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Birth
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring, also referred to in technical contexts as parturition. In mammals, the process is initiated by hormones which cause the muscular walls of the uterus to contract, expelling the fetus at a developmental stage when it is ready to feed and breathe. In some species the offspring is precocial and can move around almost immediately after birth but in others it is altricial and completely dependent on parenting. In marsupials, the fetus is born at a very immature stage after a short gestational period and develops further in its mother's womb's Pouch (marsupial), pouch. It is not only mammals that give birth. Some reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates carry their developing young inside them. Some of these are Ovoviviparity, ovoviviparous, with the eggs being hatched inside the mother's body, and others are Viviparity, viviparous, with the embryo developing inside her body, as in the case of mammals. Mammals L ...
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Placenta
The placenta is a temporary fetal organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ... that begins developing from the blastocyst The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in th ... shortly after implantation Implantation may refer to: * Implantation (human embryo), in which the human embryo adheres to the wall of the uterus * Implant (medicine), insertion of implants * Endometrial transplantation, as part of the Endometriosis, theory of retrograde mens .... It plays critical roles in facilitating nutrient, gas and waste exchange between the physically separate maternal and fetal ...
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Lambing In England -10March2012 (2)
Domestic sheep reproduce Sexual reproduction, sexually much like other mammals, and their reproductive strategy is furthermore very similar to other domestic herd animals. A flock of sheep is generally mated by a single ram, which has either been chosen by a farmer or has established dominance through physical contest with other rams (in feral populations). Most sheep have a breeding season (''tupping'') in the autumn, though some are able to breed year-round. Largely as a result of the influence of humans in sheep breeding, ewes often produce multiple lambs. This increase in the lamb births, both in number and birth weight, may cause problems in delivery and lamb survival, requiring the intervention of shepherds. Sexual behavior Ewes generally reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, and rams generally at four to six (ram lambs have occasionally been known to impregnate their mothers at two months). Sheep are seasonally polyoestrus animals. Ewes enter into oestrus cy ...
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Marsupial
Marsupials are any members of the mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...ian infraclass In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, ... Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. ..., Wallacea in blue has been used to separate Wallacea into a western part pertaining to Asia Asia () is a ...
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Gestation
Gestation is the period of development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in development *Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budgeting *Development (music), the process thematic material i ... during the carrying of an embryo An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms ar ..., and later fetus A fetus or foetus (; plural fetuses, feti, foetuses, or foeti) is the unborn offspring that develops from an animal embryo An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism A multicellular organism is an organism tha ..., inside viviparous Among animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), ...
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Hippopotamus
The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivorous A herbivore is an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ..., semiaquatic mammal and ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse Ungulata which primarily consists of large mammals with . These include s such as s, es, and s; and s such as , s, s, s, , , and es. s such as , , and are also classified as even-toed ungulates, althoug ... native to sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i .... It is one of only t ...
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Cattle
Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae and the most widespread species of the genus ''Bos''. In taxonomy, adult females are referred to as cows and adult males are referred to as bulls. In colloquial speech however, ''cow'' is sometimes used as a common name for the species as a whole. Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef or veal, see beef cattle), for milk (see dairy cattle), and for hide (skin), hides, which are used to make leather. They are used as riding animals and draft animals (oxen or wikt:bullock, bullocks, which pull carts, plows and other implements). Another product of cattle is Cow dung, their dung, which can be used to create manure or fuel. Around 10,500 years ago, taurine cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in Central ...
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Altricial
In biology, altricial species are those in which the young are underdeveloped at the time of birth, but with the aid of their parents develop in spurts after birth. The word is derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ... root ''alere'', meaning "to nurse, to rear, or to nourish" and indicates the need for young to be fed and taken care of for a long duration. By contrast, species whose young are immediately or quickly mobile are called ''precocial California quail chick (''Callipepla californica''), a precocial chick In biology, precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. The opposite developmental strategy is called ...''. Scope In bird Birds are a group of warm- ...
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Mammal
Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ... , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...s constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge represen ...
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Viviparity
Among animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...s, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. This is opposed to oviparity Oviparous animals are female animals that lay their egg An egg is the organic vessel containing the in which an develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from of an . Most s, (excludi ... which is a reproductive mode in which females lay developing eggs that complete their development and hatch externally from the mother. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous' derive from the Latin ''vivus'' meaning "living" and ''pario'' meaning "give birth to". Reproductive mode Five modes of reproduction Animals make use of a variety of mod ...
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Precocial
In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ..., precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. The opposite developmental strategy is called ''altricial Altricial young birds In biology, altricial species are those in which the young are underdeveloped at the time of birth, but with the aid of their parents develop in spurts after birth. The word is derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...'', under which the young are born or hatched helpless. These categories form a continuum, without distinct gaps between them. Precocial species are normally nidifugousNidifugous ( ) organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any in ...
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Pinniped
Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, mostly marine mammal, marine mammals. They comprise the extant taxon, extant family (biology), families Odobenidae (whose only living member is the walrus), Otariidae (the eared seals: sea lions and fur seals), and Phocidae (the earless seals, or true seals). There are 34 extant species of pinnipeds, and more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils. While seals were historically thought to have descended from two ancestral lines, molecular phylogenetics, molecular evidence supports them as a monophyletic lineage (descended from one ancestral line). Pinnipeds belong to the order Carnivora; their closest living relatives are bears and the superfamily of Musteloidea, musteloids (Mustelidae, weasels, Procyonidae, raccoons, skunks, and red pandas), having diverged about 50 milli ...
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Giraffe
The giraffe is a tall African mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ... belonging to the genus ''Giraffa''. Specifically, It is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing poster .... It is the tallest living terrestrial animal and the largest ruminant Ruminants ( Ruminantia) are large herbivorous grazing or browsing s that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by it in a specialized prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process, which takes place in th ... on Earth. Traditionally, giraffes were thoug ...
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