Felis rufus Schreber
The bobcat (
Lynx rufus) is a North American cat that appeared during
Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago (AEO).
Containing 12 recognized subspecies, it ranges from southern
central Mexico, including most of the contiguous United States. The
bobcat is an adaptable predator that inhabits wooded areas, as well as
semidesert, urban edge, forest edge, and swampland environments. It
remains in some of its original range, but populations are vulnerable
to local extinction ("extirpation") by coyotes and domestic animals.
With a gray to brown coat, whiskered face, and black-tufted ears, the
bobcat resembles the other species of the midsized
Lynx genus. It is
smaller on average than the
Canada lynx, with which it shares parts of
its range, but is about twice as large as the domestic cat. It has
distinctive black bars on its forelegs and a black-tipped, stubby (or
"bobbed") tail, from which it derives its name.
Though the bobcat prefers rabbits and hares, it hunts insects,
chickens, geese and other birds, small rodents, and deer. Prey
selection depends on location and habitat, season, and abundance. Like
most cats, the bobcat is territorial and largely solitary, although
with some overlap in home ranges. It uses several methods to mark its
territorial boundaries, including claw marks and deposits of urine or
feces. The bobcat breeds from winter into spring and has a gestation
period of about two months.
Although bobcats have been hunted extensively by humans, both for
sport and fur, their population has proven resilient though declining
in some areas. The elusive predator features in Native American
mythology and the folklore of European settlers.
2 Physical characteristics
3.1 Social structure and home range
3.2 Hunting and diet
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
6 Distribution and habitat
8 Importance in human culture
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Comparative illustration of bobcat (top) and
Canada lynx (bottom)
There had been debate over whether to classify this species as Lynx
Felis rufus as part of a wider issue regarding whether the
four species of
Lynx should be given their own genus, or be placed as
a subgenus of Felis. The
Lynx genus is now accepted, and the
bobcat is listed as
Lynx rufus in modern taxonomic sources.
Johnson et al. reported
Lynx shared a clade with the puma, leopard cat
(Prionailurus), and domestic cat (Felis) lineages, dated to
7.15 million years ago (mya);
Lynx diverged first, approximately
3.24 million years ago.
The bobcat is believed to have evolved from the Eurasian lynx, which
crossed into North America by way of the
Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge during the
Pleistocene, with progenitors arriving as early as 2.6 million years
ago. The first wave moved into the southern portion of North
America, which was soon cut off from the north by glaciers. This
population evolved into modern bobcats around 20,000 years ago. A
second population arrived from Asia and settled in the north,
developing into the modern
Canada lynx. Hybridization between the
bobcat and the
Canada lynx may sometimes occur.
Thirteen bobcat subspecies have been historically recognized based on
L. rufus rufus (Schreber) – eastern and midwestern United States
L. r. gigas (Bangs) – northern New York to
Nova Scotia and New
L. r. floridanus (Rafinesque) – southeastern United States and
inland to the Mississippi valley, up to southwestern
L. r. superiorensis (Peterson & Downing) – western Great Lakes
area, including upper Michigan, Wisconsin, southern Ontario, and most
L. r. baileyi (Merriam) – southwestern United States and
L. r. californicus (Mearns) –
California west of the Sierra Nevada
L. r. mohavensis (B.Anderson) –
Mojave Desert of California
L. r. escuinapae (J. A. Allen) – central Mexico, with a northern
extension along the west coast to southern Sonora
L. r. fasciatus (Rafinesque) – Oregon, Washington west of the
Cascade Range, northwestern California, and southwestern British
L. r. oaxacensis (Goodwin) – Oaxaca
L. r. pallescens (Merriam) – northwestern United States and southern
British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan
L. r. peninsularis (Thomas) – Baja California
L. r. texensis (Mearns) – western Louisiana, Texas, south central
Oklahoma, and south into Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and Coahuila
This subspecies division has been challenged, given a lack of clear
geographic breaks in their ranges and the minor differences between
subspecies. The latest revision of cat taxonomy based on
phylogeographic and genetic studies recognises only two subspecies,
although the status of Mexican bobcats (
Lynx rufus esquinapae and Lynx
rufus oaxacensis) remains under review: 
Lynx rufus rufus – east of the Great Plains, North America
Lynx rufus fasciatus – west of the Great Plains, North America
A bobcat finds water
Bobcat in the front yard of a residence
The bobcat resembles other species of the
Lynx genus, but is on
average the smallest of the four. Its coat is variable, though
generally tan to grayish-brown, with black streaks on the body and
dark bars on the forelegs and tail. Its spotted patterning acts as
camouflage. The ears are black-tipped and pointed, with short, black
tufts. Generally, an off-white color is seen on the lips, chin, and
underparts. Bobcats in the desert regions of the southwest have the
lightest-colored coats, while those in the northern, forested regions
are darkest. Kittens are born well-furred and already have their
spots. A few melanistic bobcats have been sighted and captured in
Florida. They appear black, but may still exhibit a spot pattern.
The face appears wide due to ruffs of extended hair beneath the ears.
Bobcat eyes are yellow with black pupils. The nose of the bobcat is
pinkish-red, and it has a base color of gray or yellowish- or
brownish-red on its face, sides, and back. The pupils are round,
black circles and will widen during nocturnal activity to maximize
light reception. The cat has sharp hearing and vision, and a good
sense of smell. It is an excellent climber, and swims when it needs
to, but normally avoids water. However, cases of bobcats swimming
long distances across lakes have been recorded.
The adult bobcat is 47.5 to 125 cm (18.7 to 49.2 in) long
from the head to the base of the tail, averaging 82.7 cm
(32.6 in); the stubby tail adds 9 to 20 cm (3.5 to
7.9 in) and its "bobbed" appearance gives the species its
name. An adult stands about 30 to 60 cm (12 to
24 in) at the shoulders. Adult males can range in weight
from 6.4 to 18.3 kg (14 to 40 lb), with an average of
9.6 kg (21 lb); females at 4 to 15.3 kg (8.8 to
33.7 lb), with an average of 6.8 kg (15 lb).
The largest bobcat accurately measured on record weighed 22.2 kg
(49 lb), although unverified reports have them reaching
27 kg (60 lb). Furthermore, a June 20, 2012 report of a
New Hampshire roadkill specimen listed the animal's weight at
27 kg (60 lb). The largest-bodied bobcats are from
Canada and northern New England of the subspecies L. r. gigas,
while the smallest are from the southeastern subspecies L. r.
floridanus, particularly those in the southern Appalachians. The
bobcat is muscular, and its hind legs are longer than its front legs,
giving it a bobbing gait. At birth, it weighs 0.6 to 0.75 lb (270
to 340 g) and is about 10 in (25 cm) in length. By its
first birthday, it weighs about 10 lb (4.5 kg).
The cat is larger in its northern range and in open habitats. A
morphological size comparison study in the eastern United States found
a divergence in the location of the largest male and female specimens,
suggesting differing selection constraints for the sexes.
The bobcat is crepuscular, and is active mostly during twilight. It
keeps on the move from three hours before sunset until about midnight,
and then again from before dawn until three hours after sunrise. Each
night, it moves from 2 to 7 mi (3.2 to 11.3 km) along its
habitual route. This behavior may vary seasonally, as bobcats
become more diurnal during fall and winter in response to the activity
of their prey, which are more active during the day in colder
Social structure and home range
Bobcat activities are confined to well-defined territories, which vary
in size depending on the sex and the distribution of prey. The home
range is marked with feces, urine scent, and by clawing prominent
trees in the area. In its territory, the bobcat has numerous
places of shelter, usually a main den, and several auxiliary shelters
on the outer extent of its range, such as hollow logs, brush piles,
thickets, or under rock ledges. Its den smells strongly of the
The sizes of bobcats' home ranges vary significantly; a World
Conservation Union (IUCN) summary of research suggests ranges from
0.23 to 126 sq mi (0.60 to 326.34 km2). One study
in Kansas found resident males to have ranges of roughly
8 sq mi (21 km2), and females less than half that area.
Transient bobcats were found to have both larger (roughly
22 sq mi (57 km2)) and less well-defined home ranges.
Kittens had the smallest range at about 3 sq mi
(7.8 km2). Dispersal from the natal range is most pronounced
Reports on seasonal variation in range size have been equivocal. One
study found a large variation in male range sizes, from
16 sq mi (41 km2) in summer up to 40 sq mi
(100 km2) in winter. Another found that female bobcats,
especially those which were reproductively active, expanded their home
range in winter, but that males merely shifted their range without
expanding it, which was consistent with numerous earlier studies.
Other research in various American states has shown little or no
Like most felines, the bobcat is largely solitary, but ranges often
overlap. Unusual for cats, males are more tolerant of overlap, while
females rarely wander into others' ranges. Given their smaller
range sizes, two or more females may reside within a male's home
range. When multiple territories overlap, a dominance hierarchy is
often established, resulting in the exclusion of some transients from
In line with widely differing estimates of home range size, population
density figures are divergent, from one to 38 bobcats per
10 sq mi (26 km2) in one survey. The average is
estimated at one bobcat per 5 square miles (13 km2). A link
has been observed between population density and sex ratio. One study
noted a dense, unhunted population in
California had a sex ratio of
2.1 males per female. When the density decreased, the sex ratio skewed
to 0.86 males per female. Another study observed a similar ratio, and
suggested the males may be better able to cope with the increased
competition, and this helped limit reproduction until various factors
lowered the density.
Hunting and diet
Bobcats often prey on rabbits, hares, and rodents.
The bobcat is able to survive for long periods without food, but eats
heavily when prey is abundant. During lean periods, it often preys on
larger animals, which it can kill and return to feed later. The bobcat
hunts by stalking its prey and then ambushing with a short chase or
pounce. Its preference is for mammals weighing about 1.5 to
12.5 lb (0.68 to 5.67 kg). Its main prey varies by region.
In the eastern United States, it is the eastern cottontail species,
and in the north it is the snowshoe hare. When these prey species
exist together, as in New England, they are the primary food sources
of the bobcat. In the far south, the rabbits and hares are sometimes
replaced by cotton rats as the primary food source. Birds up to the
size of a swan are also taken, along with their fledglings and eggs.
The bobcat is an opportunistic predator that, unlike the more
Canada lynx, readily varies its prey selection. Diet
diversification positively correlates to a decline in numbers of the
bobcat's principal prey; the abundance of its main prey species is the
main determinant of overall diet.
The bobcat hunts animals of different sizes, and adjusts its hunting
techniques accordingly. With small animals, such as rodents (including
squirrels), birds, fish including small sharks, and insects, it
hunts in areas known to be abundant in prey, and will lie, crouch, or
stand, and wait for victims to wander close. It then pounces, grabbing
its prey with its sharp, retractable claws. For slightly larger
animals, such as geese, rabbits, and hares, it stalks from cover and
waits until prey comes within 20 to 35 ft (6.1 to 10.7 m)
before rushing in to attack. Less commonly, it feeds on larger
animals, such as young ungulates, and other carnivores, such as
fishers (primarily female), foxes, minks, skunks, small dogs, and
domesticated cats. Bobcats are considered the major
predatory threat to the endangered whooping crane. Bobcats are
also occasional hunters of livestock and poultry. While larger
species, such as cattle and horses, are not known to be attacked,
bobcats do present a threat to smaller ruminants, such as sheep and
goats. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service,
bobcats killed 11,100 sheep in 2004, comprising 4.9% of all sheep
predator deaths. However, some amount of bobcat predation may be
misidentified, as bobcats have been known to scavenge on the remains
of livestock kills by other animals.
It has been known to kill deer, especially in winter when smaller prey
is scarce, or when deer populations become more abundant. One study in
Everglades showed a large majority of kills (33 of 39) were fawns,
but prey up to eight times the bobcat's weight could be successfully
taken. It stalks the deer, often when the deer is lying down, then
rushes in and grabs it by the neck before biting the throat, base of
the skull, or chest. On the rare occasions a bobcat kills a deer, it
eats its fill and then buries the carcass under snow or leaves, often
returning to it several times to feed.
The bobcat prey base overlaps with that of other midsized predators of
a similar ecological niche. Research in
Maine has shown little
evidence of competitive relationships between the bobcat and coyote or
red fox; separation distances and territory overlap appeared random
among simultaneously monitored animals. However, other studies
have found bobcat populations may decrease in areas with high coyote
populations, with the more social inclination of the canid giving them
a possible competitive advantage. With the
Canada lynx, however,
the interspecific relationship affects distribution patterns;
competitive exclusion by the bobcat is likely to have prevented any
further southward expansion of the range of its felid relative.
Reproduction and life cycle
Bobcat kittens in June, about 2–4 months old
The average bobcat lifespan is 7 years long and rarely exceeds 10
years. The oldest wild bobcat on record was 16 years old, and the
oldest captive bobcat lived to be 32.
Bobcats generally begin breeding by their second summer, though
females may start as early as their first year. Sperm production
begins each year by September or October, and the male is fertile into
the summer. A dominant male travels with a female and mates with her
several times, generally from winter until early spring; this varies
by location, but most mating takes place during February and March.
The pair may undertake a number of different behaviors, including
bumping, chasing, and ambushing. Other males may be in attendance, but
remain uninvolved. Once the male recognizes the female is receptive,
he grasps her in the typical felid neck grip and mates with her. The
female may later go on to mate with other males, and males
generally mate with several females. During courtship, the
otherwise silent bobcat may let out loud screams, hisses, or other
sounds. Research in
Texas has suggested establishing a home range
is necessary for breeding; studied animals with no set range had no
identified offspring. The female has an estrous cycle of 44 days,
with the estrus lasting five to ten days. Bobcats remain
reproductively active throughout their lives.
The female raises the young alone. One to six, but usually two to
four, kittens are born in April or May, after roughly 60 to 70 days of
gestation. Sometimes, a second litter is born as late as September.
The female generally gives birth in an enclosed space, usually a small
cave or hollow log. The young open their eyes by the ninth or tenth
day. They start exploring their surroundings at four weeks and are
weaned at about two months. Within three to five months, they begin to
travel with their mother. They hunt by themselves by fall of their
first year, and usually disperse shortly thereafter. In Michigan,
however, they have been observed staying with their mother as late as
the next spring.
Bobcat tracks in mud showing the hind-paw print (top) partially
covering the fore-paw print (center)
Bobcat tracks show four toes without claw marks, due to their
retractable claws. The tracks can range in size from 1 to 3 in
(2.5 to 7.6 cm); the average is about 1.8 inches. When
walking or trotting, the tracks are spaced roughly 8 to 18 in (20
to 46 cm) apart. The bobcat can make great strides when running,
often from 4 to 8 ft (1.2 to 2.4 m).
Like all cats, the bobcat 'directly registers', meaning its hind
prints usually fall exactly on top of its fore prints.
can be generally distinguished from feral or house cat tracks by their
larger size: about 2.0 in2 (13 cm²) versus 1.5 in2
Skull of a bobcat
The adult bobcat has few predators other than humans, although it may
be killed in interspecific conflict. Cougars and gray wolves can kill
adult bobcats, a behavior repeatedly observed in Yellowstone National
Park. Coyotes have killed adult bobcats and kittens.
At least one confirmed observation of a bobcat and an American black
bear (Ursus americanus) fighting over a carcass is confirmed.
Bobcat remains have occasionally been found in the resting sites of
Bobcat confronting a pair of coyotes.
Kittens may be taken by several predators, including owls, eagles,
foxes, coyotes, and bears, as well as other adult male bobcats;
when prey populations are not abundant, fewer kittens are likely to
reach adulthood. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have been
reportedly observed preying on bobcats.
Diseases, accidents, hunters, automobiles, and starvation are the
other leading causes of death. Juveniles show high mortality shortly
after leaving their mothers, while still perfecting their hunting
techniques. One study of 15 bobcats showed yearly survival rates for
both sexes averaged 0.62, in line with other research suggesting rates
of 0.56 to 0.67. Cannibalism has been reported; kittens may be
taken when prey levels are low, but this is very rare and does not
much influence the population.
The bobcat may have external parasites, mostly ticks and fleas, and
often carries the parasites of its prey, especially those of rabbits
and squirrels. Internal parasites (endoparasites) are especially
common in bobcats. One study found an average infection rate of
52% from Toxoplasma gondii, but with great regional variation. One
mite in particular, Lynxacarus morlani, has to date been found only on
the bobcat. Parasites' and diseases' role in the mortality of the
bobcat is still unclear, but they may account for greater mortality
than starvation, accidents, and predation.
Distribution and habitat
Bobcat in urban surroundings: The species' range does not seem to be
limited by human populations, as long as it can still find a suitable
The bobcat is an adaptable animal. It prefers woodlands—deciduous,
coniferous, or mixed—but unlike the other
Lynx species, it does not
depend exclusively on the deep forest. It ranges from the humid swamps
of Florida to desert lands of
Texas or rugged mountain areas. It makes
its home near agricultural areas, if rocky ledges, swamps, or forested
tracts are present; its spotted coat serves as camouflage. The
population of the bobcat depends primarily on the population of its
prey; other principal factors in the selection of habitat type include
protection from severe weather, availability of resting and den sites,
dense cover for hunting and escape, and freedom from disturbance.
The bobcat's range does not seem to be limited by human populations,
as long as it can find a suitable habitat; only large, intensively
cultivated tracts are unsuitable for the species. The animal may
appear in back yards in "urban edge" environments, where human
development intersects with natural habitats. If chased by a dog,
it usually climbs up a tree.
The historical range of the bobcat was from southern Canada,
throughout the United States, and as far south as the Mexican state of
Oaxaca, and it still persists across much of this area. In the 20th
century, it was thought to have lost territory in the US
parts of the Northeast, including southern Minnesota, eastern South
Dakota, and much of Missouri, mostly due to habitat changes from
modern agricultural practices. While thought to no longer
exist in western New York and Pennsylvania, multiple confirmed
sightings of bobcats (including dead specimens) have been recently
reported in New York's
Southern Tier and in central New York, and a
bobcat was captured in 2018 on a tourist boat in Downtown Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. In addition, bobcat sightings have been
confirmed in northern Indiana, and one was recently killed near
Albion, Michigan. In early March, 2010, a bobcat was sighted (and
later captured by animal control authorities) in a parking garage in
downtown Houston. By 2010, bobcats appear to have recolonized many
states, occurring in every state except Delaware.
Its population in
Canada is limited due to both snow depth and the
presence of the Canadian lynx. The bobcat does not tolerate deep snow,
and waits out heavy storms in sheltered areas; it lacks the large,
padded feet of the Canadian lynx and cannot support its weight on snow
as efficiently. The bobcat is not entirely at a disadvantage where its
range meets that of the larger felid: displacement of the Canadian
lynx by the aggressive bobcat has been observed where they interact in
Nova Scotia, while the clearing of coniferous forests for agriculture
has led to a northward retreat of the Canadian lynx's range to the
advantage of the bobcat. In northern and central Mexico, the cat
is found in dry scrubland and forests of pine and oak; its range ends
at the tropical southern portion of the country.
The bobcat population has seen decline in the American Midwest, but is
generally stable and healthy.
It is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade
in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which means
it is not considered threatened with extinction, but hunting and
trading must be closely monitored. The animal is regulated in all
three of its range countries, and is found in a number of protected
areas of the United States, its principal territory. Estimates
from the US
Fish and Wildlife Service placed bobcat numbers between
700,000 and 1,500,000 in the US in 1988, with increased range and
population density suggesting even greater numbers in subsequent
years; for these reasons, the U.S. has petitioned
CITES to remove the
cat from Appendix II. Populations in
stable and healthy. The IUCN lists it as a species of least concern,
noting it is relatively widespread and abundant, but information from
Mexico is poor. The species is considered endangered in
Ohio, Indiana, and New Jersey. It was removed from the threatened list
Illinois in 1999 and of Iowa in 2003. In Pennsylvania, limited
hunting and trapping are once again allowed, after having been banned
from 1970 to 1999. The bobcat also suffered population decline in New
Jersey at the turn of the 19th century, mainly because of commercial
and agricultural developments causing habitat fragmentation; by 1972,
the bobcat was given full legal protection, and was listed as
endangered in the state in 1991. L. r. escuinipae, the subspecies
found in Mexico, was for a time considered endangered by the US Fish
and Wildlife Service, but was delisted in 2005.
The bobcat has long been valued both for fur and sport; it has been
hunted and trapped by humans, but has maintained a high population,
even in the southern United States, where it is extensively hunted. In
the 1970s and 1980s, an unprecedented rise in price for bobcat fur
caused further interest in hunting, but by the early 1990s, prices had
dropped significantly. Regulated hunting still continues, with
half of mortality of some populations being attributed to this cause.
As a result, the rate of bobcat deaths is skewed in winter, when
hunting season is generally open.
Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of contiguous natural
landscapes into patchy habitat within an urban area. Animals that live
in these fragmented areas often have reduced movement between the
habitat patches, which can lead to reduced gene flow and pathogen
transmission between patches. Animals such as the bobcat are
particularly sensitive to fragmentation because of their large home
ranges. A study in coastal Southern
California has shown bobcat
populations are affected by urbanization, creation of roads, and other
developments. The populations may not be declining as much as
predicted, but instead the connectivity of different populations is
affected. This leads to a decrease in natural genetic diversity among
bobcat populations. For bobcats, preserving open space in
sufficient quantities and quality is necessary for population
viability. Educating local residents about the animals is critical, as
well, for conservation in urban areas.
In bobcats using urban habitats in California, the use of rodenticides
has been linked to both secondary poisoning by consuming poisoned rats
and mice, and to increased rates of severe mite infestation (known as
notoedric mange), as an animal with a poison-weakened immune system is
less capable of fighting off mange. Liver autopsies in California
bobcats that have succumbed to notoedric mange have revealed chronic
rodenticide exposure. Alternative rodent control measures such
as vegetation control and use of traps have been suggested to
alleviate this issue.
Importance in human culture
In Native American mythology, the bobcat is often twinned with the
figure of the coyote in a theme of duality.
Lynx and coyote are
associated with the fog and wind, respectively—two elements
representing opposites in Native American folklore. This basic story,
in many variations, is found in the native cultures of North America
(with parallels in South America), but they diverge in the telling.
One version, which appears in the Nez Perce folklore for instance,
depicts lynx and coyote as opposed, antithetical beings. However,
another version depicts them with equality and identicality. Claude
Lévi-Strauss argues the former concept, that of twins representing
opposites, is an inherent theme in New World mythologies, but they are
not equally balanced figures, representing an open-ended dualism
rather than the symmetric duality of Old World cultures. The latter
notion then, Lévi-Strauss suggests, is the result of regular contact
between Europeans and native cultures. Additionally, the version found
in the Nez Perce story is of much greater complexity, while the
version of equality seems to have lost the tale's original
Shawnee tale, the bobcat is outwitted by a rabbit, which gives
rise to its spots. After trapping the rabbit in a tree, the bobcat is
persuaded to build a fire, only to have the embers scattered on its
fur, leaving it singed with dark brown spots. The Mohave believed
dreaming habitually of beings or objects would afford them their
characteristics as supernatural powers. Dreaming of two deities,
cougar and lynx, they thought, would grant them the superior hunting
skills of other tribes. European settlers to the Americas also
admired the cat, both for its ferocity and its grace, and in the
United States, it "rests prominently in the anthology of ...
Grave artifacts from dirt domes excavated in the 1980s along the
Illinois River revealed a complete skeleton of a young bobcat along
with a collar made of bone pendants and shell beads that had been
buried by the Hopewell culture. The type and place of burial indicate
a tamed and cherished pet or possible spiritual significance. The
Hopewell normally buried their dogs, so the bones were initially
identified as remains of a puppy, but dogs were usually buried close
to the village and not in the mounts themselves. This is the only wild
cat decorated burial on the archaeological record.
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Data related to
Lynx rufus at Wikispecies
Media related to
Lynx rufus at Wikimedia Commons
Species portrait Bobcat; IUCN/SSC
Cat Specialist Group
Bobcats – National Geographic
Youtube Video of Swimming
Bobcat - Extended Video captured of a Bobcat
Swimming Across Lake Lanier Georgia
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)
Game animals and shooting in North America
Snipe (common snipe)
Cougar (mountain lion)
Big game hunting