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Nickname(s): "La Atenas Suramericana" ("The South American Athens") "Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad " ("Most Noble and Most Loyal City")[1][2]

Motto(s): " Bogotá
Bogotá
Mejor Para Todos" ("A Better Bogotá
Bogotá
For All", 2016–2019)

Bogotá

Location in Colombia
Colombia
and South America Show map of Colombia

Bogotá

Bogotá
Bogotá
(South America) Show map of South America

Coordinates: 4°42′40″N 74°4′20″W / 4.71111°N 74.07222°W / 4.71111; -74.07222Coordinates: 4°42′40″N 74°4′20″W / 4.71111°N 74.07222°W / 4.71111; -74.07222

Country Colombia

Department Capital District Cundinamarca (see text)

Founded 6 August 1538 (traditional)[4]

Founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

Government

 • Mayor Enrique Peñalosa (2016–2019)

Area

 • Capital city 1,587 km2 (613 sq mi)

 • Urban 307.36 km2 (118.67 sq mi)

Area rank 32nd

Elevation[7] 2,640 m (8,660 ft)

Population (2017)[8][9][5][6]

 • Capital city 8,080,734[3]

 • Rank 1st

 • Metro 10,200,000[5][6]

Demonym(s) Rolo, Cachaco, Bogotan bogotano, -na (es)

Postal code 11XXXX

Area code(s) +57 1

HDI (2010) 0.965[10] very high

GDP (PPP) (2014) USD 160 billion[11]

GDP (PPP) per capita (2014) USD 17,500[11]

Website City Official Site Bogotá
Bogotá
Tourism (in Spanish)

The Bogotá savanna
Bogotá savanna
is the high plateau in the Andes
Andes
where Bogotá
Bogotá
is located. The flatlands are clearly visible in the topography and the result of a Pleistocene
Pleistocene
lake; Lake Humboldt, that existed until around 30,000 years BP

Bogotá
Bogotá
(/ˈboʊɡətɑː/, /ˌbɒɡəˈtɑː/, /ˌboʊ-/; Spanish pronunciation: [boɣoˈta] ( listen)), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fé de Bogotá
Bogotá
between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia
Colombia
administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.[12] Bogotá
Bogotá
is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia. It is the political, economic, administrative, industrial, artistic, cultural, and sports center of the country. Bogotá
Bogotá
was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada
New Kingdom of Granada
on August 6, 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes
Andes
conquering the Muisca. The Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region and called the settlement where Bogotá
Bogotá
was founded Bacatá, which in the Chibcha language means "The Lady of the Andes." Further, the word 'Andes' in the Aymara language means "mountain that shines," thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá
Bogotá
as "The Lady of the mountain that shines." After the Battle of Boyacá
Battle of Boyacá
on August 7, 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia. Since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá
Bogotá
has remained the capital of this territory. The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá
Bogotá
savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Altiplano Cundiboyacense
located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes. It is the third-highest capital in South America
South America
(after Quito
Quito
and Sucre), at an average of 2,640 metres (8,660 ft) above sea level. Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá
Bogotá
has an area of 1,587 square kilometres (613 square miles) and a relatively cool climate that is constant through the year. The city is home to central offices of the executive branch (Office of the President), the legislative branch (Congress of Colombia) and the judicial branch (Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court, Council of State and the Superior Council of Judicature) of the Colombian government. Bogotá
Bogotá
stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital. It is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country.[13][14] The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia
Colombia
and the Andean natural region, and is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia.[15] It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, contributing most to the national total (24.7%), and it is the seventh-largest city by size of GDP in Latin America
Latin America
(about USD 159,850 million);[16] The city's airport, El Dorado
El Dorado
International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, and is third in number of people.[17] Bogotá
Bogotá
is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country,[14] and is an important cultural center, with many theaters, libraries and museums, of which the Museo del Oro is the most important,. Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014,[18] and is considered a global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC.[19]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-Columbian era 1.2 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
expedition 1.3 Spanish colonization 1.4 Nineteenth century 1.5 Regeneration 1.6 Twentieth century 1.7 Twenty-first century

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Urban layout and nomenclature 2.3 Localities (districts) 2.4 Surrounding towns

3 Demographics

3.1 Crime

4 Government 5 Economy

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Shopping malls

6 Media 7 Infrastructure 8 Transport

8.1 Airports 8.2 Urban and suburban railways 8.3 Bicycle infrastructure 8.4 Tramway 8.5 Bogota Public Transportation Statistics

9 Colleges and universities 10 Culture

10.1 Cultural history 10.2 Architecture 10.3 Libraries and archives 10.4 Museums and galleries 10.5 Theater and arts 10.6 Religion 10.7 Cuisine 10.8 Parks and recreation

11 Sports

11.1 Sports teams

12 Symbols 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 13.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities 13.3 Partnerships and cooperations

14 Panoramas 15 Notable people from Bogotá 16 See also 17 References 18 Bibliography and further reading on pre-Columbian Bogotá

18.1 Pre-Muisca 18.2 Economy 18.3 Society & tunjos 18.4 Agriculture 18.5 Astronomy & calendar 18.6 Cuisine 18.7 Mythology and religion 18.8 Women in early colonial Bogotá 18.9 Early colonial Muisca

19 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Bogotá
History of Bogotá
and Timeline of Bogotá
Timeline of Bogotá
history The area of modern Bogotá
Bogotá
was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages; the Bogotá savanna
Bogotá savanna
was the southernmost Chibcha-speaking group that exists from Nicaragua
Nicaragua
to the Andes
Andes
in Colombia. The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense (modern-day departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá and small parts of Santander), was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas. The name Muisca Confederation
Muisca Confederation
has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs (caciques) who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos. The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking, trade and mummification. The religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods, mostly related to natural phenomena as the Sun (Sué) and his wife, the Moon; Chía, rain Chibchacum, rainbow Cuchavira
Cuchavira
and with building and feasting (Nencatacoa) and wisdom (Bochica). Their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented. Their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva
Villa de Leyva
to the north of Bogotá. Pre-Columbian era[edit] Main article: Muisca Confederation See also: El Abra, Tequendama, and Herrera Period

Muisca

Topics

Agriculture Architecture Art Astronomy Calendar Cuisine Economy Mummies Music Muysccubun Mythology Numerals Religion Research

Collections Scholars

Sites Warfare Women

Geography

Flora and fauna Altiplano

Bogotá
Bogotá
savanna Eastern Hills

Tenza Valley

The Salt People

Nemocón Zipaquirá

Main neighbours

Guane Muzo Panche

History and timeline

Prehistory Herrera Period Muisca Confederation

Bacatá Hunza Suamox Tundama

Spanish conquest

Gonzalo Hernán Others

v t e

The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, founder of the city

The fountain of Quevedo on the Chorro de Quevedo (es), one of the possible foundation sites of Bogotá

The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá, were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene. The oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra
El Abra
(12,500 BP), north of Zipaquirá. Slightly later dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soacha
Soacha
provided ages of ~11,000 BP; Tequendama. Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated guinea pigs, part of their meat diet.[20] The people inhabiting the Bogotá
Bogotá
savanna in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a member of the Chibcha language
Chibcha language
family.[21] Muisca means "people" or "person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. At the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people on the Bogotá savanna
Bogotá savanna
of up to two million in the Muisca Confederation. They occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz
Sumapaz
Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km2 (9,653 sq mi), comprising Bogotá's high plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander region. Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other Chibcha-speaking neighbours,[22] such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and with Cariban groups as the Muzo or "Emerald People". Their knowledge of salt production from brines, a task exclusively for the Muisca women, gave them the name "Salt People".[23] Tropical fruits that didn't grow on the cool highlands, coca, cotton and gold were traded at markets that took place every Muisca week; every four days. At these frequent markets, the Muisca obtained various luxury goods that seem worthless in modern sense and precious metals and gemstones that seem valuable to us became abundant and used for various purposes.[24] The Muisca warrior elite was allowed to wear feathered crowns, from parrots and macacs whose habitat was to the east of the Andes; the Arawkan-speaking Guayupe, Tegua and Achagua. The Muisca cuisine
Muisca cuisine
consisted of a stable and varied diet of tubers, potatoes and fruits. Maize
Maize
was the main ingredient of the Muisca, cultivated on elevated and irrigated terraces. In Muysccubun exist many words for maize, corn and the various types and forms of it.[23] The product was also the base for chicha; the alcoholic beverage of the people, still sold in central Bogotá
Bogotá
today. It was the drink for construction of houses, celebrations of harvests and sowing, ritual practices around the various sacred sites of the Altiplano, music and dances, trade at special ferias with farther away trading indigenous groups of Colombia
Colombia
and to inaugurate the new highest regarded member of the community; zipas, zaques, caciques and the religious ruler iraca from Sacred City of the Sun Sugamuxi.[25] The zipa at the moment of Spanish conquest was Tisquesusa. His main bohío was in Bacatá
Bacatá
with others in Funza
Funza
and Cajicá, giving name to the present day capital of Colombia. A prophecy in his life came true; he would be dying, bathing in his own blood. Defending Funza
Funza
with a reduced army of guecha warriors against the heavily exhausted but heavily armed strangers, his reign fell in the hands of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and his younger brother Hernán Pérez on April 20, 1537. Upon his death, his brother Sagipa
Sagipa
became the last zipa, against the inheritance tradition of the Muisca. Sagipa
Sagipa
used to be a main captain for Tisquesusa
Tisquesusa
but quickly submitted to the Spanish rulers. The first encomenderos asked high prices in valuable products and agricultural production from the indigenous people. On top of that various epidemics of European viruses razed through the population, of which in current Boyacá 65–85 % of the Muisca were killed within 100 years.[26] Bogotá
Bogotá
was founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
traditionally on the 6th of August 1538. Other documents state a second establishment was done on April 27, 1539. Gonzalo Jiménez and main conquerors De Belalcázar and Federmann, left for Spain
Spain
in April 1539, founding Guataquí
Guataquí
together on April 6, 1539. The rule over the fresh New Kingdom of Granada
Kingdom of Granada
was left to Hernán. The first mayors of the city were capitains Pedro de Arevalo y Jeronimo de Inzar. Bogotá
Bogotá
became the capital of the later Viceroyalty of New Granada.[21] With independence, Bogotá
Bogotá
became capital of Gran Colombia
Colombia
and later the capital of the Republic of Colombia. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
expedition[edit] Main article: Spanish conquest of the Muisca From 1533, a belief persisted that the Río Grande de la Magdalena was the trail to the South Sea, to Peru, legendary El Dorado. Such was the target of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, the Granadanian conquistador who left Santa Marta
Santa Marta
on 6 April 1536 with 800 soldiers, heading towards the interior of current Colombia. The expedition divided into two groups, one under Quesada's command to move on land, and the other commanded by Diego de Urbino would go up river in four brigantine ships to, later on, meet Quesada troops at the site named Tora de las Barrancas Bermejas. When they arrived, they heard news about Indians inhabiting the south and making large salt cakes used to trade for wild cotton and fish. Jiménez decided to abandon the route to Peru and cross the mountain in search of salt villages. They saw crops, trails, white salt cakes and then huts where they found corn, yucca and beans. From Tora, the expedition went up the Opón River and found indigenous people covered with very finely painted cotton mantles. When they arrived in Muisca territories, of the expedition leaving Santa Marta, only 162 men were left.[27] Spanish colonization[edit] On the other side to Plaza
Plaza
de Bolívar, the Chapter and the Royal Audience were located. The street joining the Major Plaza
Plaza
and Herbs Plaza
Plaza
—currently Santander Park— was named Calle Real (Royal Street), now Carrera Séptima (or "Seventh Street"; counted from the mountains to the east of the city). Formed by Europeans, mestizos, indigenous people, and slaves, from the second half of the 16th century, the population began to grow rapidly. The 1789 census recorded 18,161 inhabitants, and by 1819 the city population reached 30,000 inhabitants distributed in 195 blocks. Importance grew when the Diocese
Diocese
was established.[citation needed] The city mayor and the chapter formed by two councilmen, assisted by the constable and the police chief, governed the city. For better administration of these domains, in April 1550, the Audience of Santafé de Bogotá
Bogotá
was organized. At that time, the city became the capital and the home of New Kingdom of Granada
New Kingdom of Granada
government. Fourteen years later in 1564, the Spanish Crown designated the first Royal Audience chairman, Andrés Díaz Venero de Leyva.[citation needed] Nineteenth century[edit]

Bolívar Square

The Royal Street, today known as the Seventh Avenue (Carrera Séptima)

Bogotá's Railroad Central Station

Political uneasiness felt all over Spanish colonies in America was expressed in New Granada in many different ways, accelerating the movement to independence. One of the most transcendent was the Revolution of Comuneros, a riot of the inhabitants started in Villa del Socorro —current Department of Santander—in March 1781.[citation needed] Spanish authorities suppressed the riot, and José Antonio Galán, the leader, was executed. He left an imprint, though. He was followed in 1794 by Antonio Nariño, precursor of independence by translating and publishing in Santa Fe, the Rights of Men and the Citizen, and by 20 July movement leaders in 1810.[citation needed] Between 1819 and 1849, there were no fundamental structural changes from the colonial period. By the mid-19th century, a series of fundamental reforms were enacted, some of the most important being slavery abolition and religious, teaching, print and speech industry and trade freedom, among others.[citation needed] During the decade of the 70s, radicalism accelerated reforms and state and social institutions were substantially modified. However, during the second half of the century, the country faced permanent pronouncements, declarations of rebellions between states, and factions which resulted in civil wars: the last and bloodiest was the Thousand Days' War
Thousand Days' War
from 1899 to 1902.[citation needed] In 1823, a few years after the formation of Gran Colombia, the Public Library, now the National Library, was enlarged and modernized with new volumes and better facilities.[citation needed] The National Museum was founded. Those institutions were of great importance to the new republic's cultural development. The Central University was the first State school, precursor of the current National University, founded in 1867 and domiciled in Bogotá.[citation needed] Regeneration[edit] President Rafael Núñez declared the end of Federalism, and in 1886 the country became a centralist republic ruled by the constitution in force – save some amendments – up to 1981. In the middle of political and administration avatars, Bogotá
Bogotá
continued as the capital and principal political center of the country. From a base of only 20,000 people in 1793, the city grew to approximately 117,000 people in 1912. Population growth was rapid after 1870, largely because of emigration from the eastern highlands.[28] Twentieth century[edit] Early in the 20th century, Colombia
Colombia
had to face devastating consequences from the One Thousand Days War, which lasted from 1899 to 1902, and the loss of Panama.[citation needed] Between 1904 and 1909, the lawfulness of the liberal party was re-established and President Rafael Reyes endeavored to implement a national government. Peace and state reorganization generated the increase of economic activities. Bogotá
Bogotá
started deep architectural and urban transformation with significant industrial and artisan production increases.[citation needed] In 1910, the Industrial Exposition of the Century took place at Park of Independence. Stands built evidenced industrial, artisan work, beaux arts, electricity and machinery progress achieved. The period from 1910 to 1930 is designated conservative hegemony.[citation needed] Between 1924 and 1928, hard union struggles began, with oil fields and banana zone workers' strikes, leaving numerous people dead.[citation needed] Bogotá
Bogotá
had practically no industry. Production was basically artisan work grouped in specific places, similar to commercial sectors.[citation needed] Plaza
Plaza
de Bolívar and surroundings lodged hat stores, at Calle del Comercio –current Carrera Seventh– and Calle Florián –now Carrera Eight– luxurious stores selling imported products opened their doors; at Pasaje Hernández, tailor's shops provided their services, and between 1870 and 1883, four main banks opened their doors: Bogotá, Colombia, Popular and Mortgage Credit banks.[citation needed]

Bogotazo

See also: Bogotazo
Bogotazo
and La Violencia Following the banana zone killings and conservative party division, Enrique Olaya Herrera
Enrique Olaya Herrera
took office in 1930. The liberal party reformed during 16 years of the so-called Liberal Republic, agricultural, social, political, labor, educational, economic and administrative sectors. Unionism strengthened and education coverage expanded.[citation needed] The celebration produced a large number of infrastructure works, new construction and work sources. Following the 1946 liberal party division, a conservative candidate took presidential office again in 1948, after the killing of liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Bogotá's downtown was virtually destroyed as violence reigned. From then, Bogotá's urban, architectural and population sectors were substantially reorganized.[citation needed] Twenty-first century[edit]

Bogotá
Bogotá
is the third largest city within city limits in South America by population, after São Paulo
São Paulo
and Lima

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2016)

Geography[edit]

Sumapaz
Sumapaz
Páramo

Eastern Hills

Bogotá
Bogotá
is located in the southeastern part of the Bogotá
Bogotá
savanna (Sabana de Bogotá) at an average altitude of 2,640 metres (8,660 ft) above sea level.[7] The Bogotá savanna
Bogotá savanna
is popularly called "savannah" (sabana), but constitutes actually a high plateau in the Andes
Andes
mountains, part of an extended region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, which literally means "high plateau of Cundinamarca and Boyacá". In the extreme south of Bogota's District, the world's largest continuous paramo ecosystem can be found; Sumapaz Páramo
Sumapaz Páramo
in the locality Sumapaz.[29] The Bogotá River
Bogotá River
running NE-SW crosses the sabana, forming Tequendama Falls (Salto del Tequendama) to the south. Tributary rivers form valleys with flourishing villages, whose economy is based on agriculture, livestock raising and artisanal production.[citation needed] The sabana is bordered to the east by the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. The Eastern Hills, which limit city growth, run from south to north, and form east of the center the Guadalupe and Monserrate
Monserrate
mountains. The western city limit is the Bogotá
Bogotá
River. The Sumapaz Paramo
Sumapaz Paramo
(moorland) borders the south and to the north Bogotá extends over the plateau up to the towns of Chía and Sopó. Climate[edit]

Hailstorm in Bogotá

Bogotá
Bogotá
has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cfb).[30] The average temperature is 14.5 °C (58 °F),[31] varying from 6 to 19 °C (43 to 66 °F) on sunny days to 10 to 18 °C (50 to 64 °F) on rainy days. Dry and rainy seasons alternate throughout the year. The driest months are December, January, July and August. The warmest month is March, bringing a maximum of 19.7 °C (67.5 °F). The coolest nights occur in January, with an average of 7.6 °C (45.7 °F) in the city; fog is very usual in early morning, 220 days per year,[32] whilst clear sky sunny full days are quite unusual.[32] The official highest temperature recorded within the city limits is 30.0 °C (86 °F),[33] and the lowest temperature recorded is −7.1 °C (19 °F).[33] The rainiest months are April, May, September, October and November, in which typical days are mostly overcast, with low clouds and some winds, bringing maximum temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F) and lows of 7 °C (45 °F).

Climate data for National Meteorological Observatory, Bogotá (1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 26.4 (79.5) 25.2 (77.4) 26.6 (79.9) 24.4 (75.9) 25.0 (77) 28.6 (83.5) 25.0 (77) 23.3 (73.9) 26.0 (78.8) 25.1 (77.2) 25.6 (78.1) 24.4 (75.9) 28.6 (83.5)

Average high °C (°F) 20.2 (68.4) 20.3 (68.5) 19.4 (66.9) 20.1 (68.2) 19.0 (66.2) 19.2 (66.6) 18.6 (65.5) 18.8 (65.8) 19.2 (66.6) 19.5 (67.1) 19.6 (67.3) 19.9 (67.8) 19.6 (67.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 14.5 (58.1) 14.9 (58.8) 14.9 (58.8) 15.0 (59) 14.5 (58.1) 14.6 (58.3) 14.1 (57.4) 14.3 (57.7) 14.3 (57.7) 14.4 (57.9) 14.6 (58.3) 14.4 (57.9)

Average low °C (°F) 7.6 (45.7) 8.4 (47.1) 9.5 (49.1) 9.7 (49.5) 9.7 (49.5) 9.5 (49.1) 9.2 (48.6) 8.9 (48) 8.7 (47.7) 9.0 (48.2) 9.2 (48.6) 8.0 (46.4) 9.0 (48.2)

Record low °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) −5.2 (22.6) −0.4 (31.3) 0.2 (32.4) 0.2 (32.4) 1.1 (34) 0.4 (32.7) 0.4 (32.7) 0.3 (32.5) 1.8 (35.2) 0.5 (32.9) −1.1 (30) −5.2 (22.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 50 (1.97) 68 (2.68) 91 (3.58) 135 (5.31) 120 (4.72) 54 (2.13) 35 (1.38) 45 (1.77) 70 (2.76) 137 (5.39) 127 (5) 81 (3.19) 1,012 (39.84)

Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 9 12 14 18 19 17 15 14 16 21 16 11 181

Average relative humidity (%) 75 76 75 77 77 75 74 74 75 76 77 76 76

Mean monthly sunshine hours 156 128 107 88 83 94 114 117 109 96 103 138 1,328

Source: Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales (IDEAM)[33]

Urban layout and nomenclature[edit]

Street arrangement of Bogotá
Bogotá
based on the Cartesian coordinate system: North is to the right

Bogotá
Bogotá
has 20 localities, or districts, forming an extensive network of neighborhoods. Areas of higher economic status tend to be located in the north, close to the Eastern Hills in the districts of Chapinero, Usaquén
Usaquén
and the east of Suba. The lower middle class inhabit the central, western and northwestern parts of the city.[citation needed]. The working-class neighborhoods are located in the south, some of them squatter areas.[citation needed] The urban layout in the center of the city is based on the focal point of a square or plaza, typical of Spanish-founded settlements, but the layout gradually becomes more modern in outlying neighborhoods. The current types of roads are classified as Calles (streets), which run from west to east horizontally, with street numbers increasing towards the north, and also towards the south (with the suffix "Sur") from Calle 0 down south. Carreras (roads) run from north to south vertically, with numbering increasing from east to west. (with the suffix "Este" for roads east of Carrera 0). At the southeast of the city, the addresses are logically sur-este. Other types of roads more common in newer parts of the city may be termed Eje (Axis), Diagonal or Transversal. The numbering system for street addresses recently changed, and numbers are assigned according to street rank from main avenues to smaller avenues and local streets. Some of Bogotá's main roads, which also go by a proper name in addition to a number, are:

Norte-Quito-Sur or NQS (North Quito
Quito
South Avenue, from 9th Rd at north following railway to 30th Rd, or Quito
Quito
City Avenue, and Southern Highway) Autopista Norte-Avenida Caracas
Caracas
(Northern Highway, or 45th Rd, joined to Caracas
Caracas
Avenue, or 14th Rd) Avenida Circunvalar (or 1st Rd) Avenida Suba (60th transversal from 100th St the Suba Hills; 145th St from Suba Hills westward) Avenida El Dorado
El Dorado
( El Dorado
El Dorado
Avenue, or 26th St) Avenida de las Américas (Avenue of the Americas, from 34th street at east to 6th street at west) Avenida Primero de Mayo (May First Avenue, or 22nd St South) Avenida Ciudad de Cali (Cali City Avenue, or 86th Rd) Avenida Boyacá (Boyacá Avenue, or 72nd Rd) Autopista Sur (Southern Highway)

Localities (districts)[edit]

v t e

Bogotá, Capital District

Administrative subdivision in 20 localities

Usaquén Chapinero Santa Fe San Cristóbal Usme Tunjuelito Bosa Kennedy Fontibón Engativá Suba Barrios Unidos Teusaquillo Los Mártires Antonio Nariño Puente Aranda La Candelaria Rafael Uribe Uribe Ciudad Bolívar Sumapaz

Metropolitan Area

Bogotá Soacha Chía Facatativá Zipaquirá Mosquera Madrid Funza Cajicá Sibaté Tocancipá La Calera Sopó Tabio Cota Tenjo Gachancipá Bojacá

Geography

Eastern Hills

Guadalupe Monserrate

Suba Hills Bogotá
Bogotá
River

Fucha Juan Amarillo Soacha Tunjuelo

Savanna TvdH Reserve Wetlands

Timeline History

Prehistory First inhabitants Muisca

Bacatá

Conquest and foundation Post-colonial history

Categories

Surrounding towns[edit]

Places adjacent to Bogotá

Cota Chía La Calera

Mosquera

Bogotá, Capital District

Choachí

Tequendama Soacha Chipaque

Demographics[edit]

Population of Bogotá
Bogotá
by year

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1775 16,233 —    

1800 21,964 +35.3%

1832 28,341 +29.0%

1870 40,883 +44.3%

1912 121,257 +196.6%

1918 143,994 +18.8%

1928 235,702 +63.7%

1938 325,650 +38.2%

1951 715,250 +119.6%

1964 1,697,311 +137.3%

1973 2,855,065 +68.2%

1985 4,236,490 +48.4%

1993 5,484,244 +29.5%

1999 6,276,428 +14.4%

2005 6,840,116 +9.0%

2010 7,743,785 +13.2%

2016 9,854,722 +27.3%

[34]

The largest and most populous city in Colombia, Bogotá
Bogotá
had 6,778,691 inhabitants within the city's limits (2005 census),[9] with a population density of approximately 4,310 inhabitants per square kilometer. Only 15,810 people are located in rural areas of Capital District. 47.5% of the population are male and 52.5% women.[citation needed]

Bogotá
Bogotá
Future Population (Medium Variant)

In Bogotá, as in the rest of the country, urbanization has accelerated due to industrialization as well as complex political and social reasons such as poverty and violence, which led to migration from rural to urban areas throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.[citation needed] A dramatic example of this is the number of displaced people who have arrived in Bogotá
Bogotá
due to the internal armed conflict.[citation needed] Some estimates show that Bogotá's floating population may be as high as 4 million people, most of them being migrant workers from other departments and displaced people.[35] The majority of the displaced population lives in the Ciudad Bolívar, Kennedy, Usme, and Bosa sections.[citation needed] The ethnic composition of the city’s population includes minorities of Afro-Colombian
Afro-Colombian
people (1.5%), and Indigenous Amerindians (0.2%); 98.27% of the population has no ethnic affiliation,[36] but are mestizos and whites.[citation needed] Crime[edit] Bogotá
Bogotá
has gone to great lengths to change its formerly notorious crime rate and its image with increasing success after being considered in the 1990s to be one of the most violent cities in the world.[37] In 1993 there were 4,352 murders at a rate of 81 per 100,000 people;[38] in 2007 Bogotá
Bogotá
suffered 1,401 murders at a rate of 20 per 100,000 inhabitants, and had a further reduction to 14 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017 (the lowest since 1979).[39][40][41] This success was mainly the result of a participatory and integrated security policy; "Comunidad Segura", that was first adopted in 1995 and continues to be enforced.[42] 1.2 percent of street addresses account for 99 percent of homicides.[43] Government[edit] Bogotá
Bogotá
is the capital of the Republic of Colombia, and houses the Congress, Supreme Court of Justice and the center of the executive administration as well as the residence of the President (Casa de Nariño).[44] These buildings, along with the Office of the Mayor, the Lievano Palace (Palacio Liévano), are located within a few meters from each other on the Bolívar Square
Bolívar Square
( Plaza
Plaza
de Bolívar). The square is located in the city's historical center, La Candelaria, which features architecture in Spanish Colonial and Spanish Baroque styles. The Mayor of Bogotá
Bogotá
and the City Council – both elected by popular vote – are responsible for city administration. In 2015 Enrique Peñalosa was elected Mayor; his term runs from 2016 to 2019. The city is divided into 20 localities: Usaquén, Chapinero, Santa Fe, San Cristóbal, Usme, Tunjuelito, Bosa, Kennedy, Fontibón, Engativá, Suba, Barrios Unidos, Teusaquillo, Los Mártires, Antonio Nariño, Puente Aranda, La Candelaria, Rafael Uribe Uribe, Ciudad Bolívar and Sumapaz. Each of the 20 localities is governed by an administrative board elected by popular vote, made up of no fewer than seven members. The Mayor designates local mayors from candidates nominated by the respective administrative board. Economy[edit]

Panorama of the Centro Internacional (International Centre) of Bogotá

Bogotá
Bogotá
is the main economic and industrial center of Colombia. The Colombian government fosters the import of capital goods, Bogotá being one of the main destinations of these imports. In 2016 the World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
ranked Bogotá
Bogotá
as an Alpha−World City in the World Cities Study Group's inventory, a high-ranking. Alpha and Alpha- cities are important world cities that link major economic regions into the world economy.[45] Tourism[edit] Travel & Tourism’s share of the city’s overall GDP stands at 2.5%.[46] Bogotá
Bogotá
is responsible for 56% of the tourism that arrives to Colombia
Colombia
and is home 1,423 multinational companies. Bogotá
Bogotá
also ranked highly as a global city where business is done and meetings are held. Bogotá
Bogotá
is a growing international meetings destination.[47][48] During the last year, Bogotá
Bogotá
has won 50 major international events, with 12 more world-class events in progress.[47] The 16th World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates took place from February 2 to 5, 2017 in Bogotá, Colombia.[49] One Young World
One Young World
is the preeminent global forum for young leaders aged 18–30. Bogotá, Colombia
Colombia
is the host city for Summit 2017.[50] The hotels in the historical center of La Candelaria
La Candelaria
and its surrounding areas cater to lovers of culture and the arts. This area also has the bulk of hostels in the city as well. In La Candelaria, there are many museums, including the Botero Museum
Botero Museum
and the Gold Museum. Close to La Candelaria
La Candelaria
is the Cerro Monserrate, which you can reach by cable car or funicular. The hotels located near Ciudad Salitre are intended for visitors who make short stops in Bogotá
Bogotá
and near El Dorado
El Dorado
International Airport. Important landmarks and tourist stops in Bogotá
Bogotá
include the botanical garden José Celestino Mutis, La Quinta de Bolivar, the national observatory, the planetarium, Maloka, the Colpatria observation point, the observation point of La Calera, the monument of the American flags, and La Candelaria
La Candelaria
(the historical district of the city). There is also Usaquen, a colonial landmark where brunch and flea market on Sundays is a traditional activity. The city has numerous green parks and amusement parks like Salitre Magico or Mundo Aventura. Green areas surrounding Bogota are perfect locations for eco-tourism and hiking activities, in the eastern mountains of the city, just a few minutes walking from main roads, there are Quebrada La vieja and Chapinero
Chapinero
Waterfalls, two of many green spots for sightseeing and tourism with clean air.[51][52] There are also several areas of the city where fine restaurants can be found. The G Zone, the T Zone, and La Macarena are well known for their gastronomic offerings.[53] Since the 2000s, major hotel chains have established in the city. Bogota has a great cultural diversity, coming from different regions of the country, which allows the tourist to know the multiculturalism of the country without the need to travel to other cities, this includes gastronomy and different festivals.

Monserrate
Monserrate
Sanctuary, a famous landmark

Atlantis Plaza
Plaza
Mall, featuring the Hard Rock Cafe

Maloka

Shopping malls[edit]

Centro Andino, an upscale mall in northern Bogotá

Bogotá's economy has been significantly boosted due to new shopping malls built within the last few years. As of December 2011, over 160 new malls are planned in addition to the existing 100 malls.[54] Notable malls include:

Centro Andino Centro Mayor Santafé Gran Estación Portal
Portal
de la 80 Titán Plaza Calima Atlantis Plaza Unicentro Hayuelos

Media[edit] Bogota is home to several television stations like Canal Capital and Citytv which are local stations, Canal 13 is a regional station, and is home to the national channels Caracol TV, RCN TV, Canal Uno, Canal Institucional, and Señal Colombia. It has multiple satellite television services like Telefónica, Claro and DirecTV
DirecTV
and several satellite dishes which offer hundreds of international channels, plus several exclusive channels for Bogotá. In Bogota, all the major radio networks in the country are available, in both AM and FM; 70% of the FM stations offer RDS service. There are several newspapers, including El Tiempo, El Espectador
El Espectador
and El Nuevo Siglo, plus economical dailies La República and Portafolio, tabloids El Espacio, Q'Hubo, and Extra. Bogotá
Bogotá
also offers three free newspapers, two Spanish, ADN and Publimetro, and one English, The Bogota Post. Infrastructure[edit]

An old house in the Teusaquillo
Teusaquillo
locality, near downtown Bogotá (Estrato 4)

Energy and sewer bills are stratified based on the location of owner's residence,[55] The system is the classification of the residential properties that should receive public services.[56] Although the system does not consider the income per person and the rules say that the residential real estate should stratify and not households.[57] All mayors should do the stratification of residential properties of their municipality or district.[56] Bogotá's social strata have been divided as follows and have been extensively used by the government as a reference to develop social welfare programs, statistical information and to some degree for the assignment of lands.

Estrato 1 (lowest) Estrato 2 (low) Estrato 3 (mid-low) Estrato 4 (mid-high) Estrato 5 (high) Estrato 6 (highest)

Transport[edit]

Map of the TransMilenio
TransMilenio
system.

Bogotá's growth has placed a strain on its roads and highways, but since 1998 significant efforts to upgrade the infrastructure have been undertaken.[58] Private car ownership forms a major part of the congestion, in addition to taxis, buses and commercial vehicles. Buses remain the main means of mass transit. There are two bus systems: the traditional system and the TransMilenio. The traditional system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues: Bus (large buses), Buseta (medium size buses) and Colectivo (vans or minivans). The bigger buses were divided into two categories: Ejecutivo, which was originally to be a deluxe service and was not to carry standing passengers, and corriente or normal service. Since May 2008, all buses run as corriente services. Bogotá
Bogotá
is a hub for domestic and international bus routes. The Bogotá
Bogotá
terminal serves routes to most cities and towns in Colombia[59] and is the largest in the country. There is international service to Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela. The TransMilenio
TransMilenio
system was created during Enrique Peñalosa's mayoral term,[60] and is a form of bus rapid transit that has been deployed as a measure to compensate for the lack of a subway or rail system. TransMilenio
TransMilenio
combines articulated buses that operate on dedicated bus roads (busways) and smaller buses (feeders) that operate in residential areas, bringing passengers to the main grid. TransMilenio's main routes are: Caracas
Caracas
Avenue, Northern Highway (Autopista Norte), 80th Street, Americas Avenue, Jiménez Avenue, and 30th Avenue (also referred to as Norte Quito
Quito
Sur or N.Q.S. for short). Routes for Suba Avenue and Southern Highway (Autopista Sur), the southern leg of the 30th Avenue, were opened in April 2006. The third phase of the system will cover 7th Avenue, 10th Avenue, and 26th Street (or Avenida El Dorado). The system is planned to cover the entire city by 2030. Although the Transmilenio carries commuters to numerous corners of the city, it is more expensive (0.80 USD or 2300 COP) than any public transport, except taxis. Despite the city's chronic congestion, many of the ideas enacted during the Peñalosa years are regarded worldwide to be cost-effective, efficient and unique solutions[by whom?]. In addition to TransMilenio, the Peñalosa administration and voter-approved referenda helped to establish travel restrictions on cars with certain license plate numbers during peak hours called Pico y placa; 121 kilometres (75 miles) of Ciclovía
Ciclovía
on Sundays and major holidays; a massive system (376 km (234 mi) as of 2013[update]) of bicycle paths and segregated lanes called ciclorrutas; and the removal of thousands of parking spots in an attempt to make roads more pedestrian-friendly and discourage car use. Ciclorrutas is one of the most extensive dedicated bike path networks of any city in the world, with a total extension of 376 kilometres (234 miles). It extends from the north of the city, 170th Street, to the south, 27th Street, and from Monserrate
Monserrate
on the east to the Bogotá River
Bogotá River
on the west. The ciclorruta was started by the 1995–1998 Antanas Mockus administration with a few kilometers, and considerably extended during the administration of Mayor Peñalosa with the development of a Bicycle Master Plan and the addition of paths hundreds of kilometers in extent.[61] Since the construction of the ciclorruta bicycle use in the city has increased, and a car free week was introduced in 2014.[62]

Bi-articulated TransMilenio
TransMilenio
bus

Urban (SITP) bus, part of the integrated public transport system

Bikepath in central Bogota

Traffic on the Northern Highway (Autopista Norte)

Airports[edit]

El Dorado
El Dorado
International Airport

Bogotá's main airport is El Dorado
El Dorado
International Airport, with an approximate area of 6.9 km² located west of the city's downtown in the Fontibón
Fontibón
Locality. It is the third most important airport in Latin America
Latin America
after Mexico City International Airport
Mexico City International Airport
and São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and it is the most important airport in Colombia. Construction of the airport was ordered by Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
(19th President of Colombia) in 1955 to replace the Aeropuerto de Techo. Due to its central location in Colombia
Colombia
and in Latin America, it is a hub for Colombia's Flagship Carrier Avianca, Copa Airlines Colombia
Colombia
and LATAM Colombia. It is also serviced by a number of international airlines including American, Delta, United, Jet Blue and Lufthansa. Currently the national airport has begun to take more responsibility due to the congestion at the international airport. In response to the high demand of approximately 27 Million passengers per year,[63] a new airport, El Dorado
El Dorado
II, is planned to be built by 2021, to help alleviate traffic at the main airport.[64] A secondary airport, CATAM, serves as a base for Military and Police Aviation. This airport, which uses the runways of El Dorado
El Dorado
will eventually move to Madrid, a nearby town in the region of Cundinamarca, leaving further space to expand El Dorado.[65] Guaymaral Airport
Guaymaral Airport
is another small airport located in the northern boundaries of Bogota. It is used mainly for private aviation activities. Urban and suburban railways[edit] Main articles: Bogotá Metro
Bogotá Metro
and Tramways of Bogotá See also: Bogotá's Savannah
Savannah
Railway and Train for the vicinities of the city of Bogotá Bogotá
Bogotá
has little railway transit infrastructure, following the collapse of the tram network, although a number of plans hope to change that. The Bogotá Metro
Bogotá Metro
has been pushed forward by two successive governments, and proponents hope that construction will soon begin. Plans to construct railways in and out of the city, replacing defunct routes, have been delayed due to the pressing need for transport within the city.[66] Bicycle infrastructure[edit] Main article: Bogotá's Bike Paths Network Bogotá
Bogotá
is the Colombian city with the most extensive and comprehensive network of bike paths. Bogotá’s bike paths network or Ciclorutas de Bogotá
Bogotá
in Spanish, designed and built during the administration of Mayors Antanas Mockus
Antanas Mockus
and Enrique Peñalosa, is also one of the most extensive in the world and the most extensive in Latin America.[67] The network is integrated with the TransMilenio
TransMilenio
bus system which has bicycle parking facilities. Bogota implemented a healthy habit called "Ciclovia" where principal highways are closed from 7:00 a.m. till 2:00 pm on Sundays and public holidays; therefore, the People ride their bikes to enjoy the city as well as exercise. In the same way just on December the same activity is carried out in the night, there are some special activities such as fireworks, street theater performances, and street food just to mention a few. Since the 4th of April 2016 the carrera 11 has been reduced from four to three car lanes and a new bike lane (cicloruta) has been inaugurated.[68] Tramway[edit] On 25 December 1884, the first tramway pulled by mules was inaugurated and covered the route from Plaza
Plaza
de Bolívar to Chapinero,[69] and in 1892, the line connecting Plaza
Plaza
de Bolívar and La Sabana Station started operating. The tramway ran over wooden rails and was easily derailed, so steel rails imported from England were eventually installed. In 1894, a tramway car ran the Bogotá– Chapinero
Chapinero
line every 20 minutes.[citation needed] The tram system eventually grew to cover most of the city and its surrounding suburbs. But during the Bogotazo
Bogotazo
riots of 1948, the system suffered heavy damage and was forced to close. The economic effects of the subsequent civil war that followed prevented the damage from being repaired. Parts of the system continued to operate in a reduced state until 1951, when they were replaced by buses. Most of the streetcar tracks were eventually paved over, but exposed tracks can still be seen on many of the older roads of the city, especially downtown and in the La Candelaria
La Candelaria
area, although it has been about 70 years[when?] since any vehicles have run on them. Bogota Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bogota, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 97 min. 32% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 20 min, while 40% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8 km, while 16% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[70] Colleges and universities[edit] Main article: List of universities in Bogotá Known as the Athens
Athens
of South America,[71] Bogotá
Bogotá
has an extensive educational system of both primary and secondary schools and colleges. Due to the constant migration of people into the nation's capital, the availability of quotas for access to education offered by the State free of charge is often insufficient. The city also has a diverse system of colleges and private schools. There are a number of universities, both public and private. In 2002, there were a total of 114 higher education institutions; in Bogotá there are several universities, most partially or fully accredited by the NAC (National Accreditation Council): National University of Colombia, University of the Andes, Colombia, District University of Bogotá, La Salle University, Colombia, University of La Sabana, Pontifical Xavierian University, Our Lady of the Rosary University, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Military University Nueva Granada, University of America, Sergio Arboleda University, Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Pilot University of Colombia, Catholic University of Colombia, Saint Thomas Aquinas University
Saint Thomas Aquinas University
and Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. The city has a University City at the National University of Colombia campus located in the traditional sector Teusaquillo. It is the largest campus in Colombia
Colombia
and one of the largest in Latin America.

Building of Science and Technology "Luis Carlos Sarmiento" at the National University of Colombia

Centro Ático at Pontifical Xavierian University

Mario Laserna building in the University of the Andes

Culture[edit]

Ciclovia
Ciclovia
in Bogotá

Bogotá
Bogotá
has many cultural venues including 58 museums, 62 art galleries, 33 library networks, 45 stage theaters, 75 sports and attraction parks, and over 150 national monuments.[72] Many of these are renowned globally such as: The Luis Angel Arango Library, the most important in the region[according to whom?] which receives well over 6 million visitors a year;[73] The Colombian National Museum, one of the oldest in the Americas, dating back to 1823;[74] The Ibero-American Theater Festival, largest of its kind in the world, receives 2 million attendees enjoying over 450 performances across theaters and off the street;[75] The Bogotá Philharmonic is the most important[according to whom?] symphony orchestra in Colombia, with over 100 musicians and 140 performances a year;[76] The Cristóbal Colón Theater, the country's oldest Opera House, opened in 1892. It is home to the National Symphony Association's major act, the National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia.[77] Rock al Parque
Rock al Parque
or Rock at the Park is an open air rock music festival. Recurring annually, it gathers over 320,000 music fans who can enjoy over 60 band performances for free during three days a year.[78] The series have been so successful during its 15 years of operation that the city has replicated the initiative for other music genres, resulting in other recent festivals like Salsa at the Park, Hip Hop at the Park, Ballet at the Park, Opera at the Park, and Jazz at the Park. Kids' Choice Awards Colombia, are the most important[according to whom?] awards given in the city by Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon
and the first ceremony was given in 2014 by the singer Maluma and in Corferias
Corferias
the ceremony has been the home of shows given by artists like Austin Mahone, Carlos Pena, Don Tetto and Riva among others. Bogotá
Bogotá
has worked heavily in recent years to position itself as leader in cultural offerings in South America, and it is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a hub in the region for the development of the arts.[79][80][81][82] In 2007, Bogotá
Bogotá
was awarded the title of Cultural Capital of Ibero-America
Ibero-America
by the UCCI (Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities), and it became the only city to have received the recognition twice, after being awarded for the first time in 1991.[83] Cultural history[edit] Bogotá
Bogotá
gave the Spanish-speaking world José Asunción
Asunción
Silva (1865–1896), Modernism
Modernism
pioneer. His poetic work in the novel De sobremesa has a place in outstanding American literature. Rafael Pombo (1833–1912) was an American romanticism
American romanticism
poet who left a collection of fables essential part of children imagination and Colombian tradition. Architecture[edit]

BD Bacatá, under construction, will be the city's tallest building.

The urban morphology and typology of colonial buildings in Bogotá have been maintained since the late nineteenth century, long after the independence of Colombia
Colombia
(1810).[citation needed] This persistence of the colonial setting is still visible, particularly in La Candelaria, the historical center of Bogotá. Also kept up are the colonial houses of two stories, with courtyards, gabled roofs, ceramic tiles and balconies. In some cases, these balconies were filled with glass during the Republican period, a distinguishing feature of the architecture of the sector (for example, the House of Rafael Pombo).[citation needed] "Republican Architecture" was the style that prevailed between 1830 and 1930.[citation needed] Although there were attempts to consolidate a modern architectural language, the only examples seen are University City and White City at the National University of Colombia (constructed 1936 to 1939).[citation needed] This work was developed by German architect Leopold Rother, although architects of rationalist trends participated in the design of campus buildings. We also see in Bogotan architecture trends such as art deco, expressionism and organic architecture. This last trend was typified by Bogotan architects in the second half of the twentieth century such as Rogelio Salmona. Although renowned for its beautiful preservation of colonial architecture, there are also significant contemporary architecture examples found in the downtown and at the north of the city.[citation needed] In 2015 BD Bacatá
Bacatá
was inaugurated, surpassing the Colpatria Tower to become the tallest building of the city and of Colombia.[84] The building its expected to be the beginning of the city's downtown renovation.

Santa Barbara business district

Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
in Teusaquillo

Torres del Parque

Santa Maria bullring

Libraries and archives[edit] In 2007 Bogotá
Bogotá
was named World Book Capital by UNESCO.[85] Bogotá
Bogotá
is the first Latin American city to receive this recognition, and the second one in the Americas after Montreal. It stood out in programs, the library network and the presence of organizations that, in a coordinated manner, are working to promote books and reading in the city. Several specific initiatives for the World Book Capital program have been undertaken with the commitment of groups, both public and private, engaged in the book sector. The city is home to the Biblored, an institution which administers 16 small and four large public libraries (Biblioteca Virgilio Barco, Biblioteca El Tintal, Biblioteca El Tunal and Biblioteca Julio Mario Santodomingo). It also has six branches of the Library Network of the Family Compensation Fund Colsubsidio and libraries and documentation centers attached to institutions like the Museo Nacional de Colombia (specializing in old books, catalogs and art), Museum of Modern Art, the Alliance Française, and the Centro Colombo Americano. Another set of libraries are the new collaborative initiatives between the state, city and international agencies. Examples are the Cultural Center Gabriel García Marquez, custom designed by the Fondo de Cultura Economica in Mexico, and the Spanish Cultural Center, which will begin construction with public funds and of the Spanish Government in downtown Bogotá.[citation needed] The National Library of Colombia
Colombia
(1777), under the Ministry of Culture and the Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango (1958), under the Bank of the Republic are the two largest public libraries in the city. The first is the repository of more than two million volumes, with an important collection of ancient books. The latter has almost two million volumes. 45 thousand square metres (480 thousand square feet) in size, it hosts 10 thousand visitors a day. Bank of the Republic depends also on the Library Alfonso Palacio Rudas, north of the city, with about 50 thousand volumes. Other large public libraries are the Library of Congress in Colombia
Colombia
(with 100 thousand volumes), of the Instituto Caro y Cuervo (with nearly 200 thousand volumes, the largest Latin American library in Philology and Linguistics), the Library of the Academy of History The Library of the Academy of Language, the Library of the Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History ICANH, and many university libraries. Bogotá
Bogotá
is home to historical records housed in the General National Archive, a collection of about 60 million documents, one of the largest repositories of primary historical sources in Latin America. Bogotá
Bogotá
is also home to the Musical Archive of the Cathedral of Bogotá
Bogotá
(with thousands of books and choral song-colonial period), the Archdiocesan Archive, the Archive of the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá, the Archive History National University of Colombia
Colombia
and the Archive of the Mint in Bogotá, under the Bank of the Republic.

National Library of Colombia

Julio Mario Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Public Library

Virgilio Barco Public Library

El Tintal Public Library

Museums and galleries[edit]

National Museum of Colombia

The city offers 58 museums and over 70 art galleries.[citation needed] The Colombian National Museum
Colombian National Museum
has acquisitions divided into four collections: art, history, archeology and ethnography. The Gold Museum, with 35,000 pieces of tumbaga gold, along with 30,000 objects in ceramic, stone and textiles, represents the largest collection of pre-Columbian gold in the world.[citation needed] The Botero Museum
Botero Museum
has 123 works of Fernando Botero and 87 works by international artists. The Museum of Modern Art in Bogotá
Bogotá
has a collection of graphic arts, industrial design and photography. The Museum of Colonial Art is home to an important collection of colonial art from Colombia. Fundación Gilberto Alzate Avendaño hosts activities related to the performing arts and shows temporary exhibits of art in its halls and galleries.[citation needed] Among the scientific museums are the Archeological Museum – Casa del Marqués de San Jorge, which has about 30 thousand pieces of pre-Columbian art, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (UN), one of the four largest museums of natural sciences in Latin America, and the Geological Museum, which has a collection specializing in Geology and Paleontology.[citation needed] Bogotá
Bogotá
has historical museums like the Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Museum, the Museum of Independence (Museo de la Independencia), the Quinta de Bolívar and the Casa Museo Francisco José de Caldas, as well as the headquarters of Maloka and the Children's Museum of Bogotá. New museums include the Art Deco and the Museum of Bogotá.[citation needed] Theater and arts[edit]

Ibero-American Theater Festival

Teatro de Cristóbal Colón
Teatro de Cristóbal Colón
(Christopher Columbus Theater)

Besides the Ibero-American Theater Festival, the largest theater festival in the world, the city has forty-five theaters; the principal ones are the Colon Theater, the newly built Teatro Mayor Julio Mario Santo Domingo, the National Theater with its two venues, the traditional TPB Hall, the Theater of La Candelaria, the Camarin del Carmen (over 400 years old, formerly a convent), the Colsubsidio, and a symbol of the city, the renovated Teatro Jorge Eliecer Gaitan (the highest capacity currently in South America), León de Greiff Auditorium (home of the Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra), and the Open Air Theater "La Media Torta", where musical events are also held. Bogotá
Bogotá
has its own film festival, the Bogotá
Bogotá
Film Festival, and many theaters, showing both contemporary films and art cinema. The main cultural center of the city is the La Candelaria, historic center of the city, with a concentration of universities and museums. In 2007 Bogotá
Bogotá
was designated the Ibero-American cultural Capital of Iberoamerica. Religion[edit] Before the Spanish conquest, the beliefs of the inhabitants of Bogotá formed part of the Muisca religion. From the colonial period onwards, the city has been predominantly Roman Catholic. Proof of this religious tradition is the number of churches built in the historic city center. The city has been seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bogotá
Bogotá
since 22 March 1564. The seat of the Archbishop is the Primary Cathedral of Bogota; the archdiocese itself is located in new buildings in the north of the city. However a large group of the population nowadays declares itself non-practicing.[citation needed] The city has a mosque located in the area of Chapinero
Chapinero
called the Estambul mosque,[86] a mosque currently being built on the Calle 80 with Cra 30 called Abou Bakr Alsiddiq mosque[87] and which is the first in the city to have the traditional Islamic architecture, and an Islamic Center called Al-Qurtubi.[88] The main Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jewish synagogue (there are a total of 4 synagogues in Bogotá) is located on 94th street (also called State of Israel avenue). An Eastern Orthodox church and the San Pablo Anglican Cathedral, the mother church of the Episcopal Church in Colombia, are both located in Chapinero. The Bogotá
Bogotá
Colombia
Colombia
Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in the Niza neighborhood. There are four Buddhist centers located in the north of the city. There is also a wide variety of Protestant churches in different parts of the city, including the Bogotá
Bogotá
Baptist Chapel, the non-denominational Union Church, and the St. Matthaus Evangelical Lutheran Church which holds services in German as well as Spanish for the German-Colombian community.

Church of Our Lady of Lourdes

Bogotá
Bogotá
Colombia
Colombia
Mormon Temple

Abou Bakr Alsiddiq Mosque

Cuisine[edit] There is a broad array of restaurants in Bogotá
Bogotá
that serve typical and international food. Parque de la 93, Usaquén, Zona T, The G Zone, La Macarena, La Candelaria
La Candelaria
and the International Center are some of the main sectors where a number of international restaurants are found, ranging from Argentinian, Peruvian, Venezuelan, Brazilian, Mexican, American establishments to Arabic, Asian, French, Italian, Russian and British bistros, rotisseries, steakhouses and pubs, just to name a few. Typical dishes of Bogotá
Bogotá
include the Ajiaco,[89] a soup prepared with chicken, a variety of potatoes, corn on the cob, and guascas (an herb), usually served with sour cream and capers, and accompanied by avocado and rice. Tamale
Tamale
is a very traditional Bogotá
Bogotá
dish. Colombian tamal is a paste made with rice, beef, pork and/or chicken (depending on the region), chickpea, carrot, and spices, wrapped in plantain leaves and steam-cooked. Figs with arequipe, strawberries with cream, postre de natas and cuajada con melao are some of the main desserts offered in the city. Canelazo
Canelazo
is a hot drink from the Altiplano prepared with aguapanela, cinnamon and aguardiente. Another hot beverage is the Carajillo, made with coffee (tinto as it is known in Colombia) and aguardiente.

Ajiaco
Ajiaco
is one of the city's most representative dishes

"Chocolate santafereño" (Santafe hot chocolate), almojábana, cheese and pandebono

Parks and recreation[edit] There are numerous parks in Bogotá, many with facilities for concerts, plays, movies, storytellers and other activities.

Simón Bolívar Metropolitan Park
Simón Bolívar Metropolitan Park
is a large park regularly used to stage free concerts (such as the annual Rock al Parque, a festival in which popular and/or recently formed international, latinamerican, and Colombian rock bands play free of charge). The public Parque Nacional (National Park) has green spaces, ponds, games for children, foot and bicycle paths, and venues for entertainment such as public screenings of movies and concerts and events organized by the Council of Bogotá The Bogotá Botanical Garden
Bogotá Botanical Garden
(Jardín Botánico de Bogotá) Parque de la 93 has day-time leisure activities and nightlife. Several of the top restaurants and bars in the city are in this park, the park is known around the world like the Colombian Pike Place
Pike Place
by having the first Starbucks
Starbucks
in all the country and Carls Jr.
Carls Jr.
as well. Mundo Aventura is an amusement park, with an entry charge and charges for the different attractions. It has rides for adults and children, a petting zoo, and the "cerdodromo", where pigs race. Salitre Mágico is another amusement park with rides and attractions. The park is near the Simón Bolívar park, where concerts are held throughout the year. Parque del Chicó has trees, gardens, artificial creeks and ponds, and a colonial style house converted into a museum; Museo del Chicó To the north of Bogotá, in the municipality of Tocancipá; Parque Jaime Duque has rides, a giant map of Colombia, popular exhibits, a zoo, and a big hand holding the world symbolizing God. There is a reproduction of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
in the park with a collection of reproductions of famous paintings. The park is also used for large concerts, mainly electronic music ones. Maloka is an interactive museum of sciences Tourist train is a sightseeing train, popular with Bogotá
Bogotá
residents, which runs to outlying towns Zipaquirá, Cajicá
Cajicá
and Nemocón
Nemocón
along the lines of the former Bogotá
Bogotá
Savannah
Savannah
Railway on weekends. The route to Zipaquirá
Zipaquirá
(famous for its salt cathedral) is 53 kilometres (33 miles) long. Another line goes towards the north for 47 km (29 mi) and ends at Briceño. The Usaquén
Usaquén
Park is another of the most important parks in the city several of the best restaurants in this city are located there, is recognized to have street performers such as storytellers, magicians, jugglers, etc. and also for being one of the most decorated parks in the city during Christmas time.

Simon Bolivar Park

Journalists' park

93 Park

Santander park

El Virrey park

Sports[edit]

Estadio El Campín

The District Institute for Recreation and Sport promotes recreation, sports and use of the parks in Bogotá. Football has been declared a symbol of Bogotá, and is widely played in the city. There are three professional clubs in the city, Santa Fe, Millonarios, and La Equidad. The main stadium in the city is The Campín Stadium (Estadio Nemesio Camacho El Campín) home of the local teams Santa Fe and Millonarios, In 2001 The Campín Stadium has been the place for the 2001 Copa América
2001 Copa América
final between the Colombia national football and the Mexico
Mexico
national football, final score 1–0 in favor of the home team and finally getting their first continental cup. The other soccer venue is the multi-use Techo Metropolitan Stadium which is the home of La Equidad. Other major sporting venues are the covered Coliseum El Campín, the Simón Bolívar Aquatic Complex, the Sports Palace, the El Salitre Sports Venue which includes the Luis Carlos Galán Velodrome (which hosted the 1995 UCI Track Cycling World Championships), the El Salitre Diamond Ballpark and the BMX
BMX
track "Mario Andrés Soto". Bogotá
Bogotá
hosted the first Bolivarian Games held in 1938. The city hosted the National Games in 2004, winning the championship. It was a sub-venue Bolivarian Pan American Games. In addition, the city on the route of the Tour of Colombia. After being a major venue city for the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup
2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup
that was held in Colombia, the Colombian Football Federation announced that Bogotá
Bogotá
will be one of the venue cities to host the 2016 FIFA Futsal World Cup as well.[90] Sports teams[edit]

Team League (Cup) / Sport Stadium / Coliseum Founded Championships

Independiente Santa Fe Liga Águila / Soccer El Campin Stadium 1941 16 (9 ligas, 1 Copa Sudamericana, 1 Suruga Bank Championship, 2 Copa Colombia, 3 Superliga)

Millonarios Liga Aguila / Soccer El Campín Stadium 1946 19 (15 ligas, 1 copas merconorte, 3 Copa Colombia)

La Equidad Liga Águila / Soccer Techo Metropolitan Stadium 1982 1 (1 Copa Colombia)

Fortaleza Liga Águila / Soccer Techo Metropolitan Stadium 2010 0

Guerreros de Bogotá Liga DirecTV
DirecTV
/ Basketball El Salitre Coliseum 2011 1 (1 copas)

Bogotá
Bogotá
Piratas S.A Liga DirecTV
DirecTV
/ Basketball El Salitre Coliseum 1995 4 (4 copas)

Symbols[edit] The flag originated with the insurgency movement against the colonial authorities which began on 20 July 1810, during which the rebels wore armbands with yellow and red bands, as these colours were those of the Spanish flag used as the flag for the New Kingdom of Granada.[citation needed] On 9 October 1952, exactly 142 years after these events, decree 555 of 1952 officially adopted the patriotic armband as the flag of Bogotá.[91] The flag of Cundinamarca follows the same pattern, plus a light blue tile which represents the Virgin Mary's cape. The flag itself is a yellow band above a red one. The yellow denotes the gold from the earth, as well as the virtues of justice, clemency, benevolence, the so-called "mundane qualities" (defined as nobility, excellence, richness, generosity, splendour, health, steadfastness, joy and prosperity), long life, eternity, power and constancy. The red denotes the virtue of charity, as well as the qualities of bravery, nobility, values, audacity, victory, honour and furor, Colombians call it the blood of their people.[citation needed] The coat of arms of the city was granted by emperor Charles V (Charles I of Spain) to the New Kingdom of Granada, by royal decree given in Valladolid, Spain
Spain
on 3 December 1548. It contains a black eagle in the center, which symbolises steadfastness. The eagle is also a symbol of the Habsburgs, which was the ruling family of the Spanish empire at the time. The eagle is crowned with gold and holds a red pomegranate inside a golden background. The border contains olive branches with nine golden pomegranates on a blue background. The two red pomegranates symbolize audacity, and the nine golden ones represent the nine states which constituted the New Kingdom of Granada
New Kingdom of Granada
at the time. In 1932 the coat of arms was officially recognized and adopted as the symbol of Bogotá.[citation needed] Bogotá's anthem lyrics were written by Pedro Medina Avendaño; the melody was composed by Roberto Pineda Duque. The song was officially declared the anthem by decree 1000 31 July 1974, by then Mayor of Bogotá, Aníbal Fernandez de Soto. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South America

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Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Bogotá
Bogotá
is twinned with:

New York City, USA[92] London, United Kingdom[93] Chicago, USA (2009)[94] Beirut, Lebanon Washington, D.C., USA[citation needed] Seoul, South Korea[95] Dubai, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(2008)[citation needed] Miami, USA (1971)[96] Tehran, Iran[citation needed] Lahore, Pakistan[97]

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[edit] Bogotá
Bogotá
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[98] from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala Havana, Cuba La Paz, Bolivia Lima, Peru Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Managua, Nicaragua Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Montevideo, Uruguay Panama
Panama
City, Panama Quito, Ecuador Brasilia, Brazil San Jose, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico San Salvador, El Salvador Santiago, Chile Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Partnerships and cooperations[edit] Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes exist:

Turin, Italy[99]

Panoramas[edit]

Panoramic view of Bogotá

View of Bolívar Square, Bogotá

Notable people from Bogotá[edit]

Arturo Acevedo Vallarino
Arturo Acevedo Vallarino
(1873–1950), director of silent films Haider Ackermann
Haider Ackermann
(1971–), fashion designer Alberto Castilla (1883–1938), engineer, journalist, poet, writer, mathematician and musician Guillermo Cano Isaza
Guillermo Cano Isaza
(1925–1986), journalist and editor of the El Espectador newspaper Esteban Chaves
Esteban Chaves
(1990–), professional bycicle road racer Miguel Antonio Caro
Miguel Antonio Caro
(1843–1909), politician and 1894–1898 President of Colombia Fernando Cepeda Ulloa (1938–), politician José Vicente Concha
José Vicente Concha
(1867–1929), former president of Colombia Esteban Cortázar (1984–), fashion designer Rufino José Cuervo
Rufino José Cuervo
(1844–1911), writer, linguist and philologist José Domingo Duquesne
José Domingo Duquesne
(1748–1822), theologist and Muisca scholar Hernando Durán Dussán (1920–1998), politician Andrea Echeverri
Andrea Echeverri
(1965–), musician, lead singer of Aterciopelados Pedro Franco
Pedro Franco
(1991–), footballer Santiago
Santiago
Gamboa (1965–), writer Rodrigo García (1959–), film director, son of Gabriel García Márquez Álvaro Gómez Hurtado
Álvaro Gómez Hurtado
(1919–1995), politician Laureano Gómez (1889–1965), former president of Colombia Miguel Gómez (1974–), photographer Ana María Groot
Ana María Groot
(1952–), anthropologist and archaeologist Juan B. Gutiérrez, (1973–), writer and mathematician Rudolf Hommes Rodríguez (1943–), politician John Leguizamo
John Leguizamo
(1964–), actor and comedian Alfonso López Caballero (1944–), politician Alberto Lleras Camargo
Alberto Lleras Camargo
(1906–1990), former president of Colombia Carlos Lleras Restrepo
Carlos Lleras Restrepo
(1908–1994), former president of Colombia Rodolfo Llinás
Rodolfo Llinás
(1934–), neuroscientist Chucho Merchán (1952–), bassist Antanas Mockus
Antanas Mockus
(1952–), politician, philosopher, mathematician Juan Pablo Montoya
Juan Pablo Montoya
(1975–), race car driver Rafael Novoa (1971–), actor Ana María Orozco
Ana María Orozco
(1973–), actress Rafael Pardo Rueda
Rafael Pardo Rueda
(1953–), politician Joaquín París Ricaurte (1795–1898), independence hero Andrés Pastrana Arango
Andrés Pastrana Arango
(1954–), former president of Colombia Enrique Peñalosa
Enrique Peñalosa
(1955–), mayor of Bogotá
Bogotá
(2016–2019), urbanist Juan Pablo Plata Figueroa, (1982–), writer and journalist Rafael Pombo (1833–1912), poet, writer and diplomat Rafael Puyana (1931–2013), harpsichordist José Robles (1964–), former professional cyclist Clara Rojas
Clara Rojas
(born 1964), politician, lawyer and former FARC hostage Patricio Samper Gnecco (1930–2006), architect, politician Daniel Samper Pizano
Daniel Samper Pizano
(1945–), journalist Catalina Sandino Moreno
Catalina Sandino Moreno
(1981–), actress Juan Manuel Santos
Juan Manuel Santos
(1951–), current president of Colombia Eugene Semple
Eugene Semple
(1840–1908), American politician and from 1887 to 1889 the 13th Governor of Washington Territory José Asunción Silva
José Asunción Silva
(1865–1896), poet, writer Miguel Triana
Miguel Triana
(1859–1931), engineer and Muisca scholar Diana Turbay
Diana Turbay
(1950–1991), journalist Liborio Zerda
Liborio Zerda
(1834–1919), physician and Muisca scholar

See also[edit]

Colombia
Colombia
portal

Bogotá's Carnival Rail transport in Colombia Transport in Colombia World's largest cities

References[edit]

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Bibliography and further reading on pre-Columbian Bogotá[edit] Pre-Muisca[edit]

Correal Urrego, Gonzalo. 1990. Evidencias culturales durante el Pleistocene
Pleistocene
y Holoceno de Colombia
Colombia
– Cultural evidences during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and Holocene of Colombia. Revista de Arqueología Americana 1. 69–89. Accessed 2016-07-08.

Economy[edit]

Argüello García, Pedro María. 2015. Subsistence economy and chiefdom emergence in the Muisca area. A study of the Valle de Tena (PhD), 1–193. University of Pittsburgh. Accessed 2016-07-08. Francis, John Michael. 1993. "Muchas hipas, no minas" The Muiscas, a merchant society: Spanish misconceptions and demographic change (M.A.), 1–118. University of Alberta.

Society & tunjos[edit]

Cooper, Jago, and Carl Henrik Langebaek. 2013. The Lost Kingdoms of South America
South America
– Episode 3 – Lands of Gold. Accessed 2016-07-14. Gamboa Mendoza, Jorge. 2016. Los muiscas, grupos indígenas del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Una nueva propuesta sobre su organizacíon socio-política y su evolucíon en el siglo XVI – The Muisca, indigenous groups of the New Kingdom of Granada. A new proposal on their social-political organization and their evolution in the 16th century. Museo del Oro. Accessed 2016-07-08.

Agriculture[edit]

Boada Rivas, Ana María. 2006. Patrones de asentamiento regional y sistemas de agricultura intensiva en Cota y Suba, Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia) – Regional settlement patterns and intensive agricultural systems in Cota and Suba, Bogotá savanna
Bogotá savanna
(Colombia), 1–181. Banco de la República. Accessed 2016-07-08. Broadbent, Sylvia M. 1968. A prehistoric field system in Chibcha territory, Colombia. Ñawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology 6. 135–147.

Astronomy & calendar[edit]

Izquierdo Peña, Manuel Arturo. 2014. Calendario Muisca – Muisca calendar. Accessed 2016-07-08.

Cuisine[edit]

Daza, Blanca Ysabel. 2013. Historia del proceso de mestizaje alimentario entre Colombia
Colombia
y España – History of the integration process of foods between Colombia
Colombia
and Spain
Spain
(PhD), 1–494. Universitat de Barcelona.

Mythology and religion[edit]

Ocampo López, Javier. 2013. Mitos y leyendas indígenas de Colombia – Indigenous myths and legends of Colombia, 1–219. Plaza
Plaza
& Janes Editores Colombia
Colombia
S.A.. Ocampo López, Javier. 2007. Grandes culturas indígenas de América – Great indigenous cultures of the Americas, 1–238. Plaza
Plaza
& Janes Editores Colombia
Colombia
S.A..

Women in early colonial Bogotá[edit]

Groot, Ana María. 2014 (2008). Sal y poder en el altiplano de Bogotá, 1537–1640, 1–174. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Early colonial Muisca[edit]

Francis, John Michael. 2002. Población, enfermedad y cambio demográfico, 1537–1636. Demografía histórica de Tunja: Una mirada crítica. Fronteras de la Historia 7. 13–76.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutBogotáat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

(in Spanish) Official website Bogota Official Tourism guide

Articles related to Bogotá

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Bogotá, Capital District

Administrative subdivision in 20 localities

Usaquén Chapinero Santa Fe San Cristóbal Usme Tunjuelito Bosa Kennedy Fontibón Engativá Suba Barrios Unidos Teusaquillo Los Mártires Antonio Nariño Puente Aranda La Candelaria Rafael Uribe Uribe Ciudad Bolívar Sumapaz

Metropolitan Area

Bogotá Soacha Chía Facatativá Zipaquirá Mosquera Madrid Funza Cajicá Sibaté Tocancipá La Calera Sopó Tabio Cota Tenjo Gachancipá Bojacá

Geography

Eastern Hills

Guadalupe Monserrate

Suba Hills Bogotá
Bogotá
River

Fucha Juan Amarillo Soacha Tunjuelo

Savanna TvdH Reserve Wetlands

Timeline History

Prehistory First inhabitants Muisca

Bacatá

Conquest and foundation Post-colonial history

Categories

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Departments of Colombia

 Amazonas  Antioquia  Arauca  Atlántico  Bolívar  Boyacá

 Caldas  Caquetá  Casanare  Cauca  Cesar  Chocó

 Córdoba  Cundinamarca  Guainía  Guaviare  Huila  La Guajira

 Magdalena  Meta  Nariño  N. Santander  Putumayo  Quindío

 Risaralda  San Andrés  Santander  Sucre  Tolima  Valle del Cauca

 Vaupés  Vichada

Capital district:  Bogotá

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 4°35′53″N 74°4′33″W / 4.59806°N 74.07583°W / 4.59806; -74.07583

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World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

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Capitals of South America

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Brasília, Brazil Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Cayenne, French Guiana
French Guiana
(France) Georgetown, Guyana King Edward Point, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(UK)

La Paz
La Paz
(de facto) Sucre
Sucre
(de jure), Bolivia

Lima, Peru Montevideo, Uruguay Paramaribo, Suriname Quito, Ecuador Santiago, Chile Stanley, Falkland Islands
Stanley, Falkland Islands
(UK)

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World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

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Spanish / Hispanic Colonial architecture

Bigger Historic Centers

Antigua Guatemala Bogotá Buenos Aires Campeche Cartagena de Indias Cienfuegos Coro Cuernavaca Cusco Granada Guanajuato Havana León Los Angeles Lima Manila Mexico
Mexico
City Mompox Montevideo Morelia Oaxaca Old Panama Panama
Panama
City Puebla Quito San Diego San Juan San Miguel de Allende Santo Domingo St. Augustine Trujillo Vigan

Spanish Missions concentrations

List of Spanish missions

Cathedrals

Argentina Bolivia Chile Costa Rica Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador Guam Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay The Philippines Peru Puerto Rico United States

Arizona California Louisiana San Antonio

Uruguay Venezuela

Churches and monasteries

Baroque Churches of the Philippines Bohol Chiloé Popocatépetl

Fortifications

Presidio Caribbean coast of Panama Santo Domingo

Bridges and roads

Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Tayabas

Other buildings types

Hacienda

Haciendas in the Valley of Ameca

Cabildo Colonial universities in Hispanic America Colonial universities in the Philippines Plaza

Architecture types

Baroque

Andean Churrigueresque Earthquake Mexican Sicilian1

Chilotan Monterey Colonial Renaissance Rococo Neoclassical

Modern Revival Style

Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Mission Revival architecture

1It occured when it was part of the Spanish kingdom Category

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Muisca

Geography

Ocetá Páramo Altiplano Cundiboyacense

Eastern Hills Bogotá
Bogotá
River Savanna Wetlands

Tenza Valley Flora & fauna

History

Prehistory (<10,000 BP) Lithic (10,000 - 2800 BP)

El Abra Tibitó Tequendama P. del Tunjo Checua Aguazuque Lake Herrera El Infiernito

Herrera (800 BC - 800) Confederation (~1450 - 1540) Cabildo Mayor (>2002)

Conquest

List of conquistadors

Gonzalo de Quesada Hernán de Quesada Gonzalo Suárez Rendón Juan de Céspedes Baltasar Maldonado Juan de San Martín Lázaro Fonte Miguel Holguín y Figueroa Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela Ortún Velázquez de Velasco Bartolomé Camacho Zambrano Gonzalo Macías Luis Lanchero Martín Galeano

Battle of Tocarema
Battle of Tocarema
(1538) Conquest of the Chibchan Nations

Topics

Agriculture Architecture Art

Raft

Astronomy Calendar Cuisine

Chicha

Economy Mummies Music Muysccubun

Duit Numerals Toponyms

Myths

El Dorado

Religion

Tunjo

Tejo Warfare

Battles of Pasca (~1470) Chocontá (~1490)

Women

Zoratama

The Salt People

Zipaquirá Nemocón Tausa

Deities

Chiminigagua Bachué Chía Sué Bochica Huitaca Chibchacum Cuchavira Nencatacoa Chaquén Chibafruime Guahaioque

Sacred sites

Built

Sun Temple Moon Temple Cojines del Zaque Goranchacha Temple Hunzahúa
Hunzahúa
Well

Natural

Fúquene Guatavita Iguaque Siecha Suesca Tota

Monster

Tequendama
Tequendama
Falls

Northern caciques

zaque of Hunza

Hunzahúa Michuá Quemuenchatocha Aquiminzaque

iraca of Suamox

Nompanim Sugamuxi

tundama of Tundama

Southern caciques

zipa of Bacatá

Meicuchuca Saguamanchica Nemequene Tisquesusa Sagipa

cacique of Turmequé

Diego de Torres y Moyachoque

Neighbours

Chibcha-speaking

U'wa Sutagao Guane Lache

Arawak-speaking

Achagua Tegua Guayupe

Cariban-speaking

Panche Muzo Yarigui

Research and collections

List of scholars

Acosta De Aguado Arango Broadbent De Castellanos Celis Correal Duquesne Freyle Friede Gamboa Groot Hammen Humboldt Izquierdo Langebaek De Lugo Ocampo De Piedrahita De Quesada Reichel-Dolmatoff Schrimpff Simón Triana Uricoechea Zerda

Research institutes Publications

Elegías (1589) El Carnero (1638) Epítome (1889)

Musea

Museo del Oro Sogamoso Pasca

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127299962 LCCN: n79040014 ISNI: 0000 0001 2153 5758 GND: 4007557-6 SELIBR: 154700 SUDOC: 082115958 BNF: cb118827520 (d

.