ପ ଫ ବ ଭ ମ ୟ ର ର଼ ଲ ଳ ଳ଼ ୱ ଶ ଷ ସ ହ

Gurmukhi ਕ ਖ ਗ ਘ ਙ ਚ ਛ ਜ ਝ ਞ ਟ ਠ ਡ ਢ ਣ ਤ ਥ ਦ ਧ ਨ

ਪ ਫ ਬ ਭ ਮ ਯ ਰ

ਲ ਲ਼

ਵ ਸ਼

ਸ ਹ

Tibetan ཀ ཁ ག

ང ཅ ཆ ཇ

ཉ ཊ ཋ ཌ

ཎ ཏ ཐ ད

པ ཕ བ

མ ཡ ར

ཝ ཤ ཥ ས ཧ

Sylheti ꠇ ꠈ ꠉ ꠊ ꠋ ꠌ ꠍ ꠎ ꠏ

ꠐ ꠑ ꠒ ꠓ

ꠔ ꠕ ꠖ ꠗ ꠘ

ꠙ ꠚ ꠛ ꠜ ꠝ

ꠟ ꠅ

ꠡ ꠢ

Brahmi 𑀓

𑀔

𑀕

𑀖

𑀗

𑀘

𑀙

𑀚

𑀛

𑀜

𑀝

𑀞

𑀟

𑀠

𑀡

𑀢

𑀣

𑀤

𑀥

𑀦

𑀧

𑀨

𑀩

𑀪

𑀫

𑀬

𑀭

𑀮

𑀴

𑀯

𑀰

𑀱

𑀲

𑀳

Telugu క ఖ గ ఘ ఙ చ ఛ జ ఝ ఞ ట ఠ డ ఢ ణ త థ ద ధ న

ప ఫ బ భ మ య ర ఱ ల ళ ೞ వ శ ష స హ

Kannada ಕ ಖ ಗ ಘ ಙ ಚ ಛ ಜ ಝ ಞ ಟ ಠ ಡ ಢ ಣ ತ ಥ ದ ಧ ನ

ಪ ಫ ಬ ಭ ಮ ಯ ರ ಱ ಲ ಳ ೞ ವ ಶ ಷ ಸ ಹ

Sinhala ක ඛ ග ඝ ඞ ච ඡ ජ ඣ ඤ ට ඨ ඩ ඪ ණ ත ථ ද ධ න

ප ඵ බ භ ම ය ර

ල ළ

ව ශ ෂ ස හ

Malayalam ക ഖ ഗ ഘ ങ ച ഛ ജ ഝ ഞ ട ഠ ഡ ഢ ണ ത ഥ ദ ധ ന ഩ[a] പ ഫ ബ ഭ മ യ ര റ ല ള ഴ വ ശ ഷ സ ഹ

Tamil க

ங ச

ஜ[b]

ஞ ட

ண த

ந ன ப

ம ய ர ற ல ள ழ வ ஶ[b] ஷ[b] ஸ[b] ஹ[b]

Burmese က ခ ဂ ဃ င စ ဆ ဇ ဈ ဉ/ည ဋ ဌ ဍ ဎ ဏ တ ထ ဒ ဓ န

ပ ဖ ဗ ဘ မ ယ ရ

လ ဠ ၔ ဝ ၐ ၑ သ ဟ

Khmer ក ខ គ ឃ ង ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ ត ថ ទ ធ ន

ប ផ ព ភ ម យ រ

ល ឡ

វ ឝ ឞ ស ហ

Thai ก ข ค ฆ ง จ ฉ ช ฌ ญ ฎ[c] ฐ ฑ ฒ ณ ด[c] ถ ท ธ น

บ[c] ผ พ ภ ม ย ร

ล ฬ

ว ศ ษ ส ห

Lao ກ ຂ ຄ

ງ ຈ

ດ ຖ ທ

ບ ຜ ຟ ພ ມ ຍ ຣ

ສ ຫ

Balinese ᬓ ᬔ ᬕ ᬖ ᬗ ᬘ ᬙ ᬚ ᬛ ᬜ ᬝ ᬞ ᬟ ᬠ ᬡ ᬢ ᬣ ᬤ ᬥ ᬦ

ᬧ ᬨ ᬩ ᬪ ᬫ ᬬ ᬭ

ᬯ ᬰ ᬱ ᬲ ᬳ

Javanese[d] ꦏ ꦑ[d] ꦒ ꦓ[d] ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ[d] ꦗ ꦙ[d] ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ[d] ꦝ ꦞ[d] ꦟ[d] ꦠ ꦡ[d] ꦢ ꦣ[d] ꦤ ꦘ ꦥ ꦦ[d] ꦧ ꦨ[d] ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ

ꦮ ꦯ[d] ꦰ[d] ꦱ ꦲ

Sundanese ᮊ

ᮍ ᮎ

ᮙ ᮚ ᮛ

ᮞ ᮠ

Lontara ᨀ

ᨂ ᨌ

ᨆ ᨐ ᨑ

ᨔ ᨕ

Batak (Toba) ᯂ

ᯠ/ᯛ

ᯘ ᯂ

Notes

^ Implemented in Unicode
Unicode
6.0. May not be rendered correctly. ^ a b c d e Pallava grantha
Pallava grantha
letters are not used in pure Tamil but are used for transcribing foreign loanwords. ^ a b c Modified forms of these letters are used for, but are not restricted to, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali in the Thai script. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Letters used in Old Javanese. They are now obsolete, but are used for honorifics in contemporary Javanese.

e. This list (tries to) includes characters of same origins, not same sounds. In Bengali র is pronounced as rô but it's originally va which is still used for wa sound in Mithilakshar
Mithilakshar
and modern Assamese ৱ (wabbô) was derived from middle Assamese র (wô). Compare with জ (ja) য (ya) and য় (ẏ) which are pronounced as jô, jô and yô in Bengali and zô, zô and yô in Assamese respectively. য is related to Devanagari
Devanagari
य (ya) and it is still pronounced as "ya" in Mithilakshar. Since their sounds shifted, the dots were added to keep the original sounds. Vowels[edit] Vowels
Vowels
are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent. When used to write their own languages, Khmer can have either an a or an o as the inherent vowel, following the rules of its orthography. Thai and Lao script
Lao script
do not have independent vowel forms, for syllables starting with a vowel sound, a "zero" consonant, อ and ອ, respectively, to represent the glottal stop /ʔ/.

ISO a ā æ ɒ i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au r̥ r̥̄ l̥ l̥̄ ṁ ḥ

a ka ā kā æ kæ ɒ kɒ i ki ī kī u ku ū kū e ke ē kē ai kai

ko

kō au kau r̥ kr̥ r̥̄ kr̥̄ l̥ kl̥ l̥̄ kl̥̄ ṁ kṁ ḥ kḥ k

Odia ଅ କ ଆ କା ଅଽ କଽ     ଇ କି ଈ କୀ ଉ କୁ ଊ କୂ     ଏ କେ ଐ କୈ     ଓ କୋ ଔ କୌ ଋ କୃ ୠ କୃ୍ ଌ କ୍ଲୃ ୡ କ୍ଳୃ ଂ କଂ ଃ କଃ କ୍

Assamese অ ক আ কা অ্যা ক্যা     ই কি ঈ কী উ কু ঊ কূ     এ কে ঐ কৈ অৗ কৗ ও কো ঔ কৌ ঋ কৃ ৠ কৄ ঌ কৢ ৡ কৣ অং কং অঃ কঃ ক্

Bengali অ ক আ কা অ্যা ক্যা     ই কি ঈ কী উ কু ঊ কূ     এ কে ঐ কৈ অ ক ও কো ঔ কৌ ঋ কৃ ৠ কৄ ঌ কৢ ৡ কৣ

Devanagari अ क आ का अॅ कॅ ऑ कॉ इ कि ई की उ कु ऊ कू ऎ कॆ ए के ऐ कै ऒ कॊ ओ को औ कौ ऋ कृ ॠ कॄ ऌ कॢ ॡ कॣ अं कं अः कः क्

Gujarati અ ક આ કા         ઇ કિ ઈ કી ઉ કુ ઊ કૂ     એ કે ઐ કૈ     ઓ કો ઔ કૌ ઋ કૃ ૠ કૄ ઌ કૢ ૡ કૣ

Gurmukhi ਅ ਕ ਆ ਕਾ         ਇ ਕਿ ਈ ਕੀ ਉ ਕੁ ਊ ਕੂ     ਏ ਕੇ ਐ ਕੈ     ਓ ਕੋ ਔ ਕੌ                

Tibetan ཨ ཀ ཨཱ ཀཱ         ཨི ཀི ཨཱི ཀཱི ཨུ ཀུ ཨཱུ ཀཱུ     ཨེ ཀེ ཨཻ ཀཻ     ཨོ ཀོ ཨཽ ཀཽ རྀ ཀྲྀ རཱྀ ཀཷ ལྀ ཀླྀ ལཱྀ ཀླཱྀ

Brahmi 𑀅 𑀓 𑀆 𑀓𑀸         𑀇 𑀓𑀺 𑀈 𑀓𑀻 𑀉 𑀓𑀼 𑀊 𑀓𑀽     𑀏 𑀓𑁂 𑀐 𑀓𑁃     𑀑 𑀓𑁄 𑀒 𑀓𑁅 𑀋 𑀓𑀾 𑀌 𑀓𑀿 𑀍 𑀓𑁀 𑀎 𑀓𑁁

Telugu అ క ఆ కా         ఇ కి ఈ కీ ఉ కు ఊ కూ ఎ కె ఏ కే ఐ కై ఒ కొ ఓ కో ఔ కౌ ఋ కృ ౠ కౄ ఌ కౢ ౡ కౣ అం కం అః కః క్

Kannada ಅ ಕ ಆ ಕಾ         ಇ ಕಿ ಈ ಕೀ ಉ ಕು ಊ ಕೂ ಎ ಕೆ ಏ ಕೇ ಐ ಕೈ ಒ ಕೊ ಓ ಕೋ ಔ ಕೌ ಋ ಕೃ ೠ ಕೄ ಌ ಕೢ ೡ ಕೣ అం ಕಂ అః ಕಃ ಕ್

Sinhala අ ක ආ කා ඇ කැ ඈ කෑ ඉ කි ඊ කී උ කු ඌ කූ එ කෙ ඒ කේ ඓ කෛ ඔ කො ඕ කෝ ඖ කෞ සෘ කෘ සෲ කෲ ඏ කෟ ඐ කෳ අං කං අඃ කඃ ක්

Malayalam അ ക ആ കാ         ഇ കി ഈ കീ ഉ കു ഊ കൂ എ കെ ഏ കേ ഐ കൈ ഒ കൊ ഓ കോ ഔ കൗ ഋ കൃ ൠ കൄ ഌ കൢ ൡ കൣ അം കം അഃ കഃ ക്

Tamil அ க ஆ கா         இ கி ஈ கீ உ கு ஊ கூ எ கெ ஏ கே ஐ கை ஒ கொ ஓ கோ ஔ கௌ                

க்

Burmese အ က အာ ကာ         ဣ ကိ ဤ ကီ ဥ ကု ဦ ကူ ဧ ကေ အေး ကေး     ဩ ကော     ဪ ကော် ၒ ကၖ ၓ ကၗ ၔ ကၘ ၕ ကၙ

Khmer ឣ ក ឤ កា         ឥ កិ ឦ កី ឧ កុ ឩ កូ     ឯ កេ ឰ កៃ     ឱ កោ ឳ កៅ ឫ ក្ឫ ឬ ក្ឬ ឭ ក្ឭ ឮ ក្ឮ

Thai อ(อะ) ก(กะ) อา กา แอ แก (ออ) (กอ) อิ กิ อี กี อุ กุ อู กู (เอะ) (เกะ) เอ เก ไอ ไก (โอะ) (โกะ) โ โก เอา เกา ฤ กฺฤ ฤๅ กฺฤๅ ฦ กฺฦ ฦๅ กฺฦๅ อํ กํ อะ(อะฮฺ) กะ(กะฮฺ) กฺ(ก/ก์)

Lao   ກັ   ກາ           ກິ   ກີ   ກຸ   ກູ       ເກ   ໄກ/ໃກ       ໂກ   ເກົາ/ກາວ                

Balinese ᬅ ᬓ ᬆ ᬓᬵ         ᬇ ᬓᬶ ᬈ ᬓᬷ ᬉ ᬓᬸ ᬊ ᬓᬹ ᬏ ᬓᬾ     ᬐ ᬓᬿ ᬑ ᬓᭀ     ᬒ ᬓᭁ ᬋ ᬓᬺ ᬌ ᬓᬻ ᬍ ᬓᬼ ᬎ ᬓᬽ

Javanese ꦄ ꦏ ꦄꦴ ꦏꦴ         ꦆ ꦏꦶ ꦇ ꦏꦷ ꦈ ꦏꦸ ꦈꦴ ꦏꦹ ꦌ ꦏꦺ     ꦍ ꦏꦻ ꦎ ꦏꦺꦴ     ꦎꦴ ꦏꦻꦴ ꦉ ꦏꦽ ꦉꦴ ꦏꦽꦴ ꦊ   ꦋ  

Sundanese ᮃ ᮊ             ᮄ ᮊᮤ     ᮅ ᮊᮥ     ᮈ ᮊᮦ         ᮇ ᮊᮧ                        

Buginese   ᨕ               ᨕᨗ       ᨕᨘ       ᨕᨙ           ᨕᨚ                        

Bataknese (Toba) ᯀ ᯂ             ᯤ ᯂᯪ     ᯥ ᯂᯮ       ᯂᯩ           ᯂᯬ                        

Note: Glyphs for r̥̄, l̥, l̥̄ and a few other glyphs are obsolete or very rarely used. Numerals[edit]

Hindu-Arabic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Odia ୦ ୧ ୨ ୩ ୪ ୫ ୬ ୭ ୮ ୯

Assamese ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯

Bengali ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯

Devanagari ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९

Gujarati ૦ ૧ ૨ ૩ ૪ ૫ ૬ ૭ ૮ ૯

Gurmukhi ੦ ੧ ੨ ੩ ੪ ੫ ੬ ੭ ੮ ੯

Tibetan ༠ ༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩

Brahmi N

𑁒 𑁓 𑁔 𑁕 𑁖 𑁗 𑁘 𑁙 𑁚

Brahmi D 𑁦 𑁧 𑁨 𑁩 𑁪 𑁫 𑁬 𑁭 𑁮 𑁯

Telugu ౦ ౧ ౨ ౩ ౪ ౫ ౬ ౭ ౮ ౯

Kannada ೦ ೧ ೨ ೩ ೪ ೫ ೬ ೭ ೮ ೯

Malayalam ൦ ൧ ൨ ൩ ൪ ൫ ൬ ൭ ൮ ൯

Sinhala ෦ ෧ ෨ ෩ ෪ ෫ ෬ ෭ ෮ ෯

Tamil ೦ ௧ ௨ ௩ ௪ ௫ ௬ ௭ ௮ ௯

Burmese ၀ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉

Khmer ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩

Thai ๐ ๑ ๒ ๓ ๔ ๕ ๖ ๗ ๘ ๙

Lao ໐ ໑ ໒ ໓ ໔ ໕ ໖ ໗ ໘ ໙

Balinese ᭐ ᭑ ᭒ ᭓ ᭔ ᭕ ᭖ ᭗ ᭘ ᭙

Javanese ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

Sundanese ᮰ ᮱ ᮲ ᮳ ᮴ ᮵ ᮶ ᮷ ᮸ ᮹

List of Brahmic scripts[edit] Historical[edit]

A fragment of Ashoka's 6th pillar edict.

Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
using their respective Brahmic family
Brahmic family
scripts (except dark blue- colored Khowar, Pashai, Kohistani, and Urdu- not marked here, which use Arabic derived scripts).

Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
using their respective Brahmic family
Brahmic family
scripts (except Brahui which uses Arabic derived script).

The Brahmi script
Brahmi script
was already divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages. The main division in antiquity was between northern and southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was very influential, and in the southern group the Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu
and Old-Kannada/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia. Northern Brahmic[edit]

Gupta script, 5th century

Sharada, 8th century

Gurmukhi, 14th century Landa, 10th century

Khojki, 16th century Khudabadi, 1550s Mahajani Multani

Takri

Siddham, 7th century

Eastern Nagari
Nagari
script

Assamese script, 13th century Bengali script, 11th century

Tibetan script, 7th century

Lepcha alphabet

Limbu alphabet

'Phags-pa, 13th century

Anga Lipi, 720 Tirhuta/Mithilakshar, 15th century

Nagari, 8th century

Devanagari, 13th century

Gujarati, 16th century Modi, 17th century Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, 19th century

Kaithi, 16th century Nandinagari, 8th century Sylheti Nagari, 16th century

Bhaiksuki

Nepal script

Bhujimol, 6th century Ranjana, 12th century

Soyombo, 17th century

Prachalit

Tocharian script
Tocharian script
("Slanting Brahmi"), 7th century

Meeitei Mayek

Southern Brahmic[edit]

Kalinga

Odia alphabet, 10th century

Tamil-Brahmi

Tamil script Vatteluttu

Saurashtra alphabet

Kolezhuthu Malayanma Pallava script

Grantha alphabet

Goykanadi Cham alphabet Tigalari alphabet Malayalam script Sinhala alphabet Dhives akuru

Thaana

Kawi script

Balinese script Batak script Baybayin Kulitan Buhid Hanunó'o Javanese Hånåcåråkå Lontara Old Sudanese Rencong script Rejang script Tagbanwa alphabet

Khmer alphabet

Thai alphabet Lao alphabet

Old Mon script

Ahom alphabet Burmese alphabet Tai Tham alphabet

New Tai Lue alphabet

Tai Le alphabet

Kadamba, 5th century

Halegannada

Kannada alphabet, 5th century Pyu script

Burmese script

S'gaw Karen alphabet Shan alphabet

Bhattiprolu

Telugu script, 9th century

Unicode[edit] As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0, the following Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
have been encoded:

script derivation period of derivation usage notes ISO 15924 Unicode
Unicode
range(s) sample

Ahom Pallava grantha 13th century Extinct Ahom language Ahom U+11700–U1173F 𑜒𑜠𑜑𑜨𑜉

Balinese Old Kawi 11th century Balinese language Bali U+1B00–U1B7F ᬅᬓ᭄ᬲᬭᬩᬮᬶ

Batak Pallava grantha 14th century Batak languages Batk U+1BC0–U1BFF ᯘᯮᯒᯖ᯲ ᯅᯖᯂ᯲

Baybayin Old Kawi 14th century Tagalog, other Philippine languages Tglg U+1700–U171F ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔

Eastern Nagari Siddham 11th century Assamese language
Assamese language
( Assamese script
Assamese script
variant), Bengali language
Bengali language
(Bengali script variant), Bishnupriya Manipuri, Maithili, Angika Beng U+0980–U09FF

অসমীয়া লিপি বাংলা লিপি

Bhaiksuki Gupta

Was used around the turn of the first millennium for writing Sanskrit Bhks U+11C00–U11C6F

Buhid Old Kawi 14th century Buhid language Buhd U+1740–U175F ᝊᝓᝑᝒᝇ

Burmese Pallava grantha 11th century Burmese language, numerous modifications for other languages including Chakma, Eastern and Western Pwo Karen, Geba Karen, Kayah, Mon, Rumai Palaung, S'gaw Karen, Shan Mymr U+1000–U109F, U+A9E0–UA9FF, U+AA60–UAA7F မြန်မာအက္ခရာ

Chakma Pallava grantha 8th century Chakma language Cakm U+11100–U1114F

Cham Pallava grantha 8th century Cham language Cham U+AA00–UAA5F ꨌꨠ

Devanagari Nagari 13th century Numerous Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
and sometimes Sindhi and Kashmiri. Formerly used to write Gujarati. Sometimes used to write or transliterate Sherpa Deva U+0900–U097F, U+A8E0–UA8FF देवनागरी

Grantha Brahmi 6th century Restricted use in traditional Vedic schools to write Sanskrit. Was widely used by Tamil speakers for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and the classical language Manipravalam. Gran U+11300–U1137F

Gujarati Nagari 17th century Gujarati language, Kutchi language Gujr U+0A80–U0AFF ગુજરાતી લિપિ

Gurmukhi Sharada 16th century Punjabi language Guru U+0A00–U0A7F ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ

Hanunó'o Old Kawi 14th century Hanuno'o language Hano U+1720–U173F ᜱᜨᜳᜨᜳᜢ

Javanese Old Kawi 16th century Javanese language, Sundanese language, Madurese language Java U+A980–UA9DF ꦄꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ

Kaithi Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kthi U+11080–U110CF

Kannada Kadamba/Old Kannada 9th century Kannada language, Konkani language
Konkani language
Tulu, Badaga, Kodava, Beary
Beary
others Knda U+0C80–U0CFF ಕನ್ನಡ ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ

Khmer Pallava grantha 11th century Khmer language Khmr U+1780–U17FF, U+19E0–U19FF អក្សរខ្មែរ

Khojki Landa 16th century Some use by Ismaili communities. Was used by the Khoja
Khoja
community for Muslim religious literature. Khoj U+11200–U1124F

Khudawadi Landa 1550s Was used by Sindhi communities for correspondence and business records. Sind U+112B0–U112FF

Lao Khmer 14th century Lao language, others Laoo U+0E80–U0EFF ອັກສອນລາວ

Lepcha Tibetan 8th century Lepcha language Lepc U+1C00–U1C4F

Limbu Lepcha 9th century Limbu language Limb U+1900–U194F ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ

Lontara Old Kawi 17th century Buginese language, others Bugi U+1A00–U1A1F ᨒᨚᨈᨑ

Mahajani Landa

Historically used in northern India
India
for writing accounts and financial records. Mahj U+11150–U1117F

Malayalam Grantha 12th century Malayalam language Mlym U+0D00–U0D7F മലയാളലിപി

Marchen

Was used in the Tibetan Bön tradition to write the extinct Zhang-Zhung language Marc U+11C70–U11CBF

Meetei Mayek

Historically used for the Meitei language. Some modern usage. Mtei U+AAE0–UAAFF, U+ABC0–UABFF ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ

Modi Devanagari 17th century Was used to write the Marathi language Modi U+11600–U1165F

Multani Landa

Was used to write Saraiki Mult U+11280–U112AF

New Tai Lue Tai Tham 1950s Tai Lü language Talu U+1980–U19DF ᦟᦲᧅᦎᦷᦺᦑ

Odia Kalinga 10th century Odia language Orya U+0B00–U0B7F ଉତ୍କଳାକ୍ଷର

'Phags-Pa Tibetan 13th century Historically used during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. Phag U+A840–UA87F ꡖꡍꡂꡛ ꡌ

Prachalit (Newa) Nepal

Has been used for writing the Sanskrit, Nepali, Hindi, Bengali, and Maithili languages Newa U+11400–U1147F

Rejang Old Kawi 18th century Rejang language, mostly obsolete Rjng U+A930–UA95F ꥆꤰ꥓ꤼꤽ ꤽꥍꤺꥏ

Saurashtra Grantha 20th century Saurashtra language, mostly obsolete Saur U+A880–UA8DF ꢱꣃꢬꢵꢰ꣄ꢜ꣄ꢬꢵ

Sharada Gupta 8th century Was used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kashmiri Shrd U+11180–U111DF

Siddham Gupta 7th century Was used for writing Sanskrit Sidd U+11580–U115FF

Sinhala Grantha 12th century Sinhala language Sinh U+0D80–U0DFF, U+111E0–U111FF ශුද්ධ සිංහල

Sundanese Old Kawi 14th century Sundanese language Sund U+1B80–U1BBF, U+1CC0–U1CCF ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ

Sylheti Nagari Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing the Sylheti language Sylo U+A800–UA82F ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ

Tagbanwa Old Kawi 14th century various languages of Palawan, nearly extinct Tagb U+1760–U177F ᝦᝪᝨᝯ

Tai Le Pallava grantha?

Tai Nüa language Tale U+1950–U197F ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ

Tai Tham Mon Script 13th Century Northern Thai language, Tai Lü language, Khün language Lana U+1A20–U1AAF ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ

Tai Viet Thai? 16th century Tai Dam language Tavt U+AA80–UAADF ꪼꪕꪒꪾ

Takri Sharada

Was used for writing Chambeali, Dogri, and other languages Takr U+11680–U116CF

Tamil Chola-Pallava alphabet 3rd Century BCE Tamil language Taml U+0B80–U0BFF தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி

Telugu Bhattiprolu script/Old Kannada 5th century Telugu language Telu U+0C00–U0C7F తెలుగు లిపి

Thai Khmer 13th century Thai language Thai U+0E00–U0E7F อักษรไทย

Tibetan Siddham 8th century Tibetan language, Dzongkha language, Ladakhi language Tibt U+0F00–U0FFF བོད་ཡིག་

Tirhuta Gupta

Historically used for the Maithili language Tirh U+11480–U114DF 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰

See also[edit]

Devanagari
Devanagari
transliteration

International Alphabet
Alphabet
of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration National Library at Kolkata romanization

Bharati Braille, the unified braille assignments of Indian languages Indus script – the earliest writing system on the Indian subcontinent ISCII – the coding scheme specifically designed to represent Indic scripts

References[edit]

^ Trautmann, Thomas R. (2006). Languages and Nations: The Dravidian Proof in Colonial Madras. University of California Press. pp. 65–66.  ^ Coningham, R. A. E.; Allchin, F. R.; Batt, C. M.; Lucy, D. (April 1996). "Passage to India? Anuradhapura and the Early Use of the Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 6 (1): 73–97. doi:10.1017/S0959774300001608.  ^ "Font: Japanese". Monotype Corporation. Archived from the original on 2007-03-24. Retrieved August 14, 2017.  ^ "Telugu is 2,400 years old, says ASI". The Hindu. April 29, 2011 [December 20, 2007]. Retrieved August 14, 2017.  ^ Adluri, Seshu Madhava Rao; Paruchuri, Sreenivas (February 1999). "Evolution of Telugu Character Graphs". Notes on Telugu Script. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brahmic scripts.

Online Tool which supports Conversion between various Brahmic Scripts Windows Indic Script Support An Introduction to Indic Scripts South Asian Writing Systems Enhanced Indic Transliterator Transliterate from romanised script to Indian Languages. Indian Transliterator A means to transliterate from romanised to Unicode
Unicode
Indian scripts. Imperial Brahmi Font and Text-Editor Brahmi Script Xlit: Tool for Transliteration between English and Indian Languages Padma: Transformer for Indic Scripts – a Firefox
Firefox
add-on

v t e

Writing systems

Overview

History of writing History of the alphabet Graphemes Scripts in Unicode

Lists

Writing systems Languages by writing system / by first written account Undeciphered writing systems Inventors of writing systems

Types

Featural Alphabets Abjads Alphasyllabaries / Abugidas Syllabaries Semi-syllabaries Ideogrammic Pictographic Logographic Numeral

v t e

Kawi family

Members

Balinese Batak Baybayin Buhid Hanunó'o Javanese Lontara Sundanese Rejang Tagbanwa

Related

Grantha Vatteluttu Brahmic family

v t e

Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
( Hindi
Hindi
 / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan
Japan
Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio

.