Nickname(s): "La Atenas Suramericana"
("The South American Athens")
"Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad "
("Most Noble and Most Loyal City")
Bogotá Mejor Para Todos"
Bogotá For All", 2016–2019)
Colombia and South America
Show map of Colombia
Bogotá (South America)
Show map of South America
Coordinates: 4°42′40″N 74°4′20″W / 4.71111°N
74.07222°W / 4.71111; -74.07222Coordinates: 4°42′40″N
74°4′20″W / 4.71111°N 74.07222°W / 4.71111; -74.07222
Cundinamarca (see text)
6 August 1538 (traditional)
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
• Capital city
1,587 km2 (613 sq mi)
307.36 km2 (118.67 sq mi)
2,640 m (8,660 ft)
• Capital city
Rolo, Cachaco, Bogotan
bogotano, -na (es)
0.965 very high
GDP (PPP) (2014)
USD 160 billion
GDP (PPP) per capita (2014)
City Official Site
Bogotá Tourism (in Spanish)
Bogotá savanna is the high plateau in the
located. The flatlands are clearly visible in the topography and the
result of a
Pleistocene lake; Lake Humboldt, that existed until around
30,000 years BP
Bogotá (/ˈboʊɡətɑː/, /ˌbɒɡəˈtɑː/, /ˌboʊ-/; Spanish
pronunciation: [boɣoˈta] ( listen)), officially
Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly
known as Santa Fé de
Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital
and largest city of
Colombia administered as the Capital District,
although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bogotá is a
territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative
status as the departments of Colombia. It is the political, economic,
administrative, industrial, artistic, cultural, and sports center of
Bogotá was founded as the capital of the
New Kingdom of Granada
New Kingdom of Granada on
August 6, 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
after a harsh expedition into the
Andes conquering the Muisca. The
Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region and called the
Bogotá was founded Bacatá, which in the Chibcha
language means "The Lady of the Andes." Further, the word 'Andes' in
the Aymara language means "mountain that shines," thus rendering the
full lexical signification of
Bogotá as "The Lady of the mountain
that shines." After the
Battle of Boyacá
Battle of Boyacá on August 7, 1819, Bogotá
became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia. Since
the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
and during the formation of present-day Colombia,
Bogotá has remained
the capital of this territory.
The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known
Bogotá savanna, part of the
Altiplano Cundiboyacense located
in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes. It is the third-highest
South America (after
Quito and Sucre), at an average of
2,640 metres (8,660 ft) above sea level. Subdivided into 20
Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres (613 square
miles) and a relatively cool climate that is constant through the
The city is home to central offices of the executive branch (Office of
the President), the legislative branch (Congress of Colombia) and the
judicial branch (Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court,
Council of State and the Superior Council of Judicature) of the
Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and
associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies
and the quality of human capital. It is the financial and commercial
heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the
country. The capital hosts the main financial market in
Colombia and the Andean natural region, and is the leading destination
for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America
and Colombia. It has the highest nominal GDP in the country,
contributing most to the national total (24.7%), and it is the
seventh-largest city by size of GDP in
Latin America (about USD
The city's airport,
El Dorado International Airport, named after the
mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America,
and is third in number of people.
Bogotá is home to the largest
number of universities and research centers in the country, and is
an important cultural center, with many theaters, libraries and
museums, of which the Museo del Oro is the most important,. Bogotá
ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, and is considered a
global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC.
1.1 Pre-Columbian era
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada expedition
1.3 Spanish colonization
1.4 Nineteenth century
1.6 Twentieth century
1.7 Twenty-first century
2.2 Urban layout and nomenclature
2.3 Localities (districts)
2.4 Surrounding towns
5.2 Shopping malls
8.2 Urban and suburban railways
8.3 Bicycle infrastructure
8.5 Bogota Public Transportation Statistics
9 Colleges and universities
10.1 Cultural history
10.3 Libraries and archives
10.4 Museums and galleries
10.5 Theater and arts
10.8 Parks and recreation
11.1 Sports teams
13 International relations
13.1 Twin towns and sister cities
13.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
13.3 Partnerships and cooperations
15 Notable people from Bogotá
16 See also
18 Bibliography and further reading on pre-Columbian Bogotá
18.3 Society & tunjos
18.5 Astronomy & calendar
18.7 Mythology and religion
18.8 Women in early colonial Bogotá
18.9 Early colonial Muisca
19 External links
History of Bogotá
History of Bogotá and
Timeline of Bogotá
Timeline of Bogotá history
The area of modern
Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous
people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha
Bogotá savanna was the southernmost Chibcha-speaking
group that exists from
Nicaragua to the
Andes in Colombia. The
civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and
fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense
(modern-day departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá and small parts of
Santander), was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas.
Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian
society of various chiefs (caciques) who lived in small settlements of
maximum 100 bohíos. The agriculture and salt-based society of the
people was rich in goldworking, trade and mummification. The religion
of the Muisca consisted of various gods, mostly related to natural
phenomena as the Sun (Sué) and his wife, the Moon; Chía, rain
Cuchavira and with building and feasting
(Nencatacoa) and wisdom (Bochica). Their complex luni-solar calendar,
deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed
three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months
were represented. Their astronomical knowledge is represented in one
of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El
Villa de Leyva
Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá.
Main article: Muisca Confederation
See also: El Abra, Tequendama, and Herrera Period
Flora and fauna
The Salt People
History and timeline
The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, founder of the
The fountain of Quevedo on the Chorro de Quevedo (es), one of the
possible foundation sites of Bogotá
The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of
Bogotá, were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene. The
oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in
El Abra (12,500
BP), north of Zipaquirá. Slightly later dated excavations in a rock
shelter southwest of the city in
Soacha provided ages of ~11,000 BP;
Tequendama. Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated guinea pigs,
part of their meat diet. The people inhabiting the
in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a
member of the
Chibcha language family. Muisca means "people" or
"person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. At
the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half
a million indigenous people on the
Bogotá savanna of up to two
million in the Muisca Confederation. They occupied the highland and
mild climate flanks between the
Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and
Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of
25,000 km2 (9,653 sq mi), comprising Bogotá's high
plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander
Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other
Chibcha-speaking neighbours, such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and
with Cariban groups as the Muzo or "Emerald People". Their knowledge
of salt production from brines, a task exclusively for the Muisca
women, gave them the name "Salt People". Tropical fruits that
didn't grow on the cool highlands, coca, cotton and gold were traded
at markets that took place every Muisca week; every four days. At
these frequent markets, the Muisca obtained various luxury goods that
seem worthless in modern sense and precious metals and gemstones that
seem valuable to us became abundant and used for various purposes.
The Muisca warrior elite was allowed to wear feathered crowns, from
parrots and macacs whose habitat was to the east of the Andes; the
Arawkan-speaking Guayupe, Tegua and Achagua.
Muisca cuisine consisted of a stable and varied diet of tubers,
potatoes and fruits.
Maize was the main ingredient of the Muisca,
cultivated on elevated and irrigated terraces. In Muysccubun exist
many words for maize, corn and the various types and forms of it.
The product was also the base for chicha; the alcoholic beverage of
the people, still sold in central
Bogotá today. It was the drink for
construction of houses, celebrations of harvests and sowing, ritual
practices around the various sacred sites of the Altiplano, music and
dances, trade at special ferias with farther away trading indigenous
Colombia and to inaugurate the new highest regarded member
of the community; zipas, zaques, caciques and the religious ruler
iraca from Sacred City of the Sun Sugamuxi.
The zipa at the moment of Spanish conquest was Tisquesusa. His main
bohío was in
Bacatá with others in
Funza and Cajicá, giving name to
the present day capital of Colombia. A prophecy in his life came true;
he would be dying, bathing in his own blood. Defending
Funza with a
reduced army of guecha warriors against the heavily exhausted but
heavily armed strangers, his reign fell in the hands of Gonzalo
Jiménez de Quesada and his younger brother Hernán Pérez on April
20, 1537. Upon his death, his brother
Sagipa became the last zipa,
against the inheritance tradition of the Muisca.
Sagipa used to be a
main captain for
Tisquesusa but quickly submitted to the Spanish
rulers. The first encomenderos asked high prices in valuable products
and agricultural production from the indigenous people. On top of that
various epidemics of European viruses razed through the population, of
which in current Boyacá 65–85 % of the Muisca were killed
within 100 years.
Bogotá was founded by
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada traditionally on
the 6th of August 1538. Other documents state a second establishment
was done on April 27, 1539. Gonzalo Jiménez and main conquerors De
Belalcázar and Federmann, left for
Spain in April 1539, founding
Guataquí together on April 6, 1539. The rule over the fresh New
Kingdom of Granada
Kingdom of Granada was left to Hernán. The first mayors of the city
were capitains Pedro de Arevalo y Jeronimo de Inzar.
the capital of the later Viceroyalty of New Granada. With
Bogotá became capital of Gran
Colombia and later the
capital of the Republic of Colombia.
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada expedition
Main article: Spanish conquest of the Muisca
From 1533, a belief persisted that the Río Grande de la Magdalena was
the trail to the South Sea, to Peru, legendary El Dorado. Such was the
target of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, the Granadanian conquistador
Santa Marta on 6 April 1536 with 800 soldiers, heading
towards the interior of current Colombia. The expedition divided into
two groups, one under Quesada's command to move on land, and the other
commanded by Diego de Urbino would go up river in four brigantine
ships to, later on, meet Quesada troops at the site named Tora de las
Barrancas Bermejas. When they arrived, they heard news about Indians
inhabiting the south and making large salt cakes used to trade for
wild cotton and fish. Jiménez decided to abandon the route to Peru
and cross the mountain in search of salt villages. They saw crops,
trails, white salt cakes and then huts where they found corn, yucca
and beans. From Tora, the expedition went up the Opón River and found
indigenous people covered with very finely painted cotton mantles.
When they arrived in Muisca territories, of the expedition leaving
Santa Marta, only 162 men were left.
On the other side to
Plaza de Bolívar, the Chapter and the Royal
Audience were located. The street joining the Major
Plaza and Herbs
Plaza —currently Santander Park— was named Calle Real (Royal
Street), now Carrera Séptima (or "Seventh Street"; counted from the
mountains to the east of the city).
Formed by Europeans, mestizos, indigenous people, and slaves, from the
second half of the 16th century, the population began to grow rapidly.
The 1789 census recorded 18,161 inhabitants, and by 1819 the city
population reached 30,000 inhabitants distributed in 195 blocks.
Importance grew when the
Diocese was established.
The city mayor and the chapter formed by two councilmen, assisted by
the constable and the police chief, governed the city. For better
administration of these domains, in April 1550, the Audience of
Bogotá was organized. At that time, the city became the
capital and the home of
New Kingdom of Granada
New Kingdom of Granada government. Fourteen
years later in 1564, the Spanish Crown designated the first Royal
Audience chairman, Andrés Díaz Venero de Leyva.
The Royal Street, today known as the Seventh Avenue (Carrera Séptima)
Bogotá's Railroad Central Station
Political uneasiness felt all over Spanish colonies in America was
expressed in New Granada in many different ways, accelerating the
movement to independence. One of the most transcendent was the
Revolution of Comuneros, a riot of the inhabitants started in Villa
del Socorro —current Department of Santander—in March
1781. Spanish authorities suppressed the riot, and
José Antonio Galán, the leader, was executed. He left an imprint,
though. He was followed in 1794 by Antonio Nariño, precursor of
independence by translating and publishing in Santa Fe, the Rights of
Men and the Citizen, and by 20 July movement leaders in 1810.[citation
Between 1819 and 1849, there were no fundamental structural changes
from the colonial period. By the mid-19th century, a series of
fundamental reforms were enacted, some of the most important being
slavery abolition and religious, teaching, print and speech industry
and trade freedom, among others. During the decade of
the 70s, radicalism accelerated reforms and state and social
institutions were substantially modified. However, during the second
half of the century, the country faced permanent pronouncements,
declarations of rebellions between states, and factions which resulted
in civil wars: the last and bloodiest was the
Thousand Days' War
Thousand Days' War from
1899 to 1902.
In 1823, a few years after the formation of Gran Colombia, the Public
Library, now the National Library, was enlarged and modernized with
new volumes and better facilities. The National
Museum was founded. Those institutions were of great importance to the
new republic's cultural development. The Central University was the
first State school, precursor of the current National University,
founded in 1867 and domiciled in Bogotá.
President Rafael Núñez declared the end of Federalism, and in 1886
the country became a centralist republic ruled by the constitution in
force – save some amendments – up to 1981. In the middle of
political and administration avatars,
Bogotá continued as the capital
and principal political center of the country.
From a base of only 20,000 people in 1793, the city grew to
approximately 117,000 people in 1912. Population growth was rapid
after 1870, largely because of emigration from the eastern
Early in the 20th century,
Colombia had to face devastating
consequences from the One Thousand Days War, which lasted from 1899 to
1902, and the loss of Panama. Between 1904 and 1909,
the lawfulness of the liberal party was re-established and President
Rafael Reyes endeavored to implement a national government. Peace and
state reorganization generated the increase of economic activities.
Bogotá started deep architectural and urban transformation with
significant industrial and artisan production increases.[citation
needed] In 1910, the Industrial Exposition of the Century took place
at Park of Independence. Stands built evidenced industrial, artisan
work, beaux arts, electricity and machinery progress achieved. The
period from 1910 to 1930 is designated conservative hegemony.[citation
needed] Between 1924 and 1928, hard union struggles began, with oil
fields and banana zone workers' strikes, leaving numerous people
Bogotá had practically no industry. Production was basically artisan
work grouped in specific places, similar to commercial
Plaza de Bolívar and surroundings lodged
hat stores, at Calle del Comercio –current Carrera Seventh– and
Calle Florián –now Carrera Eight– luxurious stores selling
imported products opened their doors; at Pasaje Hernández, tailor's
shops provided their services, and between 1870 and 1883, four main
banks opened their doors: Bogotá, Colombia, Popular and Mortgage
Credit banks.
Bogotazo and La Violencia
Following the banana zone killings and conservative party division,
Enrique Olaya Herrera
Enrique Olaya Herrera took office in 1930. The liberal party reformed
during 16 years of the so-called Liberal Republic, agricultural,
social, political, labor, educational, economic and administrative
sectors. Unionism strengthened and education coverage
The celebration produced a large number of infrastructure works, new
construction and work sources. Following the 1946 liberal party
division, a conservative candidate took presidential office again in
1948, after the killing of liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán,
Bogotá's downtown was virtually destroyed as violence reigned. From
then, Bogotá's urban, architectural and population sectors were
substantially reorganized.
Bogotá is the third largest city within city limits in South America
by population, after
São Paulo and Lima
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2016)
Bogotá is located in the southeastern part of the
(Sabana de Bogotá) at an average altitude of 2,640 metres
(8,660 ft) above sea level. The
Bogotá savanna is popularly
called "savannah" (sabana), but constitutes actually a high plateau in
Andes mountains, part of an extended region known as the Altiplano
Cundiboyacense, which literally means "high plateau of Cundinamarca
In the extreme south of Bogota's District, the world's largest
continuous paramo ecosystem can be found;
Sumapaz Páramo in the
Bogotá River running NE-SW crosses the sabana, forming Tequendama
Falls (Salto del Tequendama) to the south. Tributary rivers form
valleys with flourishing villages, whose economy is based on
agriculture, livestock raising and artisanal production.[citation
The sabana is bordered to the east by the Eastern Cordillera of the
Andes mountain range. The Eastern Hills, which limit city growth, run
from south to north, and form east of the center the Guadalupe and
Monserrate mountains. The western city limit is the
Bogotá River. The
Sumapaz Paramo (moorland) borders the south and to the north Bogotá
extends over the plateau up to the towns of Chía and Sopó.
Hailstorm in Bogotá
Bogotá has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cfb). The
average temperature is 14.5 °C (58 °F), varying from 6
to 19 °C (43 to 66 °F) on sunny days to 10 to 18 °C
(50 to 64 °F) on rainy days. Dry and rainy seasons alternate
throughout the year. The driest months are December, January, July and
August. The warmest month is March, bringing a maximum of
19.7 °C (67.5 °F). The coolest nights occur in January,
with an average of 7.6 °C (45.7 °F) in the city; fog is
very usual in early morning, 220 days per year, whilst clear sky
sunny full days are quite unusual.
The official highest temperature recorded within the city limits is
30.0 °C (86 °F), and the lowest temperature recorded
is −7.1 °C (19 °F).
The rainiest months are April, May, September, October and November,
in which typical days are mostly overcast, with low clouds and some
winds, bringing maximum temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F) and
lows of 7 °C (45 °F).
Climate data for National Meteorological Observatory, Bogotá
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales
Urban layout and nomenclature
Street arrangement of
Bogotá based on the Cartesian coordinate
system: North is to the right
Bogotá has 20 localities, or districts, forming an extensive network
of neighborhoods. Areas of higher economic status tend to be located
in the north, close to the Eastern Hills in the districts of
Usaquén and the east of Suba. The lower middle class
inhabit the central, western and northwestern parts of the
city.. The working-class neighborhoods are located in
the south, some of them squatter areas.
The urban layout in the center of the city is based on the focal point
of a square or plaza, typical of Spanish-founded settlements, but the
layout gradually becomes more modern in outlying neighborhoods. The
current types of roads are classified as Calles (streets), which run
from west to east horizontally, with street numbers increasing towards
the north, and also towards the south (with the suffix "Sur") from
Calle 0 down south. Carreras (roads) run from north to south
vertically, with numbering increasing from east to west. (with the
suffix "Este" for roads east of Carrera 0). At the southeast of the
city, the addresses are logically sur-este. Other types of roads more
common in newer parts of the city may be termed Eje (Axis), Diagonal
or Transversal. The numbering system for street addresses recently
changed, and numbers are assigned according to street rank from main
avenues to smaller avenues and local streets. Some of Bogotá's main
roads, which also go by a proper name in addition to a number, are:
Norte-Quito-Sur or NQS (North
Quito South Avenue, from 9th Rd at north
following railway to 30th Rd, or
Quito City Avenue, and Southern
Caracas (Northern Highway, or 45th Rd, joined
Caracas Avenue, or 14th Rd)
Avenida Circunvalar (or 1st Rd)
Avenida Suba (60th transversal from 100th St the Suba Hills; 145th St
from Suba Hills westward)
El Dorado (
El Dorado Avenue, or 26th St)
Avenida de las Américas (Avenue of the Americas, from 34th street at
east to 6th street at west)
Avenida Primero de Mayo (May First Avenue, or 22nd St South)
Avenida Ciudad de Cali (Cali City Avenue, or 86th Rd)
Avenida Boyacá (Boyacá Avenue, or 72nd Rd)
Autopista Sur (Southern Highway)
Bogotá, Capital District
in 20 localities
Rafael Uribe Uribe
Conquest and foundation
Places adjacent to Bogotá
Bogotá, Capital District
Bogotá by year
The largest and most populous city in Colombia,
Bogotá had 6,778,691
inhabitants within the city's limits (2005 census), with a
population density of approximately 4,310 inhabitants per square
kilometer. Only 15,810 people are located in rural areas of Capital
District. 47.5% of the population are male and 52.5% women.[citation
Bogotá Future Population (Medium Variant)
In Bogotá, as in the rest of the country, urbanization has
accelerated due to industrialization as well as complex political and
social reasons such as poverty and violence, which led to migration
from rural to urban areas throughout the twentieth and twenty-first
centuries. A dramatic example of this is the number
of displaced people who have arrived in
Bogotá due to the internal
armed conflict.
Some estimates show that Bogotá's floating population may be as high
as 4 million people, most of them being migrant workers from other
departments and displaced people. The majority of the displaced
population lives in the Ciudad Bolívar, Kennedy, Usme, and Bosa
The ethnic composition of the city’s population includes minorities
Afro-Colombian people (1.5%), and Indigenous Amerindians (0.2%);
98.27% of the population has no ethnic affiliation, but are
mestizos and whites.
Bogotá has gone to great lengths to change its formerly notorious
crime rate and its image with increasing success after being
considered in the 1990s to be one of the most violent cities in the
world. In 1993 there were 4,352 murders at a rate of 81 per
100,000 people; in 2007
Bogotá suffered 1,401 murders at a rate
of 20 per 100,000 inhabitants, and had a further reduction to 14 per
100,000 inhabitants in 2017 (the lowest since 1979). This
success was mainly the result of a participatory and integrated
security policy; "Comunidad Segura", that was first adopted in 1995
and continues to be enforced. 1.2 percent of street addresses
account for 99 percent of homicides.
Bogotá is the capital of the Republic of Colombia, and houses the
Congress, Supreme Court of Justice and the center of the executive
administration as well as the residence of the President (Casa de
Nariño). These buildings, along with the Office of the Mayor, the
Lievano Palace (Palacio Liévano), are located within a few meters
from each other on the
Bolívar Square (
Plaza de Bolívar). The square
is located in the city's historical center, La Candelaria, which
features architecture in Spanish Colonial and Spanish Baroque styles.
The Mayor of
Bogotá and the City Council – both elected by popular
vote – are responsible for city administration. In 2015 Enrique
Peñalosa was elected Mayor; his term runs from 2016 to 2019.
The city is divided into 20 localities: Usaquén, Chapinero, Santa Fe,
San Cristóbal, Usme, Tunjuelito, Bosa, Kennedy, Fontibón, Engativá,
Suba, Barrios Unidos, Teusaquillo, Los Mártires, Antonio Nariño,
Puente Aranda, La Candelaria, Rafael Uribe Uribe, Ciudad Bolívar and
Each of the 20 localities is governed by an administrative board
elected by popular vote, made up of no fewer than seven members. The
Mayor designates local mayors from candidates nominated by the
respective administrative board.
Panorama of the Centro Internacional (International Centre) of Bogotá
Bogotá is the main economic and industrial center of Colombia. The
Colombian government fosters the import of capital goods, Bogotá
being one of the main destinations of these imports.
In 2016 the World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) from the
United Kingdom ranked
Bogotá as an Alpha−World City in the World
Cities Study Group's inventory, a high-ranking. Alpha and Alpha-
cities are important world cities that link major economic regions
into the world economy.
Travel & Tourism’s share of the city’s overall GDP stands at
Bogotá is responsible for 56% of the tourism that arrives
Colombia and is home 1,423 multinational companies.
ranked highly as a global city where business is done and meetings are
Bogotá is a growing international meetings destination.
During the last year,
Bogotá has won 50 major international events,
with 12 more world-class events in progress. The 16th World Summit
of Nobel Peace Laureates took place from February 2 to 5, 2017 in
One Young World
One Young World is the preeminent global forum
for young leaders aged 18–30. Bogotá,
Colombia is the host city for
The hotels in the historical center of
La Candelaria and its
surrounding areas cater to lovers of culture and the arts. This area
also has the bulk of hostels in the city as well. In La Candelaria,
there are many museums, including the
Botero Museum and the Gold
Museum. Close to
La Candelaria is the Cerro Monserrate, which you can
reach by cable car or funicular. The hotels located near Ciudad
Salitre are intended for visitors who make short stops in
El Dorado International Airport.
Important landmarks and tourist stops in
Bogotá include the botanical
garden José Celestino Mutis, La Quinta de Bolivar, the national
observatory, the planetarium, Maloka, the Colpatria observation point,
the observation point of La Calera, the monument of the American
La Candelaria (the historical district of the city). There
is also Usaquen, a colonial landmark where brunch and flea market on
Sundays is a traditional activity. The city has numerous green parks
and amusement parks like Salitre Magico or Mundo Aventura.
Green areas surrounding Bogota are perfect locations for eco-tourism
and hiking activities, in the eastern mountains of the city, just a
few minutes walking from main roads, there are Quebrada La vieja and
Chapinero Waterfalls, two of many green spots for sightseeing and
tourism with clean air.
There are also several areas of the city where fine restaurants can be
found. The G Zone, the T Zone, and La Macarena are well known for
their gastronomic offerings.
Since the 2000s, major hotel chains have established in the city.
Bogota has a great cultural diversity, coming from different regions
of the country, which allows the tourist to know the multiculturalism
of the country without the need to travel to other cities, this
includes gastronomy and different festivals.
Monserrate Sanctuary, a famous landmark
Plaza Mall, featuring the Hard Rock Cafe
Centro Andino, an upscale mall in northern Bogotá
Bogotá's economy has been significantly boosted due to new shopping
malls built within the last few years. As of December 2011, over 160
new malls are planned in addition to the existing 100 malls.
Notable malls include:
Portal de la 80
Bogota is home to several television stations like
Canal Capital and
Citytv which are local stations, Canal 13 is a regional station, and
is home to the national channels Caracol TV, RCN TV, Canal Uno, Canal
Institucional, and Señal Colombia. It has multiple satellite
television services like Telefónica, Claro and
DirecTV and several
satellite dishes which offer hundreds of international channels, plus
several exclusive channels for Bogotá.
In Bogota, all the major radio networks in the country are available,
in both AM and FM; 70% of the FM stations offer RDS service. There are
several newspapers, including El Tiempo,
El Espectador and El Nuevo
Siglo, plus economical dailies La República and Portafolio, tabloids
El Espacio, Q'Hubo, and Extra.
Bogotá also offers three free
newspapers, two Spanish, ADN and Publimetro, and one English, The
An old house in the
Teusaquillo locality, near downtown Bogotá
Energy and sewer bills are stratified based on the location of owner's
residence, The system is the classification of the residential
properties that should receive public services. Although the
system does not consider the income per person and the rules say that
the residential real estate should stratify and not households.
All mayors should do the stratification of residential properties of
their municipality or district.
Bogotá's social strata have been divided as follows and have been
extensively used by the government as a reference to develop social
welfare programs, statistical information and to some degree for the
assignment of lands.
Estrato 1 (lowest)
Estrato 2 (low)
Estrato 3 (mid-low)
Estrato 4 (mid-high)
Estrato 5 (high)
Estrato 6 (highest)
Map of the
Bogotá's growth has placed a strain on its roads and highways, but
since 1998 significant efforts to upgrade the infrastructure have been
undertaken. Private car ownership forms a major part of the
congestion, in addition to taxis, buses and commercial vehicles. Buses
remain the main means of mass transit. There are two bus systems: the
traditional system and the TransMilenio.
The traditional system runs a variety of bus types, operated by
several companies on normal streets and avenues: Bus (large buses),
Buseta (medium size buses) and Colectivo (vans or minivans). The
bigger buses were divided into two categories: Ejecutivo, which was
originally to be a deluxe service and was not to carry standing
passengers, and corriente or normal service. Since May 2008, all buses
run as corriente services.
Bogotá is a hub for domestic and
international bus routes. The
Bogotá terminal serves routes to most
cities and towns in Colombia and is the largest in the country.
There is international service to Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela.
TransMilenio system was created during Enrique Peñalosa's mayoral
term, and is a form of bus rapid transit that has been deployed as
a measure to compensate for the lack of a subway or rail system.
TransMilenio combines articulated buses that operate on dedicated bus
roads (busways) and smaller buses (feeders) that operate in
residential areas, bringing passengers to the main grid.
TransMilenio's main routes are:
Caracas Avenue, Northern Highway
(Autopista Norte), 80th Street, Americas Avenue, Jiménez Avenue, and
30th Avenue (also referred to as Norte
Quito Sur or N.Q.S. for short).
Routes for Suba Avenue and Southern Highway (Autopista Sur), the
southern leg of the 30th Avenue, were opened in April 2006. The third
phase of the system will cover 7th Avenue, 10th Avenue, and 26th
Street (or Avenida El Dorado). The system is planned to cover the
entire city by 2030. Although the Transmilenio carries commuters to
numerous corners of the city, it is more expensive (0.80 USD or 2300
COP) than any public transport, except taxis.
Despite the city's chronic congestion, many of the ideas enacted
during the Peñalosa years are regarded worldwide to be
cost-effective, efficient and unique solutions[by whom?]. In addition
to TransMilenio, the Peñalosa administration and voter-approved
referenda helped to establish travel restrictions on cars with certain
license plate numbers during peak hours called Pico y placa; 121
kilometres (75 miles) of
Ciclovía on Sundays and major holidays; a
massive system (376 km (234 mi) as of 2013[update]) of
bicycle paths and segregated lanes called ciclorrutas; and the removal
of thousands of parking spots in an attempt to make roads more
pedestrian-friendly and discourage car use. Ciclorrutas is one of the
most extensive dedicated bike path networks of any city in the world,
with a total extension of 376 kilometres (234 miles). It extends from
the north of the city, 170th Street, to the south, 27th Street, and
Monserrate on the east to the
Bogotá River on the west. The
ciclorruta was started by the 1995–1998 Antanas Mockus
administration with a few kilometers, and considerably extended during
the administration of Mayor Peñalosa with the development of a
Bicycle Master Plan and the addition of paths hundreds of kilometers
in extent. Since the construction of the ciclorruta bicycle use in
the city has increased, and a car free week was introduced in
Urban (SITP) bus, part of the integrated public transport system
Bikepath in central Bogota
Traffic on the Northern Highway (Autopista Norte)
El Dorado International Airport
Bogotá's main airport is
El Dorado International Airport, with an
approximate area of 6.9 km² located west of the city's downtown in
Fontibón Locality. It is the third most important airport in
Latin America after
Mexico City International Airport
Mexico City International Airport and São
Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and it is the most important
airport in Colombia. Construction of the airport was ordered by
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (19th President of Colombia) in 1955 to replace
the Aeropuerto de Techo. Due to its central location in
in Latin America, it is a hub for Colombia's Flagship Carrier Avianca,
Colombia and LATAM Colombia. It is also serviced by a
number of international airlines including American, Delta, United,
Jet Blue and Lufthansa. Currently the national airport has begun to
take more responsibility due to the congestion at the international
airport. In response to the high demand of approximately 27 Million
passengers per year, a new airport,
El Dorado II, is planned to be
built by 2021, to help alleviate traffic at the main airport.
A secondary airport, CATAM, serves as a base for Military and Police
Aviation. This airport, which uses the runways of
El Dorado will
eventually move to Madrid, a nearby town in the region of
Cundinamarca, leaving further space to expand El Dorado.
Guaymaral Airport is another small airport located in the northern
boundaries of Bogota. It is used mainly for private aviation
Urban and suburban railways
Bogotá Metro and Tramways of Bogotá
See also: Bogotá's
Savannah Railway and Train for the vicinities of
the city of Bogotá
Bogotá has little railway transit infrastructure, following the
collapse of the tram network, although a number of plans hope to
change that. The
Bogotá Metro has been pushed forward by two
successive governments, and proponents hope that construction will
soon begin. Plans to construct railways in and out of the city,
replacing defunct routes, have been delayed due to the pressing need
for transport within the city.
Main article: Bogotá's Bike Paths Network
Bogotá is the Colombian city with the most extensive and
comprehensive network of bike paths. Bogotá’s bike paths network or
Bogotá in Spanish, designed and built during the
administration of Mayors
Antanas Mockus and Enrique Peñalosa, is also
one of the most extensive in the world and the most extensive in Latin
America. The network is integrated with the
system which has bicycle parking facilities.
Bogota implemented a healthy habit called "Ciclovia" where principal
highways are closed from 7:00 a.m. till 2:00 pm on Sundays and
public holidays; therefore, the People ride their bikes to enjoy the
city as well as exercise. In the same way just on December the same
activity is carried out in the night, there are some special
activities such as fireworks, street theater performances, and street
food just to mention a few.
Since the 4th of April 2016 the carrera 11 has been reduced from four
to three car lanes and a new bike lane (cicloruta) has been
On 25 December 1884, the first tramway pulled by mules was inaugurated
and covered the route from
Plaza de Bolívar to Chapinero, and in
1892, the line connecting
Plaza de Bolívar and La Sabana Station
started operating. The tramway ran over wooden rails and was easily
derailed, so steel rails imported from England were eventually
installed. In 1894, a tramway car ran the Bogotá–
every 20 minutes. The tram system eventually grew to
cover most of the city and its surrounding suburbs. But during the
Bogotazo riots of 1948, the system suffered heavy damage and was
forced to close. The economic effects of the subsequent civil war that
followed prevented the damage from being repaired. Parts of the system
continued to operate in a reduced state until 1951, when they were
replaced by buses. Most of the streetcar tracks were eventually paved
over, but exposed tracks can still be seen on many of the older roads
of the city, especially downtown and in the
La Candelaria area,
although it has been about 70 years[when?] since any vehicles have run
Bogota Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Bogota, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 97 min. 32%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 20 min, while 40% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 8 km, while 16% travel for
over 12 km in a single direction.
Colleges and universities
Main article: List of universities in Bogotá
Known as the
Athens of South America,
Bogotá has an extensive
educational system of both primary and secondary schools and colleges.
Due to the constant migration of people into the nation's capital, the
availability of quotas for access to education offered by the State
free of charge is often insufficient. The city also has a diverse
system of colleges and private schools.
There are a number of universities, both public and private. In 2002,
there were a total of 114 higher education institutions; in Bogotá
there are several universities, most partially or fully accredited by
the NAC (National Accreditation Council): National University of
Colombia, University of the Andes, Colombia, District University of
Bogotá, La Salle University, Colombia, University of La Sabana,
Pontifical Xavierian University, Our Lady of the Rosary University,
Universidad Externado de Colombia, Military University Nueva Granada,
University of America, Sergio Arboleda University, Jorge Tadeo Lozano
University, Pilot University of Colombia, Catholic University of
Saint Thomas Aquinas University
Saint Thomas Aquinas University and Universidad Pedagógica
The city has a University City at the National University of Colombia
campus located in the traditional sector Teusaquillo. It is the
largest campus in
Colombia and one of the largest in Latin America.
Building of Science and Technology "Luis Carlos Sarmiento" at the
National University of Colombia
Centro Ático at Pontifical Xavierian University
Mario Laserna building in the University of the Andes
Ciclovia in Bogotá
Bogotá has many cultural venues including 58 museums, 62 art
galleries, 33 library networks, 45 stage theaters, 75 sports and
attraction parks, and over 150 national monuments. Many of these
are renowned globally such as: The Luis Angel Arango Library, the most
important in the region[according to whom?] which receives well over 6
million visitors a year; The Colombian National Museum, one of the
oldest in the Americas, dating back to 1823; The Ibero-American
Theater Festival, largest of its kind in the world, receives 2 million
attendees enjoying over 450 performances across theaters and off the
Bogotá Philharmonic is the most important[according
to whom?] symphony orchestra in Colombia, with over 100 musicians and
140 performances a year;
The Cristóbal Colón Theater, the country's oldest Opera House,
opened in 1892. It is home to the National Symphony Association's
major act, the National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia.
Rock al Parque
Rock al Parque or Rock at the Park is an open air rock music festival.
Recurring annually, it gathers over 320,000 music fans who can enjoy
over 60 band performances for free during three days a year. The
series have been so successful during its 15 years of operation that
the city has replicated the initiative for other music genres,
resulting in other recent festivals like Salsa at the Park, Hip Hop at
the Park, Ballet at the Park, Opera at the Park, and Jazz at the Park.
Kids' Choice Awards Colombia, are the most important[according to
whom?] awards given in the city by
Nickelodeon and the first ceremony
was given in 2014 by the singer Maluma and in
Corferias the ceremony
has been the home of shows given by artists like Austin Mahone, Carlos
Don Tetto and Riva among others.
Bogotá has worked heavily in recent years to position itself as
leader in cultural offerings in South America, and it is increasingly
being recognized worldwide as a hub in the region for the development
of the arts. In 2007,
Bogotá was awarded the title of
Cultural Capital of
Ibero-America by the UCCI (Union of Ibero-American
Capital Cities), and it became the only city to have received the
recognition twice, after being awarded for the first time in 1991.
Bogotá gave the Spanish-speaking world José
Modernism pioneer. His poetic work in the novel De
sobremesa has a place in outstanding American literature. Rafael Pombo
(1833–1912) was an
American romanticism poet who left a collection
of fables essential part of children imagination and Colombian
BD Bacatá, under construction, will be the city's tallest building.
The urban morphology and typology of colonial buildings in Bogotá
have been maintained since the late nineteenth century, long after the
Colombia (1810). This persistence of
the colonial setting is still visible, particularly in La Candelaria,
the historical center of Bogotá. Also kept up are the colonial houses
of two stories, with courtyards, gabled roofs, ceramic tiles and
balconies. In some cases, these balconies were filled with glass
during the Republican period, a distinguishing feature of the
architecture of the sector (for example, the House of Rafael
"Republican Architecture" was the style that prevailed between 1830
and 1930. Although there were attempts to consolidate
a modern architectural language, the only examples seen are University
City and White City at the National University of Colombia
(constructed 1936 to 1939). This work was developed
by German architect Leopold Rother, although architects of rationalist
trends participated in the design of campus buildings. We also see in
Bogotan architecture trends such as art deco, expressionism and
organic architecture. This last trend was typified by Bogotan
architects in the second half of the twentieth century such as Rogelio
Although renowned for its beautiful preservation of colonial
architecture, there are also significant contemporary architecture
examples found in the downtown and at the north of the city.[citation
In 2015 BD
Bacatá was inaugurated, surpassing the Colpatria Tower to
become the tallest building of the city and of Colombia. The
building its expected to be the beginning of the city's downtown
Santa Barbara business district
Victorian architecture in Teusaquillo
Torres del Parque
Santa Maria bullring
Libraries and archives
Bogotá was named
World Book Capital by UNESCO.
the first Latin American city to receive this recognition, and the
second one in the Americas after Montreal. It stood out in programs,
the library network and the presence of organizations that, in a
coordinated manner, are working to promote books and reading in the
city. Several specific initiatives for the
World Book Capital program
have been undertaken with the commitment of groups, both public and
private, engaged in the book sector.
The city is home to the Biblored, an institution which administers 16
small and four large public libraries (Biblioteca Virgilio Barco,
Biblioteca El Tintal, Biblioteca El Tunal and Biblioteca Julio Mario
Santodomingo). It also has six branches of the Library Network of the
Family Compensation Fund Colsubsidio and libraries and documentation
centers attached to institutions like the Museo Nacional de Colombia
(specializing in old books, catalogs and art), Museum of Modern Art,
the Alliance Française, and the Centro Colombo Americano.
Another set of libraries are the new collaborative initiatives between
the state, city and international agencies. Examples are the Cultural
Center Gabriel García Marquez, custom designed by the Fondo de
Cultura Economica in Mexico, and the Spanish Cultural Center, which
will begin construction with public funds and of the Spanish
Government in downtown Bogotá.
The National Library of
Colombia (1777), under the Ministry of Culture
and the Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango (1958), under the Bank of the
Republic are the two largest public libraries in the city. The first
is the repository of more than two million volumes, with an important
collection of ancient books. The latter has almost two million
volumes. 45 thousand square metres (480 thousand square
feet) in size, it hosts 10 thousand visitors a day. Bank of the
Republic depends also on the Library Alfonso Palacio Rudas, north of
the city, with about 50 thousand volumes. Other large public libraries
are the Library of Congress in
Colombia (with 100 thousand volumes),
of the Instituto Caro y Cuervo (with nearly 200 thousand volumes, the
largest Latin American library in Philology and Linguistics), the
Library of the Academy of History The Library of the Academy of
Language, the Library of the Colombian Institute of Anthropology and
History ICANH, and many university libraries.
Bogotá is home to historical records housed in the General National
Archive, a collection of about 60 million documents, one of the
largest repositories of primary historical sources in Latin America.
Bogotá is also home to the Musical Archive of the Cathedral of
Bogotá (with thousands of books and choral song-colonial period), the
Archdiocesan Archive, the Archive of the Conciliar Seminary of
Bogotá, the Archive History National University of
Colombia and the
Archive of the Mint in Bogotá, under the Bank of the Republic.
National Library of Colombia
Santo Domingo Public Library
Virgilio Barco Public Library
El Tintal Public Library
Museums and galleries
National Museum of Colombia
The city offers 58 museums and over 70 art galleries.
Colombian National Museum
Colombian National Museum has acquisitions divided into four
collections: art, history, archeology and ethnography. The Gold
Museum, with 35,000 pieces of tumbaga gold, along with 30,000 objects
in ceramic, stone and textiles, represents the largest collection of
pre-Columbian gold in the world.
Botero Museum has 123 works of Fernando Botero and 87 works by
international artists. The Museum of Modern Art in
Bogotá has a
collection of graphic arts, industrial design and photography. The
Museum of Colonial Art is home to an important collection of colonial
art from Colombia. Fundación Gilberto Alzate Avendaño hosts
activities related to the performing arts and shows temporary exhibits
of art in its halls and galleries.
Among the scientific museums are the Archeological Museum – Casa del
Marqués de San Jorge, which has about 30 thousand pieces of
pre-Columbian art, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (UN), one of the
four largest museums of natural sciences in Latin America, and the
Geological Museum, which has a collection specializing in Geology and
Bogotá has historical museums like the Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Museum,
the Museum of Independence (Museo de la Independencia), the Quinta de
Bolívar and the Casa Museo Francisco José de Caldas, as well as the
headquarters of Maloka and the Children's Museum of Bogotá. New
museums include the Art Deco and the Museum of Bogotá.[citation
Theater and arts
Ibero-American Theater Festival
Teatro de Cristóbal Colón
Teatro de Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus Theater)
Besides the Ibero-American Theater Festival, the largest theater
festival in the world, the city has forty-five theaters; the principal
ones are the Colon Theater, the newly built Teatro Mayor Julio Mario
Santo Domingo, the National Theater with its two venues, the
traditional TPB Hall, the Theater of La Candelaria, the Camarin del
Carmen (over 400 years old, formerly a convent), the Colsubsidio, and
a symbol of the city, the renovated Teatro Jorge Eliecer Gaitan (the
highest capacity currently in South America), León de Greiff
Auditorium (home of the
Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra), and the Open
Air Theater "La Media Torta", where musical events are also held.
Bogotá has its own film festival, the
Bogotá Film Festival, and many
theaters, showing both contemporary films and art cinema.
The main cultural center of the city is the La Candelaria, historic
center of the city, with a concentration of universities and museums.
Bogotá was designated the Ibero-American cultural Capital of
Before the Spanish conquest, the beliefs of the inhabitants of Bogotá
formed part of the Muisca religion. From the colonial period onwards,
the city has been predominantly Roman Catholic. Proof of this
religious tradition is the number of churches built in the historic
city center. The city has been seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese
Bogotá since 22 March 1564. The seat of the Archbishop is the
Primary Cathedral of Bogota; the archdiocese itself is located in new
buildings in the north of the city. However a large group of the
population nowadays declares itself non-practicing.
The city has a mosque located in the area of
Chapinero called the
Estambul mosque, a mosque currently being built on the Calle 80
with Cra 30 called Abou Bakr Alsiddiq mosque and which is the
first in the city to have the traditional Islamic architecture, and an
Islamic Center called Al-Qurtubi.
Ashkenazi Jewish synagogue (there are a total of 4 synagogues
in Bogotá) is located on 94th street (also called State of Israel
An Eastern Orthodox church and the San Pablo Anglican Cathedral, the
mother church of the Episcopal Church in Colombia, are both located in
Colombia Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints is located in the Niza neighborhood. There are
four Buddhist centers located in the north of the city. There is also
a wide variety of Protestant churches in different parts of the city,
Bogotá Baptist Chapel, the non-denominational Union
Church, and the St. Matthaus Evangelical Lutheran Church which holds
services in German as well as Spanish for the German-Colombian
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes
Colombia Mormon Temple
Abou Bakr Alsiddiq Mosque
There is a broad array of restaurants in
Bogotá that serve typical
and international food. Parque de la 93, Usaquén, Zona T, The G Zone,
La Candelaria and the International Center are some of
the main sectors where a number of international restaurants are
found, ranging from Argentinian, Peruvian, Venezuelan, Brazilian,
Mexican, American establishments to Arabic, Asian, French, Italian,
Russian and British bistros, rotisseries, steakhouses and pubs, just
to name a few. Typical dishes of
Bogotá include the Ajiaco, a
soup prepared with chicken, a variety of potatoes, corn on the cob,
and guascas (an herb), usually served with sour cream and capers, and
accompanied by avocado and rice.
Tamale is a very traditional
Bogotá dish. Colombian tamal is a paste
made with rice, beef, pork and/or chicken (depending on the region),
chickpea, carrot, and spices, wrapped in plantain leaves and
Figs with arequipe, strawberries with cream, postre de natas and
cuajada con melao are some of the main desserts offered in the city.
Canelazo is a hot drink from the Altiplano prepared with aguapanela,
cinnamon and aguardiente. Another hot beverage is the Carajillo, made
with coffee (tinto as it is known in Colombia) and aguardiente.
Ajiaco is one of the city's most representative dishes
"Chocolate santafereño" (Santafe hot chocolate), almojábana, cheese
Parks and recreation
There are numerous parks in Bogotá, many with facilities for
concerts, plays, movies, storytellers and other activities.
Simón Bolívar Metropolitan Park
Simón Bolívar Metropolitan Park is a large park regularly used to
stage free concerts (such as the annual Rock al Parque, a festival in
which popular and/or recently formed international, latinamerican, and
Colombian rock bands play free of charge).
The public Parque Nacional (National Park) has green spaces, ponds,
games for children, foot and bicycle paths, and venues for
entertainment such as public screenings of movies and concerts and
events organized by the Council of Bogotá
Bogotá Botanical Garden
Bogotá Botanical Garden (Jardín Botánico de Bogotá)
Parque de la 93 has day-time leisure activities and nightlife. Several
of the top restaurants and bars in the city are in this park, the park
is known around the world like the Colombian
Pike Place by having the
Starbucks in all the country and
Carls Jr. as well.
Mundo Aventura is an amusement park, with an entry charge and charges
for the different attractions. It has rides for adults and children, a
petting zoo, and the "cerdodromo", where pigs race.
Salitre Mágico is another amusement park with rides and attractions.
The park is near the Simón Bolívar park, where concerts are held
throughout the year.
Parque del Chicó has trees, gardens, artificial creeks and ponds, and
a colonial style house converted into a museum; Museo del Chicó
To the north of Bogotá, in the municipality of Tocancipá; Parque
Jaime Duque has rides, a giant map of Colombia, popular exhibits, a
zoo, and a big hand holding the world symbolizing God. There is a
reproduction of the
Taj Mahal in the park with a collection of
reproductions of famous paintings. The park is also used for large
concerts, mainly electronic music ones.
Maloka is an interactive museum of sciences
Tourist train is a sightseeing train, popular with
which runs to outlying towns Zipaquirá,
the lines of the former
Savannah Railway on weekends. The
Zipaquirá (famous for its salt cathedral) is 53 kilometres
(33 miles) long. Another line goes towards the north for 47 km
(29 mi) and ends at Briceño.
Usaquén Park is another of the most important parks in the city
several of the best restaurants in this city are located there, is
recognized to have street performers such as storytellers, magicians,
jugglers, etc. and also for being one of the most decorated parks in
the city during Christmas time.
Simon Bolivar Park
El Virrey park
Estadio El Campín
The District Institute for Recreation and Sport promotes recreation,
sports and use of the parks in Bogotá.
Football has been declared a symbol of Bogotá, and is widely played
in the city. There are three professional clubs in the city, Santa Fe,
Millonarios, and La Equidad. The main stadium in the city is The
Campín Stadium (Estadio Nemesio Camacho El Campín) home of the local
teams Santa Fe and Millonarios, In 2001 The Campín Stadium has been
the place for the
2001 Copa América
2001 Copa América final between the Colombia
national football and the
Mexico national football, final score 1–0
in favor of the home team and finally getting their first continental
cup. The other soccer venue is the multi-use Techo Metropolitan
Stadium which is the home of La Equidad.
Other major sporting venues are the covered Coliseum El Campín, the
Simón Bolívar Aquatic Complex, the Sports Palace, the El Salitre
Sports Venue which includes the
Luis Carlos Galán Velodrome (which
hosted the 1995 UCI Track Cycling World Championships), the El Salitre
Diamond Ballpark and the
BMX track "Mario Andrés Soto".
Bogotá hosted the first Bolivarian Games held in 1938. The city
hosted the National Games in 2004, winning the championship. It was a
sub-venue Bolivarian Pan American Games. In addition, the city on the
route of the Tour of Colombia.
After being a major venue city for the
2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup
2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup that
was held in Colombia, the Colombian Football Federation announced that
Bogotá will be one of the venue cities to host the 2016 FIFA Futsal
World Cup as well.
League (Cup) / Sport
Stadium / Coliseum
Independiente Santa Fe
Liga Águila / Soccer
El Campin Stadium
16 (9 ligas, 1 Copa Sudamericana, 1 Suruga Bank Championship, 2 Copa
Colombia, 3 Superliga)
Liga Aguila / Soccer
El Campín Stadium
19 (15 ligas, 1 copas merconorte, 3 Copa Colombia)
Liga Águila / Soccer
Techo Metropolitan Stadium
1 (1 Copa Colombia)
Liga Águila / Soccer
Techo Metropolitan Stadium
Guerreros de Bogotá
DirecTV / Basketball
El Salitre Coliseum
1 (1 copas)
Bogotá Piratas S.A
DirecTV / Basketball
El Salitre Coliseum
4 (4 copas)
The flag originated with the insurgency movement against the colonial
authorities which began on 20 July 1810, during which the rebels wore
armbands with yellow and red bands, as these colours were those of the
Spanish flag used as the flag for the New Kingdom of Granada.[citation
On 9 October 1952, exactly 142 years after these events, decree 555 of
1952 officially adopted the patriotic armband as the flag of
Bogotá. The flag of Cundinamarca follows the same pattern, plus a
light blue tile which represents the Virgin Mary's cape.
The flag itself is a yellow band above a red one. The yellow denotes
the gold from the earth, as well as the virtues of justice, clemency,
benevolence, the so-called "mundane qualities" (defined as nobility,
excellence, richness, generosity, splendour, health, steadfastness,
joy and prosperity), long life, eternity, power and constancy. The red
denotes the virtue of charity, as well as the qualities of bravery,
nobility, values, audacity, victory, honour and furor, Colombians call
it the blood of their people.
The coat of arms of the city was granted by emperor Charles V (Charles
I of Spain) to the New Kingdom of Granada, by royal decree given in
Spain on 3 December 1548. It contains a black eagle in the
center, which symbolises steadfastness. The eagle is also a symbol of
the Habsburgs, which was the ruling family of the Spanish empire at
the time. The eagle is crowned with gold and holds a red pomegranate
inside a golden background. The border contains olive branches with
nine golden pomegranates on a blue background. The two red
pomegranates symbolize audacity, and the nine golden ones represent
the nine states which constituted the
New Kingdom of Granada
New Kingdom of Granada at the
time. In 1932 the coat of arms was officially recognized and adopted
as the symbol of Bogotá.
Bogotá's anthem lyrics were written by Pedro Medina Avendaño; the
melody was composed by Roberto Pineda Duque. The song was officially
declared the anthem by decree 1000 31 July 1974, by then Mayor of
Bogotá, Aníbal Fernandez de Soto.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South America
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Twin towns and sister cities
Bogotá is twinned with:
New York City, USA
London, United Kingdom
Chicago, USA (2009)
Washington, D.C., USA
Seoul, South Korea
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates (2008)
Miami, USA (1971)
Tehran, Iran
Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
Bogotá is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from
12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Guatemala City, Guatemala
La Paz, Bolivia
Mexico City, Mexico
Panama City, Panama
San Jose, Costa Rica
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Salvador, El Salvador
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Partnerships and cooperations
Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin
city programmes exist:
Panoramic view of Bogotá
View of Bolívar Square, Bogotá
Notable people from Bogotá
Arturo Acevedo Vallarino
Arturo Acevedo Vallarino (1873–1950), director of silent films
Haider Ackermann (1971–), fashion designer
Alberto Castilla (1883–1938), engineer, journalist, poet, writer,
mathematician and musician
Guillermo Cano Isaza
Guillermo Cano Isaza (1925–1986), journalist and editor of the El
Esteban Chaves (1990–), professional bycicle road racer
Miguel Antonio Caro
Miguel Antonio Caro (1843–1909), politician and 1894–1898
President of Colombia
Fernando Cepeda Ulloa (1938–), politician
José Vicente Concha
José Vicente Concha (1867–1929), former president of Colombia
Esteban Cortázar (1984–), fashion designer
Rufino José Cuervo
Rufino José Cuervo (1844–1911), writer, linguist and philologist
José Domingo Duquesne
José Domingo Duquesne (1748–1822), theologist and Muisca scholar
Hernando Durán Dussán (1920–1998), politician
Andrea Echeverri (1965–), musician, lead singer of Aterciopelados
Pedro Franco (1991–), footballer
Santiago Gamboa (1965–), writer
Rodrigo García (1959–), film director, son of Gabriel García
Álvaro Gómez Hurtado
Álvaro Gómez Hurtado (1919–1995), politician
Laureano Gómez (1889–1965), former president of Colombia
Miguel Gómez (1974–), photographer
Ana María Groot
Ana María Groot (1952–), anthropologist and archaeologist
Juan B. Gutiérrez, (1973–), writer and mathematician
Rudolf Hommes Rodríguez (1943–), politician
John Leguizamo (1964–), actor and comedian
Alfonso López Caballero (1944–), politician
Alberto Lleras Camargo
Alberto Lleras Camargo (1906–1990), former president of Colombia
Carlos Lleras Restrepo
Carlos Lleras Restrepo (1908–1994), former president of Colombia
Rodolfo Llinás (1934–), neuroscientist
Chucho Merchán (1952–), bassist
Antanas Mockus (1952–), politician, philosopher, mathematician
Juan Pablo Montoya
Juan Pablo Montoya (1975–), race car driver
Rafael Novoa (1971–), actor
Ana María Orozco
Ana María Orozco (1973–), actress
Rafael Pardo Rueda
Rafael Pardo Rueda (1953–), politician
Joaquín París Ricaurte (1795–1898), independence hero
Andrés Pastrana Arango
Andrés Pastrana Arango (1954–), former president of Colombia
Enrique Peñalosa (1955–), mayor of
Bogotá (2016–2019), urbanist
Juan Pablo Plata Figueroa, (1982–), writer and journalist
Rafael Pombo (1833–1912), poet, writer and diplomat
Rafael Puyana (1931–2013), harpsichordist
José Robles (1964–), former professional cyclist
Clara Rojas (born 1964), politician, lawyer and former FARC hostage
Patricio Samper Gnecco (1930–2006), architect, politician
Daniel Samper Pizano
Daniel Samper Pizano (1945–), journalist
Catalina Sandino Moreno
Catalina Sandino Moreno (1981–), actress
Juan Manuel Santos
Juan Manuel Santos (1951–), current president of Colombia
Eugene Semple (1840–1908), American politician and from 1887 to 1889
the 13th Governor of Washington Territory
José Asunción Silva
José Asunción Silva (1865–1896), poet, writer
Miguel Triana (1859–1931), engineer and Muisca scholar
Diana Turbay (1950–1991), journalist
Liborio Zerda (1834–1919), physician and Muisca scholar
Rail transport in Colombia
Transport in Colombia
World's largest cities
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Quesada – Banco de la República
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^ "Seguridad, ciudadanía y políticas públicas en Bogotá" (in
Spanish). IRG. Archived from the original on 22 June 2009. Retrieved
29 December 2008.
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Spanish). El Tiempo. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
^ "Homicidios" (PDF) (in Spanish). El Tiempos. p. 36. Retrieved
29 December 2008.
^ "Homicidios" (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Medicina
Legal y Ciencias Forenses. p. 36. Archived from the original
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Spanish). igarape.org.br. p. 39. Retrieved 13 February
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Spanish). Alcaldía Mayor de Bogota. 2007. Retrieved 29 December
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GaWC 2016". lboro.ac.uk.
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^ a b "Bogota becomes full alliance partner of BestCities Global
Alliance". traveldailynews.com. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
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bogota-nobelpeacesummit.com. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
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Chapinero waterfalls – Hiking a secret place in
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^ "Alameda de Quebrada Vieja (Bogota, Colombia): Address, Hiking Trail
Reviews – TripAdvisor". www.tripadvisor.com. Retrieved
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Colombia rising? Links International Journal of Socialist
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Gobierno de Bogotá. 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008. [dead
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Bogotá". Worldbank.org. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
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Spanish). El Espectador. 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
^ "Bogotanos olvidaron para qué fue creado el Día sin carro" (in
Spanish). Cambio. 2 November 2008. Archived from the original on 20
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automobiles in first ever Car Free Week". green.autoblog.com.
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^ (in Spanish) Carrera 11 de 4 a 3 carriles con un carril doble
sentido para bicicletas –
Caracol Radio – accessed 25-04-2016
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Attribution 4.0 International License.
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Bibliography and further reading on pre-Columbian Bogotá
Correal Urrego, Gonzalo. 1990. Evidencias culturales durante el
Pleistocene y Holoceno de
Colombia – Cultural evidences during the
Pleistocene and Holocene of Colombia. Revista de Arqueología
Americana 1. 69–89. Accessed 2016-07-08.
Argüello García, Pedro María. 2015. Subsistence economy and
chiefdom emergence in the Muisca area. A study of the Valle de Tena
(PhD), 1–193. University of Pittsburgh. Accessed 2016-07-08.
Francis, John Michael. 1993. "Muchas hipas, no minas" The Muiscas, a
merchant society: Spanish misconceptions and demographic change
(M.A.), 1–118. University of Alberta.
Society & tunjos
Cooper, Jago, and Carl Henrik Langebaek. 2013. The Lost Kingdoms of
South America – Episode 3 – Lands of Gold. Accessed 2016-07-14.
Gamboa Mendoza, Jorge. 2016. Los muiscas, grupos indígenas del Nuevo
Reino de Granada. Una nueva propuesta sobre su organizacíon
socio-política y su evolucíon en el siglo XVI – The Muisca,
indigenous groups of the New Kingdom of Granada. A new proposal on
their social-political organization and their evolution in the 16th
century. Museo del Oro. Accessed 2016-07-08.
Boada Rivas, Ana María. 2006. Patrones de asentamiento regional y
sistemas de agricultura intensiva en Cota y Suba, Sabana de Bogotá
(Colombia) – Regional settlement patterns and intensive agricultural
systems in Cota and Suba,
Bogotá savanna (Colombia), 1–181. Banco
de la República. Accessed 2016-07-08.
Broadbent, Sylvia M. 1968. A prehistoric field system in Chibcha
territory, Colombia. Ñawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology 6.
Astronomy & calendar
Izquierdo Peña, Manuel Arturo. 2014. Calendario Muisca – Muisca
calendar. Accessed 2016-07-08.
Daza, Blanca Ysabel. 2013. Historia del proceso de mestizaje
Colombia y España – History of the integration
process of foods between
Spain (PhD), 1–494.
Universitat de Barcelona.
Mythology and religion
Ocampo López, Javier. 2013. Mitos y leyendas indígenas de Colombia
– Indigenous myths and legends of Colombia, 1–219.
Ocampo López, Javier. 2007. Grandes culturas indígenas de América
– Great indigenous cultures of the Americas, 1–238.
Women in early colonial Bogotá
Groot, Ana María. 2014 (2008). Sal y poder en el altiplano de
Bogotá, 1537–1640, 1–174. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Early colonial Muisca
Francis, John Michael. 2002. Población, enfermedad y cambio
demográfico, 1537–1636. Demografía histórica de Tunja: Una mirada
crítica. Fronteras de la Historia 7. 13–76.
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