HOME
The Info List - Bolshevik Revolution


--- Advertisement ---



Bolshevik victory

End of Russian Provisional Government, Russian Republic
Russian Republic
and dual power Creation of Soviet Russia The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
becomes the supreme governing body Beginning of the Russian Civil War

Belligerents

Bolshevik Party Red Guards Russian Provisional Government

Commanders and leaders

Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Pavel Dybenko Alexander Kerensky Pyotr Krasnov

Strength

10,000 red sailors, 20,000–30,000 red guard soldiers 500–1,000 volunteer soldiers, 1,000 soldiers of women's battalion

Casualties and losses

Few wounded red guard soldiers[1] All imprisoned or deserted

v t e

Russian Revolution

February Revolution April Crisis July Days Kornilov affair October
October
Revolution Kerensky–Krasnov uprising Russian Civil War

v t e

Theaters of the Russian Civil War

October
October
Revolution Left-wing uprisings Allied Intervention (Siberia, North Russia)

Northern

Vaga River Bolshie Ozerki

Western

Finland Heimosodat Estonia Latvia Lithuania

Southern

Ukraine West Ukraine Poland Ossetia Georgia Armenia and Azerbaijan

Soviet invasion of Azerbaijan

Tambov

Eastern

Yakutia

Central Asian

Basmachi

Part of a series on the

History of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)

1917–1927 Revolutionary Beginnings

Revolution Civil War New Economic Policy 1922 Treaty National delimitation

1927–1953 Stalinist rule

Socialism in One Country Great Purge

Soviet famine of 1932–33

(Holodomor Kazakhstan famine of 1932-1933)

World War II

(Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Great Patriotic War Operation Barbarossa Occupation of the Baltic states Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Battle of Berlin Soviet invasion of Manchuria)

Soviet deportations Soviet famine of 1946–47 Cold War Korean War

1953–1964 Post-Stalin era

Berlin blockade 1954 transfer of Crimea Khrushchev Thaw On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences We will bury you 9 March riots Wage reforms Cuban Revolution Sino-Soviet split Space program Cuban Missile Crisis

1964–1982 Brezhnev era

Brezhnev Doctrine Era of Stagnation 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide protests Prague Spring

Vietnam War

(Laotian Civil War Operation Menu Cambodian Civil War Fall of Saigon)

Six-Day War Détente Yom Kippur War Dirty War

Wars in Africa

(Angolan War of Independence Angolan Civil War Mozambican War of Independence Mozambican Civil War South African Border War Rhodesian Bush War)

Cambodian-Vietnamese War Soviet–Afghan War 1980 Summer Olympics

Olympic boycotts

(1980 Olympic boycott 1984 Olympic boycott)

Polish strike Death and funeral of Brezhnev

1982–1991 Leadership changes and collapse

Invasion of Grenada Glasnost Perestroika Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

Singing Revolution

(Baltic Way Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia Estonian Sovereignty Declaration)

Revolutions of 1989

(Pan-European picnic Die Wende Peaceful Revolution Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution End of communist rule in Hungary Romanian Revolution German reunification)

Dissolution

(Jeltoqsan Nagorno-Karabakh War 9 April tragedy Black January Osh riots War of Laws Dushanbe riots January Events The Barricades Referendum Union of Sovereign States August Coup Ukrainian independence (referendum) Belavezha Accords Alma-Ata Protocol)

History of

Russia Moscow Kiev Minsk Former Soviet Republics

Soviet leadership

1. Lenin 2. Stalin 3. Malenkov 4. Khrushchev 5. Brezhnev 6. Andropov 7. Chernenko 8. Gorbachev

Culture Economy Education Geography Politics

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

v t e

Part of a series on the

Culture of the Soviet Union

History

Great October
October
Socialist Revolution Great Patriotic War

People

Languages

Traditions

Cuisine

Festivals

Religion

Islam

Art

Architecture Art

Literature

Music and performing arts

Music

Media

Radio Television Cinema Censorship Propaganda

Sport

Symbols

Flag Coat of arms Cultural icons

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

v t e

Bolshevik (1920), by Boris Kustodiev.

New York Times
New York Times
headline from 9 November 1917.

The October
October
Revolution (Russian: Октя́брьская револю́ция, tr. Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya, IPA: [ɐkˈtʲabrʲskəjə rʲɪvɐˈlʲutsɨjə]), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October
October
Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция, Velikaya Oktyabr'skaya sotsialističeskaya revolyutsiya), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October
October
Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution,[2] or Bolshevik Coup was a revolution in Russia
Russia
led by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd
Petrograd
on 25 October
October
(7 November, New Style) 1917. It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution
February Revolution
of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, brother of Tsar Nicolas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils (Russian: Soviet) wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs. This immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world's first self-proclaimed socialist state. On 17 July 1918, the Tsar and his family were executed. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet
Petrograd Soviet
to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee
Military Revolutionary Committee
began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917 (New Style). The following day, the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
(the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary
Socialist Revolutionary
Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October
October
1917 to March 1918. The Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, and it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.[3] As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–22) and the creation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1922.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Background

2.1 February Revolution 2.2 Unrest by workers, peasants and soldiers 2.3 Antiwar demonstrations 2.4 July days 2.5 Kornilov affair

3 Insurrection

3.1 Planning 3.2 Onset 3.3 Assault on the Winter Palace 3.4 Later Soviet portrayal 3.5 Dybenko's memoirs

4 Outcome 5 Historiography

5.1 Soviet historiography 5.2 Western historiography 5.3 Effect of the dissolution of the USSR on historical research

6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] At first, the event was referred to as the October
October
coup (Октябрьский переворот) or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents (for example, in the first editions of Lenin's complete works). In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and also means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not necessarily the correct translation. With time, the term October
October
Revolution (Октябрьская революция) came into use. It is also known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar.[4] Background[edit] February Revolution[edit] Main article: February Revolution The February Revolution
February Revolution
had toppled Tsar Nicolas II
Tsar Nicolas II
of Russia, and replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social, economic, and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased. Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, and other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October
October
1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles. The country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Unrest by workers, peasants and soldiers[edit] Throughout June, July, and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia
Russia
felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food, supplies, and other materials. They blamed their own managers or foremen and would even attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions. Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, and called them words such as "bourgeois, capitalist, and imperialist.”[5] In September and October
October
1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd
Petrograd
workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, and railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution.[6] Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees. The factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions, pay, and hours. Even though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.[5] By October
October
1917, peasant uprisings were common. While the uprisings varied in severity, complete uprisings and seizures of the land were not uncommon. Less robust forms of protest included marches on landowner manors and government offices, as well as withholding and storing grains rather than selling them as a result of the economic crisis.[7] When the Provisional Government sent punitive detachments, it only enraged the peasants. The garrisons in Petrograd, Moscow, and other cities, the Northern and Western fronts, and the sailors of the Baltic Fleet in September declared through their elected representative body Tsentrobalt that they did not recognize the authority of the Provisional Government and would not carry out any of its commands.[8] Soldiers' wives were key players in unrest in the village. From 1914 to 1917, almost 50% of healthy men were sent to war, and many were killed on the front, resulting in a female occupation of the position of the household head. When government allowances were often late and were not sufficient to match the rising costs of goods, soldiers' wives sent masses of appeals and letters to the government, which largely were left unanswered. Frustration resulted, and these women were influential in inciting "subsistence riots" – also referred to as "hunger riots," "pogroms," or "baba riots". In these riots, citizens seized food and resources from shop owners who they believed to be charging unfair prices. Upon police intervention, protesters responded with "rakes, sticks, rocks and fists".[9] Antiwar demonstrations[edit] In a diplomatic note of 1 May, the minister of foreign affairs, Pavel Milyukov, expressed the Provisional Government's desire to continue the war against the Central Powers
Central Powers
"to a victorious conclusion", arousing broad indignation. On 1–4 May, about 100,000 workers and soldiers of Petrograd, and after them the workers and soldiers of other cities, led by the Bolsheviks, demonstrated under banners reading "Down with the war!" and "all power to the soviets!" The mass demonstrations resulted in a crisis for the Provisional Government.[10] 1 July saw more demonstrations, as about 500,000 workers and soldiers in Petrograd
Petrograd
demonstrated, again demanding "all power to the soviets", "down with the war", and "down with the ten capitalist ministers". The Provisional Government opened an offensive against the Central Powers
Central Powers
on 1 July, which soon collapsed. The news of the offensive and its collapse intensified the struggle of the workers and the soldiers. A new crisis in the Provisional Government began on 15 July. July days[edit] Main article: July Days

A scene from the July Days. The army has just opened fire on street protesters.

On 16 July, spontaneous demonstrations of workers and soldiers began in Petrograd, demanding that power be turned over to the soviets. The Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party provided leadership to the spontaneous movements. On 17 July, over 500,000 people participated in what was intended to be a peaceful demonstration in Petrograd, the so-called July Days. The Provisional Government, with the support of Socialist-Revolutionary Party- Menshevik
Menshevik
leaders of the All-Russian Executive Committee of the Soviets, ordered an armed attack against the demonstrators, killing hundreds.[11] A period of repression followed. On 5–6 July, attacks were made on the editorial offices and printing presses of Pravda
Pravda
and on the Palace of Kshesinskaya, where the Central Committee and the Petrograd Committee of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
were located. On 7 July, the government ordered the arrest and trial of Vladimir Lenin. He was forced to go underground, as he had been under the Tsarist
Tsarist
regime. Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
were arrested, workers were disarmed, and revolutionary military units in Petrograd
Petrograd
were disbanded or sent to the war front. On 12 July, the Provisional Government published a law introducing the death penalty at the front. The second coalition government was formed on 24 July, chaired by Alexander Kerensky.[12] Another problem for the government centered on General Lavr Kornilov, who had been Commander-in-Chief since 18 July. In response to a Bolshevik appeal, Moscow’s working class began a protest strike of 400,000 workers. They were supported by strikes and protest rallies by workers in Kiev, Kharkov, Nizhny Novgorod, Ekaterinburg, and other cities. Kornilov affair[edit] Main article: Kornilov affair In what became known as the Kornilov affair, Kornilov directed an army under Aleksandr Krymov
Aleksandr Krymov
to march toward Petrograd
Petrograd
to restore order to Russia, with Kerensky's agreement.[13] Details remain sketchy, but Kerensky appeared to become frightened by the possibility the army would stage a coup, and reversed the order. By contrast, historian Richard Pipes
Richard Pipes
has argued that the episode was engineered by Kerensky.[14] On 27 August, feeling betrayed by the government, Kornilov pushed on towards Petrograd. With few troops to spare on the front, Kerensky turned to the Petrograd Soviet
Petrograd Soviet
for help. Bolsheviks, Mensheviks
Mensheviks
and Socialist Revolutionaries
Socialist Revolutionaries
confronted the army and convinced them to stand down.[15] The Bolsheviks' influence over railroad and telegraph workers also proved vital in stopping the movement of troops. Right-wingers felt betrayed, and the left wing was resurgent. With Kornilov defeated, the Bolsheviks' popularity in the soviets grew significantly, both in the central and local areas. On 31 August, the Petrograd Soviet
Petrograd Soviet
of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, and on 5 September, the Moscow Soviet Workers Deputies adopted the Bolshevik resolutions on the question of power. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
won a majority in the Soviets of Briansk, Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Minsk, Kiev, Tashkent, and other cities. Insurrection[edit] Planning[edit]

Cruiser Aurora

Forward gun of Aurora that fired the signal shot

On 23 October
October
1917 (November 5 new style), the Bolsheviks' Central Committee voted 10–2 for a resolution saying that "an armed uprising is inevitable, and that the time for it is fully ripe".[16] At the Committee meeting, Lenin discussed how the people of Russia
Russia
had waited long enough for “an armed uprising”, and it was the Bolsheviks' time to take power. Lenin expressed his confidence in the success of the planned insurrection. His confidence stemmed from months of Bolshevik buildup of power and successful elections to different committees and councils in major cities such as Petrograd
Petrograd
and Moscow.[17] The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
created a revolutionary military committee within the Petrograd
Petrograd
soviet, led by the soviet's president, Trotsky. The committee included armed workers, sailors and soldiers, and assured the support or neutrality of the capital's garrison. The committee methodically planned to occupy strategic locations through the city, almost without concealing their preparations: the Provisional Government's president Kerensky was himself aware of them, and some details, leaked by Kamenev and Zinoviev, were published in newspapers.[18][19] Onset[edit] In the early morning of October
October
24 (November 6 N.S.), a group of soldiers loyal to Kerensky's government marched on the printing house of the Bolshevik newspaper, Rabochy put [Worker's Path], seizing and destroying printing equipment and thousands of newspapers copies. Shortly thereafter the government announced the immediate closure of not only Rabochy put but also the left-wing Soldat as well as the far-right newspapers Zhivoe slovo and Novaia Rus'. The editors of these newspapers, as well as any authors seen to be calling for insurrection, were to be prosecuted on criminal charges.[20] In response, at 9 AM the Military Revolutionary Committee
Military Revolutionary Committee
issued a statement denouncing the government's actions. At 10 AM, Bolshevik-aligned soldiers successfully retook the Rabochy put printing house. Kerensky responded at approximately 3 PM that afternoon by ordering the raising of all but one of Petrograd's bridges, a tactic used by the government several months earlier in the July Days. What followed was a series of sporadic clashes over control of the bridges between Red Guard militias aligned with the Military Revolutionary Committee and military regiments still loyal to the government. At approximately 5 PM the Military Revolutionary Committee seized the Central Telegraph of Petrograd, giving the Bolsheviks control over communications through the city.[20][21] On 25 October
October
(7 November new style) 1917, Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
led their forces in the uprising in Petrograd
Petrograd
(now St. Petersburg, then capital of Russia) against the Kerensky Provisional Government. The event coincided with the arrival of a flotilla of pro-Bolshevik marines, primarily five destroyers and their crews, in St. Petersburg harbor. At Kronstadt, sailors also announced their allegiance to the Bolshevik insurrection. In the early morning, the military-revolutionary committee planned the last of the locations to be assaulted or seized from its heavily guarded and picketed center in Smolny Palace. The Red Guards systematically captured major government facilities, key communication installations and vantage points with little opposition. The Petrograd
Petrograd
Garrison and most of the city's military units joined the insurrection against the Provisional Government.[19] Kerensky and the provisional government were virtually helpless to offer significant resistance. Railways and railway stations had been controlled by Soviet workers and soldiers for days, making rail travel to and from Petrograd
Petrograd
impossible for Provisional Government officials. The Provisional Government was also unable to locate any serviceable vehicles. On the morning of the insurrection, Kerensky desperately searched for a means of reaching military forces he hoped would be friendly to the Provisional government outside the city, and ultimately borrowed a Renault car from the American Embassy, which he drove from the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
alongside a Pierce Arrow. Kerensky was able to evade the pickets going up around the palace and drive to meet approaching soldiers.[20] As Kerensky left Petrograd, Lenin wrote a proclamation "To the Citizens of Russia" stating that the Provisional Government had been overthrown by the Military Revolutionary Committee. The proclamation was sent by telegraph throughout Russia
Russia
even as the pro-Soviet soldiers were seizing important control centers throughout the city. One of Lenin's intentions was to present members of the Soviet congress, who would assemble that afternoon, with a fait accompli and thus forestall further debate on the wisdom or legitimacy of taking power.[20] Assault on the Winter Palace[edit] A bloodless insurrection occurred with a final assault against the Winter Palace, with 3,000 cadets, officers, cossacks and female soldiers poorly defending the Winter Palace.[20][22] The Bolsheviks delayed the assault because the revolutionaries could not find functioning artillery. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
also prolonged the assault for fear of violence since the insurrection did not generate violent outbreaks. At 6:15 p.m., a large group of artillery cadets abandoned the palace, taking their artillery with them. At 8:00 p.m., 200 cossacks left the palace and returned to their barracks.[20] While the cabinet of the provisional government within the palace debated what action to take, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
issued an ultimatum to surrender. Workers and soldiers occupied the last of the telegraph stations, cutting off the cabinet's communications with loyal military forces outside the city. As the night progressed, crowds of insurgents surrounded the palace, and many infiltrated it.[20] While soviet historians and officials tended to depict the event in heroic terms, the insurrection and even the seizure of the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
happened almost without resistance.[19] At 9:45 p.m, the cruiser Aurora fired a blank shot from the harbor. Some of the revolutionaries entered the Palace at 10:25 p.m. and there was a mass entry 3 hours later. By 2:10 a.m on 26 October Bolshevik forces had gained control of the palace. After sporadic gunfire throughout the building, the cabinet of the provisional government had surrendered. The only member who was not arrested was Kerensky himself who had already left the Palace.[20][23] Later Soviet portrayal[edit] Later official accounts of the revolution from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would depict the events in October
October
as being far more dramatic than they actually had been.[24] (See a first-hand account by British General Knox.) This was aided by the historical reenactment, entitled The Storming of the Winter Palace, which was staged in 1920. This reenactment, watched by 100,000 spectators, provided the model for official films made much later, which showed a huge storming of the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
and fierce fighting.[25] In reality, the Bolshevik insurgents faced little opposition.[22] The insurrection was timed and organized to hand state power to the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, which began on 25 October (7 November new style). After a single day of revolution, the death toll was low not because Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
decided not to use artillery fire, but instead because the class struggle was used as the strongest weapon.[26] Soviet government archives show that parties of Bolshevik operatives sent from the Smolny Institute by Lenin took over all critical centers of power in Petrograd
Petrograd
in the early hours of the first night without a significant number of shots fired.[27] This was completed so efficiently that the takeover resembled the changing of the guard. There was not much of a storming of the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
because the resistance basically did not exist and at 2:10 a.m. on 26 October (8 November new style) 1917 the Red Guards took control of the Winter Palace. The Cossacks deserted when the Red Guard approached, and the Cadets and the 140 volunteers of the Women's Battalion
Women's Battalion
surrendered rather than resist the 40,000 strong army.[28] The Aurora was commandeered to then fire blanks at the palace in a symbolic act of rejection of the government. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
effectively controlled the almost unoccupied Winter Palace
Winter Palace
not because of an intense military barrage, but because the back door was left open, allowing the Red Guard to enter.[29] The Provisional Government was arrested and imprisoned in Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress
after the ministers resigned to fate and surrendered without a fight, and officially overthrown. Later stories of the heroic "Storming of the Winter Palace" and "defense of the Winter Palace" were later propaganda by Bolshevik publicists. Grandiose paintings depicting the "Women's Battalion" and photo stills taken from Sergei Eisenstein's staged film depicting the "politically correct" version of the October
October
events in Petrograd
Petrograd
came to be taken as truth.[30] With the Petrograd Soviet
Petrograd Soviet
now in control of government, garrison and proletariat, the Second All Russian Congress of Soviets held its opening session on the day, while Trotsky
Trotsky
dismissed the opposing Mensheviks
Mensheviks
and the Socialist Revolutionaries
Socialist Revolutionaries
(SR) from Congress. Dybenko's memoirs[edit] Some sources contend that as the leader of Tsentrobalt, Pavlo Dybenko played an enormous role in the revolt. It is said[who?] that the ten warships that entered the city with ten thousand Baltic fleet mariners was the force that actually took the power in Petrograd
Petrograd
and put down the Provisional Government. The same mariners then dispersed by force the elected parliament of Russia,[31] and used machine-gun fire against protesting demonstrators in Petrograd.[citation needed] About 100 demonstrators were killed, and several hundreds wounded.[citation needed] Dybenko in his memoirs mentioned this event as "several shots in the air". Later, during the first hours after the taking of the Winter Palace, Dybenko personally entered the Ministry of Justice and destroyed there the documents about the financing of the Bolshevik party by Germany.[32] These are disputed by various sources such as Louise Bryant,[33] who claims that news outlets in the West at the time reported that the unfortunate loss of life occurred in Moscow, not Petrograd, and the number was much less than suggested above. As for the "several shots in the air", there is little evidence suggesting otherwise. The alleged action of Dybenko entering the Ministry of Justice to destroy documents as recalled by Savchenko can also be challenged. According to reports, Pavel Dybenko
Pavel Dybenko
was in Helsingfors
Helsingfors
organizing the sailors' departures for Petrograd. In the book Radio October...On the "Krechet" in Helsingfors, radio operator Makarov hands a telegram to Pavel Dybenko
Pavel Dybenko
with the report of the "Samson" commissar, Grigoriy Borisov: "To Tsentrobalt. Everything is calm in Petrograd. The power is in the hands of the revolutionary committee. You have to immediately get in touch with the front committee of the Northern Army in order to preserve unity of forces and stability." Outcome[edit] See also: Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and Kiev
Kiev
Bolshevik Uprising

Petrograd
Petrograd
Milrevcom
Milrevcom
proclamation about the deposing of the Russian Provisional Government

The Second Congress of Soviets consisted of 670 elected delegates; 300 were Bolshevik and nearly a hundred were Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, who also supported the overthrow of the Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
Government.[34] When the fall of the Winter Palace was announced, the Congress adopted a decree transferring power to the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies, thus ratifying the Revolution. The transfer of power was not without disagreement. The center and Right wings of the Socialist Revolutionaries
Socialist Revolutionaries
as well as the Mensheviks believed that Lenin and the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
had illegally seized power and they walked out before the resolution was passed. As they exited, they were taunted by Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
who told them "You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is played out. Go where you belong from now on — into the dustbin of history!"[35] The following day, 26 October, the Congress elected a new cabinet of Bolsheviks, pending the convocation of a Constituent Assembly. This basis for the new Soviet government was known as the Council (Soviet) of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), with Lenin as leader. Lenin allegedly approved of the name, reporting that it "smells of revolution".[36] The cabinet quickly passed the Decree on Peace
Decree on Peace
and the Decree on Land. This new government was also officially called "provisional" until the Assembly was dissolved. Posters were pinned on walls and fences by the Right Socialist Revolutionaries, describing the takeover as a "crime against the motherland and revolution". On 27 October
October
1917 (9 November new style), the Mensheviks
Mensheviks
seized power in Georgia and declared it an independent republic. The Don Cossacks also claimed control of their own government. The biggest Bolshevik strongholds were in the cities, particularly Petrograd, with support much more mixed in rural areas. The peasant dominated Left SR Party was in coalition with the Bolsheviks. There are reports that the Provisional Government had not conceded defeat and are meeting with the army at the Front. On 28 October
October
1917,(10 November new style) some posters and newspapers started criticizing the actions of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and refuted their authority. The Executive Committee of Peasants Soviets "[refuted] with indignation all participation of the organised peasantry in this criminal violation of the will of the working class".[37] On 29 October
October
1917, opposition to the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
developed into major counter-revolutionary action. Cossacks entered Tsarskoye Selo
Tsarskoye Selo
on outskirts of Petrograd
Petrograd
with Kerensky riding on a white horse welcomed by church bells. Kerensky gave an ultimatum to the rifle garrison to lay down weapons, which was promptly refused. They were then fired upon by Kerensky’s Cossacks, which resulted in 8 deaths. This turned soldiers in Petrograd
Petrograd
against Kerensky because he was just like the Tsarist
Tsarist
regime. Kerensky’s failure to assume authority over troops was described by John Reed as a ‘fatal blunder’ that signalled the final death of the government.[38] On 30 October
October
1917 (12 November new style), the battle against the anti- Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
continued. The Red Guard fought against Cossacks at Tsarskoye Selo, with the Cossacks breaking rank and fleeing, leaving their artillery behind. On 31 October
October
1917 (13 November new style), the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
gained control of Moscow after a week of bitter street-fighting. Artillery had been freely used with an estimated 700 casualties. However, there was still continued support for Kerensky in some of the provinces. On 1 November 1917 (14 November new style), there was an appeal to anti- Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
throughout Russia
Russia
to join the new government of the people, with the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
winning even more support from the Russian people. On 2 November 1917 (15 November new style), there was only minor public anti-Bolshevik sentiment; for example, the newspaper Novaya Zhizn criticised the lack of manpower and organisation of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
to run a party, let alone a government. Lenin confidently claimed that there is "not a shadow of hesitation in the masses of Petrograd, Moscow and the rest of Russia" towards Bolshevik rule.[39] On 10 November 1917 (23 November new style), the government sought to label its citizens as "citizens of the Russian Republic," and make them equal in all possible respects. This was accomplished by the nullification of all "legal designations of civil equality, such as estates, titles, and ranks.[40] On 12 November (25 November new style), a Constituent Assembly was elected. In these elections, 26 mandatory delegates were proposed by the Bolshevik Central Committee and 58 were proposed by the Socialist Revolutionaries. Of these mandatory candidates, only one Bolshevik and seven Socialist Revolutionary
Socialist Revolutionary
delegates were women.[41] The outcome of the election gave the majority to the Socialist Revolutionary
Socialist Revolutionary
Party, which no longer existed as a full party by that time, as the Left SR Party was in coalition with the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
dissolved the Constituent Assembly in January 1918, when it came into conflict with the Soviets. On 16 December 1917 (29 December 1917 new style), the government ventured to eliminate hierarchy in the army, removing all titles, ranks, and uniform decorations. The tradition of saluting was also eliminated.[40] On 20 December 1917 (2 January 1918 new style), the Cheka
Cheka
was created by the decree of Vladimir Lenin.[42] These were the beginnings of the Bolsheviks' consolidation of power over their political opponents. The Red Terror
Red Terror
was started in September 1918, following a failed assassination attempt on Lenin's life. The Jacobin Terror was an example for the Soviet Bolsheviks. Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
had compared Lenin to Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
as early as 1904.[43] The Decree on Land
Decree on Land
ratified the actions of the peasants who throughout Russia
Russia
gained private land and redistributed it among themselves. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
viewed themselves as representing an alliance of workers and peasants and memorialized that understanding with the Hammer and Sickle on the flag and coat of arms of the Soviet Union. Other decrees:

All private property was nationalized by the government. All Russian banks were nationalized. Private bank accounts were expropriated. The properties of the Church (including bank accounts) were expropriated. All foreign debts were repudiated. Control of the factories was given to the soviets. Wages were fixed at higher rates than during the war, and a shorter, eight-hour working day was introduced.

Bolshevik-led attempts to gain power in other parts of the Russian Empire were largely successful in Russia
Russia
proper — although the fighting in Moscow lasted for two weeks — but they were less successful in ethnically non-Russian parts of the Empire, which had been clamoring for independence since the February Revolution. For example, the Ukrainian Rada, which had declared autonomy on 23 June 1917, created the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
on 20 November, which was supported by the Ukrainian Congress of Soviets. This led to an armed conflict with the Bolshevik government in Petrograd
Petrograd
and, eventually, a Ukrainian declaration of independence from Russia
Russia
on 25 January 1918.[44] In Estonia, two rival governments emerged: the Estonian Provincial Assembly, established in April 1917, proclaimed itself the supreme legal authority of Estonia
Estonia
on 28 November 1917 and issued the Declaration of Independence on 24 February 1918.[45] Soviet Russia
Russia
recognized the Executive Committee of the Soviets of Estonia
Estonia
as the legal authority in the province, although the Soviets in Estonia controlled only the capital and a few other major towns.[46] The success of the October
October
Revolution transformed the Russian state into a soviet republic. A coalition of anti-Bolshevik groups attempted to unseat the new government in the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
from 1918 to 1922. In an attempt to intervene in the civil war after the Bolsheviks' separate peace with the Central Powers, the Allied powers (United Kingdom, France, Italy, United States and Japan) occupied parts of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for over two years before finally withdrawing.[47] The United States did not recognize the new Russian government until 1933. The European powers recognized the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the early 1920s and began to engage in business with it after the New Economic Policy (NEP) was implemented. Historiography[edit]

Part of a series on

Marxism–Leninism

Concepts

Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Commanding heights of the economy Communist society Communist state Democratic centralism Economic planning Marxist–Leninist atheism One-party state People's democracy Popular front Proletarian internationalism Socialist patriotism Socialist state Theory of the productive forces Third Period Vanguardism

Variants

Guevarism
Guevarism
(Foco) Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Thought Hoxhaism Husakism Juche Kadarism Khrushchevism Maoism Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Prachanda Path Titoism Stalinism

People

Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Ernst Thälmann Earl Browder Enver Hoxha Gonchigiin Bumtsend Ho Chi Minh Mao Zedong Abimael Guzmán José Díaz Josip Broz Tito Enver Hoxha Palmiro Togliatti Che Guevara Kim Il-sung Mathieu Kérékou Agostinho Neto Samora Machel Thomas Sankara Fidel Castro Alfonso Cano

Literature

Wage Labour and Capital Materialism and Empirio-criticism Imperialism   What Is to Be Done? The State and Revolution

Dialectical and Historical Materialism

Guerrilla Warfare

Fundamentals of Marxism–Leninism

History

October
October
Revolution Soviet Union Comintern Hungarian Soviet Republic Spanish Civil War World War II Warsaw Pact Greek Civil War Chinese Revolution Korean War Cuban Revolution De-Stalinization Non-Aligned Movement Sino-Soviet split Vietnam War Portuguese Colonial War Black Power movement Nicaraguan Revolution Nepalese Civil War Naxalite insurgency Internal conflict in Peru

Related topics

Bolshevism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism

Communism
Communism
portal Socialism portal

v t e

Few events in historical research have been as conditioned by political influences as the October
October
Revolution.[48] The historiography of the Revolution generally divides into three camps: the Soviet-Marxist view, the Western-Totalitarian view, and the Revisionist view.[49] Soviet historiography[edit] Soviet historiography of the October
October
Revolution is intertwined with Soviet historical development. Many of the initial Soviet interpreters of the Revolution were themselves Bolshevik revolutionaries.[50] After the initial wave of revolutionary narratives, Soviet historians worked within "narrow guidelines" defined by the Soviet government. The rigidity of interpretive possibilities reached its height under Joseph Stalin.[51] Soviet historians of the October
October
Revolution interpreted the Revolution with regard to establishing the legitimacy of Marxist ideology, and also the Bolshevik government. To establish the accuracy of Marxist ideology, Soviet historians generally described the Revolution as the product of class struggle. They maintained that the Revolution was the supreme event in a world history governed by historical laws. The Bolshevik Party
Bolshevik Party
is placed at the center of the Revolution, exposing the errors of both the moderate Provisional Government and the spurious "socialist" Mensheviks
Mensheviks
in the Petrograd
Petrograd
Soviet. Guided by Vladimir Lenin's leadership and his firm grasp of scientific Marxist theory, the Party led the "logically predetermined" events of the October
October
Revolution from beginning to end. The events were, according to these historians, logically predetermined because of the socio-economic development of Russia, where the monopoly industrial capitalism alienated the masses. In this view, the Bolshevik party took the leading role in organizing these alienated industrial workers, and thereby established the construction of the first socialist state.[52] Although Soviet historiography of the October
October
Revolution stayed relatively constant until 1991, it did undergo some changes. Following Stalin’s death, historians such as E. N. Burdzhalov and P. V. Volobuev published historical research that deviated significantly from the party line in refining the doctrine that the Bolshevik victory "was predetermined by the state of Russia’s socio-economic development".[53] These historians, who constituted the "New Directions Group", posited that the complex nature of the October Revolution "could only be explained by a multi-causal analysis, not by recourse to the mono-causality of monopoly capitalism".[54] For them, the central actor is still the Bolshevik party, but this party triumphed "because it alone could solve the preponderance of ‘general democratic’ tasks the country faced" (such as the struggle for peace, the exploitation of landlords, and so on.)[55] Following the turn of the 21st century, some Soviet historians began to implement an "anthropological turn" in their historiographical analysis of the Russian Revolution. This method of analysis focuses on the average person's experience of day-to-day life during the revolution, and pulls the analytical focus away from larger events, notable revolutionaries, and overarching claims about party views.[56] In 2006, S. V. Iarov employed this methodology when he focused on citizen adjustment to the new Soviet system. Iarov explored the dwindling labor protests, evolving forms of debate, and varying forms of politicization as a result of the new Soviet rule from 1917 to 1920.[57] In 2010, O. S. Nagornaia took interest in the personal experiences of Russian prisoners of war taken by Germany, examining Russian soldiers and officers' ability to cooperate and implement varying degrees of autocracy despite being divided by class, political views and race.[58] Other analyses following this "anthropological turn" have explored texts from soldiers and how they used personal war experiences to further their political goals,[59] as well as how individual life-structure and psychology may have shaped major decisions in the civil war that followed the revolution.[60] During the late Soviet period, the opening of select Soviet archives during glasnost sparked innovative research that broke away from some aspects of Marxism–Leninism, though the key features of the orthodox Soviet view remained intact.[51] Western historiography[edit] During the Cold War, Western historiography of the October
October
Revolution developed in direct response to the assertions of the Soviet view. The Soviet version of the October
October
Revolution conditioned historical interpretations in the United States and the West. As a result, these Western historians exposed what they believed were flaws in the Soviet view, thereby undermining the Bolsheviks' original legitimacy, as well as the precepts of Marxism.[61] These Western historians described the revolution as the result of a chain of contingent accidents. Examples of these accidental and contingent factors they say precipitated the Revolution included World War I's timing, chance, and the poor leadership of Tsar Nicholas II as well as liberal and moderate socialists.[51] According to Western historians, it was not popular support, but rather manipulation of the masses, ruthlessness, and the superior structure of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
that enabled it to survive. For these historians, the Bolsheviks’ defeat in the Constituent Assembly elections of November–December 1917 demonstrated popular opposition to the Bolsheviks’ coup, as did the scale and breadth of the Civil War.[62] Western historians saw the organization of the Bolshevik party as proto-totalitarian. Their interpretation of the October
October
Revolution as a violent coup organized by a proto-totalitarian party reinforced to them the idea that totalitarianism was an inherent part of Soviet history.[63] For them, Stalinist totalitarianism developed as a natural progression from Leninism
Leninism
and the Bolshevik party’s tactics and organization.[64] Effect of the dissolution of the USSR on historical research[edit] The dissolution of the USSR affected historical interpretations of the October
October
Revolution. Since 1991, increasing access to large amounts of Soviet archival materials made it possible to re‑examine the October Revolution.[65] Though both Western and Russian historians now have access to many of these archives, the effect of the dissolution of the USSR can be seen most clearly in the work of historians in the former USSR. While the disintegration essentially helped solidify the Western and Revisionist views, post-USSR Russian historians largely repudiated the former Soviet historical interpretation of the Revolution.[66] As Stephen Kotkin argues, 1991 prompted "a return to political history and the apparent resurrection of totalitarianism, the interpretive view that, in different ways…revisionists sought to bury".[67] Legacy[edit] The term "Red October" (Красный Октябрь, Krasnyy Oktyabr) has also been used to describe the events of the month. This name has in turn been lent to a steel factory made notable by the Battle of Stalingrad,[68] a Moscow sweets factory that is well known in Russia, and a fictional Soviet submarine. Ten Days That Shook the World, a book written by American journalist John Reed and first published in 1919, gives a firsthand exposition of the events. Reed died in 1920, shortly after the book was finished. Dmitri Shostakovich
Dmitri Shostakovich
wrote his Symphony No. 2 in B major, Op. 14 and subtitled To October, for the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution. The choral finale of the work, "To October", is set to a text by Alexander Bezymensky, which praises Lenin and the revolution. The Symphony No. 2 was first performed by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra and the Academy Capella Choir under the direction of Nikolai Malko, on 5 November 1927. Sergei Eisenstein
Sergei Eisenstein
and Grigori Aleksandrov's film October: Ten Days That Shook the World, first released on 20 January 1928 in the USSR and on 2 November 1928 in New York City, describes and glorifies the revolution and was commissioned to commemorate the event. 7 November, the anniversary of the October
October
Revolution, was the official national day of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1918 onward and still is a public holiday in Belarus
Belarus
and the breakaway territory of Transnistria. The October
October
revolution of 1917 also marks the inception of the first communist government in Russia, and thus the first large-scale socialist state in world history. After this Russia
Russia
became the Russian SFSR and later part of the USSR, which dissolved in late 1991. See also[edit]

February Revolution Ten Days That Shook the World Revolutions of 1917–23 Russian Civil War Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) Kiev
Kiev
Bolshevik Uprising Dissolution of the Soviet Union, 74 years later (1991)

Notes[edit]

^ History.com Staff. “Russian Revolution.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution. ^ Samaan, A.E. (2 February 2013). From a "Race of Masters" to a "Master Race": 1948 to 1848. A.E. Samaan. p. 346. ISBN 0615747884. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ Jennifer Llewellyn, John Rae and Steve Thompson (2014). "The Constituent Assembly". Alpha History.  ^ Bunyan & Fisher 1934, p. 385. ^ a b Steinberg, Mark (2017). The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1905-1917. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 143–146. ISBN 978-0-19-922762-4.  ^ David Mandel, The Petrograd
Petrograd
workers and the seizure of soviet power, London, 1984 ^ "Steinberg, Mark (2017). The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1905-1921. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-0-19-922762-4." ^ Upton, Anthony F. (1980). The Finnish Revolution: 1917-1918. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. p. 89. ISBN 9781452912394.  ^ Steinberg, Mark D. (2017). The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1905-1921. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. pp. 191, 193–194. ISBN 9780199227624.  ^ Richard Pipes
Richard Pipes
(1990). The Russian Revolution. Knopf Doubleday. p. 407.  ^ The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath. Michael Kort. p. 104 ^ Michael C. Hickey (2010). Competing Voices from the Russian Revolution: Fighting Words: Fighting Words. ABC-CLIO. p. 559.  ^ Beckett 2007, p. 526 ^ Pipes, 1997. p. 51. "There is no evidence of a Kornilov plot, but there is plenty of evidence of Kerensky's duplicity." ^ Service 2005, p. 54 ^ "Central Committee Meeting—10 Oct 1917".  ^ Steinberg, Mark (2001). Voices of the Revolution, 1917. Binghamton, New York: Yale University Press. p. 170. ISBN 0300090161.  ^ "1917 – La Revolution Russe". Arte TV. 16 September 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.  ^ a b c Suny, Ronald (2011). The Soviet Experiment. Oxford University Press. pp. 63–67.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c d e f g h Rabinowitch, Alexander (2004). The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. Pluto Press. pp. 273–305.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Bard College: Experimental Humanities and Eurasian Studies. "From Empire To Republic: October
October
24 – November 1, 1917". Retrieved 24 February 2018.  ^ a b Beckett, p. 528 ^ "1917 Free History". Yandex Publishing. Retrieved 8 November 2017.  ^ Jonathan Schell, 2003. 'The Mass Minority in Action: France and Russia'. For example, in The Unconquerable World. London: Penguin, pp. 167–185. ^ October
October
(Ten Days that Shook the World) by Sergei M. Eisenstein and Grigori Aleksandrov, First National Pictures, 1928, Classics and Drama ^ Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
Come to Power: the Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd
Petrograd
(Haymarket Books: Chicago Illinois 2004) ^ Sean McMeekin, The Russian Revolution: A New History (Basic Books: May 2017) ^ Michael Lynch, Access to History: Reaction and Revolution: Russia 1894-1924 Fourth Edition (Hodder Education: April 2015) ^ Raul Edward Chao, Damn the Revolution! (Dupont Circle Editions: Washington DC, London, Sydney, 2016) p.191 ^ Argumenty i Fakty newspaper ^ "ВОЕННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА --[ Мемуары ]-- Дыбенко П.Е. Из недр царского флота к Великому Октябрю".  ^ "ВОЕННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА --[ Биографии ]-- Савченко В. А. Авантюристы гражданской войны".  ^ Louise Bryant, Six Red Months in Russia, pg 60–61 ^ Service, Robert (1998). A history of twentieth-century Russia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-40347-9 p 65 ^ Reed, John (1997) Ten Days that Shook the World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p 217 ^ Steinberg, Mark D. (2001). Voices of Revolution, 1917. Yale University. p. 251. ISBN 978-0300101690.  ^ Reed, John (1997) Ten Days that Shook the World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p 369 ^ Reed, John (1997) Ten Days that Shook the World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p 410 ^ Reed, John (1997) Ten Days that Shook the World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p 565 ^ a b Steinberg, Mark D. (2001). Voices of Revolution. Yale University. p. 257.  ^ Ruthchild, R.G. (2010). Equality and Revolution: Women’s Rights in the Russian Empire, 1905–1917. University of Pittsburgh Press, p. 242. Retrieved 18 October
October
2017. ^ Figes, 1996. ^ Richard Pipes: The Russian Revolution ^ See Encyclopedia of Ukraine online ^ Miljan, Toivo. “Historical Dictionary of Estonia.” Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, p. 169 ^ Raun, Toivo U. “The Emergence of Estonian Independence 1917-1920.” Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians, Hoover Inst. Press, 2002, p. 102 ^ Ward, John (2004). With the "Die-Hards" in Siberia. Dodo Press. p. 91. ISBN 1409906809.  ^ Edward Acton, Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 5. ^ Acton, Critical Companion, 5–7. ^ Stephen Kotkin, "1991 and the Russian Revolution: Sources, Conceptual Categories, Analytical Frameworks," The Journal of Modern History 70 ( October
October
1998): 392. ^ a b c Acton, Critical Companion, 7. ^ Acton, Critical Companion, 8. ^ Alter Litvin, Writing History in Twentieth-Century Russia, (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 49–50. ^ Roger Markwick, Rewriting History in Soviet Russia: The Politics of Revisionist Historiography, (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 97. ^ Markwick, Rewriting History, 102. ^ Smith, S. A. (2015). "The historiography of the Russian Revolution 100 Years On". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 16: 733–749 – via Project MUSE.  ^ Iarov, S.V. (2006). "Konformizm v Sovetskoi Rossii: Petrograd, 1917-20". Evropeiskii dom.  ^ Nagornaia, O. S. (2010). "Drugoi voennyi opyt: Rossiiskie voennoplennye Pervoi mirovoi voiny v Germanii (1914-1922)". Novyi khronograf.  ^ Morozova, O. M. (2010). "Dva akta dramy: Boevoe proshloe i poslevoennaia povsednevnost ' verteranov grazhdanskoi voiny". Rostov-on-Don: Iuzhnyi nauchnyi tsentr Rossiiskoi akademii nauk.  ^ O. M., Morozova (2007). "Antropologiia grazhdanskoi voiny". Rostov-on-Don: Iuzhnyi nauchnyi tsentr RAN.  ^ Acton, Critical Companion, 6–7. ^ Acton, Critical Companion, 7–9. ^ Norbert Francis, “Revolution in Russia
Russia
and China: 100 Years,” International Journal of Russian Studies 6 (July 2017): 130-143. ^ Stephen E. Hanson (1997). Time and Revolution: Marxism
Marxism
and the Design of Soviet Institutions. U of North Carolina Press. p. 130.  ^ Kotkin, "1991 and the Russian Revolution," 385-86. ^ Litvin, Writing History, 47. ^ Kotkin, "1991 and the Russian Revolution," 385. ^ Ivanov,Mikhail (2007). Survival Russian. Montpelier, VT: Russian Information Service. p. 44

References[edit]

Acton, Edward (1997). Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution.  Ascher, Abraham (2014). The Russian Revolution: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld Publications.  Beckett, Ian F. W. (2007). The Great war (2 ed.). Longman. ISBN 1-4058-1252-4.  Bone, Ann (trans.) (1974). The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and the October
October
Revolution: Central Committee Minutes of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) August 1917-February 1918. Pluto Press. ISBN 0-902818546.  Bunyan, James; Fisher, Harold Henry (1934). The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917–1918: Documents and Materials. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. OCLC 253483096.  Chamberlin, William Henry (1935). The Russian Revolution. I: 1917–1918: From the Overthrow of the Tsar to the Assumption of Power by the Bolsheviks. Old Classic.  Figes, Orlando (1996). A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. Pimlico.  Guerman, Mikhail (1979). Art of the October
October
Revolution.  Kollontai, Alexandra (1971). "The Years of Revolution". The Autobiography of a Sexually Emancipated Communist Woman. New York: Herder and Herder. OCLC 577690073.  Krupskaya, Nadezhda (1930). "The October
October
Days". Reminiscences of Lenin. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 847091253.  Luxemburg, Rosa (1940) [1918]. The Russian Revolution. Translated by Bertram Wolfe. New York City: Workers Age. OCLC 579589928.  Mandel, David (1984). The Petrograd
Petrograd
Workers and the Soviet seizure of power. London: MacMillan.  Pipes, Richard (1997). Three "whys" of the Russian Revolution. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-77646-8.  Rabinowitch, Alexander (2004). The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. Pluto Press.  Radek, Karl (1995) [First published 1922 as "Wege der Russischen Revolution"]. "The Paths of the Russian Revolution". In Bukharin, Nikolai; Richardson, Al. In Defence of the Russian Revolution: A Selection of Bolshevik Writings, 1917–1923. London: Porcupine Press. pp. 35–75. ISBN 1899438017. OCLC 33294798.  Read, Christopher (1996). From Tsars to Soviets.  Serge, Victor (1972) [1930]. Year One of the Russian Revolution. London: Penguin Press. OCLC 15612072.  Service, Robert (1998). A history of twentieth-century Russia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-40347-9.  Shukman, Harold, ed. (1998). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the Russian Revolution. articles by over 40 specialists CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Swain, Geoffrey (2014). Trotsky
Trotsky
and the Russian Revolution. Routledge.  Trotsky, Leon (1930). "XXVI: FROM JULY TO OCTOBER". My Life. London: Thornton Butterworth. OCLC 181719733.  Trotsky, Leon (1932). The History of the Russian Revolution. III. Translated by Max Eastman. London: Gollancz. OCLC 605191028. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917.

* Read, Christopher: Revolutions (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Peeling, Siobhan: July Crisis 1917 (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. The October
October
Revolution Archive Let History Judge Russia’s Revolutions, commentary by Roy Medvedev, Project Syndicate, 2007 October
October
Revolution and Logic of History Maps of Europe and Russia
Russia
at time of October
October
Revolution at omniatlas.com

v t e

Annual Great October
October
Socialist Revolution Parade

By year

1919 1937 1941 1947 1952 1953 1957 1962 1963 1965 1966 1967 1972 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Related

October
October
Revolution Holidays in the USSR military parade

Description

This template features articles from all the parades from 1918 to 1990.

Participating units

Corps of Drums of the Moscow Military Music College Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union Frunze Military Academy V.I. Lenin Military Political Academy Felix Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy Military Armored Forces Academy Marshal Rodion Malinovsky Military Engineering Academy Military Academy of Chemical Defense and Control Yuri Gagarin Air Force Academy Prof. Nikolai Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy Naval Engineering School Moscow Border Guards Institute of the Border Defence Forces of the KGB "Moscow City Council Western Military District units: 98th Guards Airborne Division OMSDON 336th Marine Regiment of the Baltic Fleet Suvorov Military School Nakhimov Naval School Moscow Military High Command Training School "Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR

v t e

October
October
Bolshevik Uprising

November

Petrograd
Petrograd
(November 7) Moscow (November 7-15) Kiev
Kiev
(November 8-13) Tashkent
Tashkent
(November 10-14) Vinnytsia

v t e

Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
/ Russian Civil War

Events

Revolution

February Revolution July Days Kornilov affair October
October
Revolution Kerensky–Krasnov uprising Junker mutiny

Civil War

Russian Civil War Ukrainian War of Independence

Ukrainian–Soviet War Kiev
Kiev
Bolshevik Uprising Polish–Ukrainian War

Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Polish–Soviet War Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian Wars of Independence Red Army invasion of Georgia Armenian–Azerbaijani War Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Siberian Intervention

Groups

Provisional Committee of the State Duma Russian Provisional Government White movement Pro-independence movements Petrograd
Petrograd
Soviet Council of the People's Commissars Military Revolutionary Committee Russian Constituent Assembly

elections

Black Guards Red Guards Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia Tsentralna Rada

Ukrainian People's Republic

Parties

Kadets Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

Bolsheviks Mensheviks

Socialist Revolutionary
Socialist Revolutionary
Party

Left SRs

Union of October
October
17

Figures

Monarchists

Nicholas II of Russia

Provisional Government

Georgy Lvov Pavel Milyukov Alexander Guchkov

White movement

Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel Alexander Kolchak Anton Denikin Pyotr Krasnov Nikolai Yudenich

Bolsheviks

Vladimir Lenin Lev Kamenev Grigory Zinoviev Leon Trotsky Mikhail Frunze Joseph Stalin Semyon Budyonny

Right SRs

Alexander Kerensky Stepan Petrichenko Boris Savinkov

International

Revolutions of 1917–23 German Revolution of 1918–1919 Bavarian Soviet Republic Hungarian Soviet Republic Hungarian–Romanian War Workers' Councils in Poland Polish–Ukrainian War Polish–Soviet War Slovak Soviet Republic Finnish Civil War Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic

v t e

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
topics

History

Index of Soviet Union-related articles Russian Revolution

February October

Russian Civil War Russian SFSR USSR creation treaty New Economic Policy Stalinism Great Purge Great Patriotic War (World War II) Cold War Khrushchev Thaw 1965 reform Stagnation Perestroika Glasnost Revolutions of 1989 Dissolution Nostalgia Post-Soviet states

Geography

Subdivisions

Republics

autonomous

Oblasts

autonomous

Autonomous okrugs Closed cities

list

Regions

Caspian Sea Caucasus Mountains European Russia North Caucasus Siberia Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain

Politics

General

Constitution Elections Foreign relations

Brezhnev Doctrine

Government

list

Human rights

LGBT

Law Leaders

Collective leadership

Passport system State ideology

Marxism–Leninism Leninism Stalinism

Bodies

Communist Party

organisation Central Committee

Politburo Secretariat

Congress General Secretary

Congress of Soviets (1922–1936) Supreme Soviet (1938–1991) Congress of People's Deputies (1989–1991) Supreme Court

Offices

Premier President Deputy Premier First Deputy Premier

Security services

Cheka GPU NKVD MVD MGB KGB

Political repression

Red Terror Collectivization Great Purge Population transfer Gulag

list

Holodomor Political abuse of psychiatry

Ideological repression

Religion Suppressed research Censorship Censorship of images

Economy

Agriculture Central Bank Energy policy Five-Year Plans Net material product Inventions Ruble (currency) Internet domain Transport

Science

Communist Academy Academy of Sciences Academy of Medical Sciences Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences Sharashkas Naukograds

list

Society

Crime Demographics

Soviet people working class 1989 census

Languages

Linguistics

LGBT

Culture

Ballet Cinema Fashion Literature Music

opera

Propaganda Sports Stalinist architecture

Opposition

Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and their groups

list

Anthem

republics

Emblem

republics

Flag

republics

Templates

Departments Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1917 Joseph Stalin Stagnation Era Fall of Communism

Book Category Commons Portal WikiProject

Authority control

GN

.