BLUE GENE is an
IBM project aimed at designing supercomputers that
can reach operating speeds in the P
FLOPS (petaFLOPS) range, with low
The project created three generations of supercomputers, BLUE GENE/L,
BLUE GENE/P, and BLUE GENE/Q.
Blue Gene systems have often led the
Green500 rankings of the most powerful and most power
efficient supercomputers, respectively.
Blue Gene systems have also
consistently scored top positions in the
Graph500 list. The project
was awarded the 2009
National Medal of Technology and Innovation
National Medal of Technology and Innovation .
As of 2015,
IBM seems to have ended the development of the Blue Gene
family though no public announcement has been made. IBM's continuing
efforts of the supercomputer scene seems to be concentrated around
OpenPower , using accelerators such as FPGAs and GPUs to battle the
end of Moore\'s law .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Name
* 1.2 Major features
* 1.3 Architecture
* 2 Blue Gene/P
* 2.1 Design
* 2.2 Installations
* 2.3 Applications
* 3 Blue Gene/Q
* 3.1 Design
* 3.2 Performance
* 3.3 Installations
* 3.4 Applications
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes and references
* 6 External links
In December 1999,
IBM announced a US$100 million research initiative
for a five-year effort to build a massively parallel computer , to be
applied to the study of biomolecular phenomena such as protein folding
. The project had two main goals: to advance our understanding of the
mechanisms behind protein folding via large-scale simulation, and to
explore novel ideas in massively parallel machine architecture and
software. Major areas of investigation included: how to use this novel
platform to effectively meet its scientific goals, how to make such
massively parallel machines more usable, and how to achieve
performance targets at a reasonable cost, through novel machine
architectures. The initial design for
Blue Gene was based on an early
version of the
Cyclops64 architecture, designed by
Monty Denneau . The
initial research and development work was pursued at
IBM T.J. Watson
Research Center and led by
William R. Pulleyblank .
At IBM, Alan Gara started working on an extension of the QCDOC
architecture into a more general-purpose supercomputer: The 4D
nearest-neighbor interconnection network was replaced by a network
supporting routing of messages from any node to any other; and a
parallel I/O subsystem was added. DOE started funding the development
of this system and it became known as Blue Gene/L (L for Light);
development of the original
Blue Gene system continued under the name
Blue Gene/C (C for Cyclops) and, later, Cyclops64.
In November 2004 a 16-rack system, with each rack holding 1,024
compute nodes, achieved first place in the
TOP500 list, with a Linpack
performance of 70.72 TFLOPS. It thereby overtook NEC's Earth
Simulator , which had held the title of the fastest computer in the
world since 2002. From 2004 through 2007 the Blue Gene/L installation
at LLNL gradually expanded to 104 racks, achieving 478 T
and 596 T
FLOPS peak. The LLNL BlueGene/L installation held the first
position in the
TOP500 list for 3.5 years, until in June 2008 it was
overtaken by IBM's Cell-based Roadrunner system at Los Alamos National
Laboratory , which was the first system to surpass the 1 PetaFLOPS
mark. The system was built in Rochester, MN
While the LLNL installation was the largest Blue Gene/L installation,
many smaller installations followed. In November 2006, there were 27
computers on the
TOP500 list using the Blue Gene/L architecture. All
these computers were listed as having an architecture of _eServer Blue
Gene Solution_. For example, three racks of Blue Gene/L were housed at
San Diego Supercomputer Center .
TOP500 measures performance on a single benchmark
application, Linpack, Blue Gene/L also set records for performance on
a wider set of applications. Blue Gene/L was the first supercomputer
ever to run over 100 T
FLOPS sustained on a real world application,
namely a three-dimensional molecular dynamics code (ddcMD), simulating
solidification (nucleation and growth processes) of molten metal under
high pressure and temperature conditions. This achievement won the
Gordon Bell Prize .
In June 2006, NNSA and
IBM announced that Blue Gene/L achieved 207.3
FLOPS on a quantum chemical application (Qbox ). At Supercomputing
2006, Blue Gene/L was awarded the winning prize in all HPC Challenge
Classes of awards. In 2007, a team from the
IBM Almaden Research
Center and the University of Nevada ran an artificial neural network
almost half as complex as the brain of a mouse for the equivalent of a
second (the network was run at 1/10 of normal speed for 10 seconds).
Blue Gene comes from that it was originally designed to do,
help biologists understand the processes of protein folding and gene
development . "Blue" is a traditional moniker that
IBM uses for many
of its products and the company itself . The original
Blue Gene design
was renamed "Blue Gene/C" and eventually
Cyclops64 . The "L" in Blue
Gene/L comes from "Light" as that design's original name was "Blue
Light". The "P" version was designed to be a petascale design. "Q" is
just the letter after "P". There is no Blue Gene/R.
The Blue Gene/L supercomputer was unique in the following aspects:
* Trading the speed of processors for lower power consumption. Blue
Gene/L used low frequency and low power embedded PowerPC cores with
floating point accelerators. While the performance of each chip was
relatively low, the system could achieve better performance to energy
ratio, for applications that could use larger numbers of nodes.
* Dual processors per node with two working modes: co-processor mode
where one processor handles computation and the other handles
communication; and virtual-node mode, where both processors are
available to run user code, but the processors share both the
computation and the communication load.
* System-on-a-chip design. All node components were embedded on one
chip, with the exception of 512 MB external DRAM.
* A large number of nodes (scalable in increments of 1024 up to at
* Three-dimensional torus interconnect with auxiliary networks for
global communications (broadcast and reductions), I/O, and management
* Lightweight OS per node for minimum system overhead (system
The Blue Gene/L architecture was an evolution of the QCDSP and QCDOC
architectures. Each Blue Gene/L Compute or I/O node was a single ASIC
DRAM memory chips. The ASIC integrated two 700 MHz
PowerPC 440 embedded processors, each with a
double-pipeline-double-precision Floating Point Unit (FPU), a cache
sub-system with built-in
DRAM controller and the logic to support
multiple communication sub-systems. The dual FPUs gave each Blue
Gene/L node a theoretical peak performance of 5.6 G
FLOPS (gigaFLOPS) .
The two CPUs were not cache coherent with one another.
Compute nodes were packaged two per compute card, with 16 compute
cards plus up to 2 I/O nodes per node board. There were 32 node boards
per cabinet/rack. By the integration of all essential sub-systems on
a single chip, and the use of low-power logic, each Compute or I/O
node dissipated low power (about 17 watts, including DRAMs). This
allowed aggressive packaging of up to 1024 compute nodes, plus
additional I/O nodes, in a standard
19-inch rack , within reasonable
limits of electrical power supply and air cooling. The performance
metrics, in terms of
FLOPS per watt ,
FLOPS per m2 of floorspace and
FLOPS per unit cost, allowed scaling up to very high performance. With
so many nodes, component failures were inevitable. The system was able
to electrically isolate faulty components, down to a granularity of
half a rack (512 compute nodes), to allow the machine to continue to
Each Blue Gene/L node was attached to three parallel communications
networks: a 3D toroidal network for peer-to-peer communication between
compute nodes, a collective network for collective communication
(broadcasts and reduce operations), and a global interrupt network for
fast barriers . The I/O nodes, which run the
Linux operating system ,
provided communication to storage and external hosts via an Ethernet
network. The I/O nodes handled filesystem operations on behalf of the
compute nodes. Finally, a separate and private
provided access to any node for configuration, booting and
diagnostics. To allow multiple programs to run concurrently, a Blue
Gene/L system could be partitioned into electronically isolated sets
of nodes. The number of nodes in a partition had to be a positive
integer power of 2, with at least 25 = 32 nodes. To run a program on
Blue Gene/L, a partition of the computer was first to be reserved. The
program was then loaded and run on all the nodes within the partition,
and no other program could access nodes within the partition while it
was in use. Upon completion, the partition nodes were released for
future programs to use.
Blue Gene/L compute nodes used a minimal operating system supporting
a single user program. Only a subset of
POSIX calls was supported, and
only one process could run at a time on node in co-processor mode—or
one process per CPU in virtual mode. Programmers needed to implement
green threads in order to simulate local concurrency. Application
development was usually performed in C ,
C++ , or
Fortran using MPI
for communication. However, some scripting languages such as Ruby
and Python have been ported to the compute nodes.
A Blue Gene/P node card A schematic overview of a Blue
In June 2007,
IBM unveiled BLUE GENE/P, the second generation of the
Blue Gene series of supercomputers and designed through a
collaboration that included IBM, LLNL, and Argonne National Laboratory
's Leadership Computing Facility.
The design of Blue Gene/P is a technology evolution from Blue Gene/L.
Each Blue Gene/P Compute chip contains four PowerPC 450 processor
cores, running at 850 MHz. The cores are cache coherent and the chip
can operate as a 4-way symmetric multiprocessor (SMP). The memory
subsystem on the chip consists of small private L2 caches, a central
shared 8 MB L3 cache, and dual DDR2 memory controllers. The chip also
integrates the logic for node-to-node communication, using the same
network topologies as Blue Gene/L, but at more than twice the
bandwidth. A compute card contains a Blue Gene/P chip with 2 or 4 GB
DRAM, comprising a "compute node". A single compute node has a peak
performance of 13.6 GFLOPS. 32 Compute cards are plugged into an
air-cooled node board. A rack contains 32 node boards (thus 1024
nodes, 4096 processor cores). By using many small, low-power, densely
packaged chips, Blue Gene/P exceeded the power efficiency of other
supercomputers of its generation, and at 371 MFLOPS/W Blue Gene/P
installations ranked at or near the top of the
Green500 lists in
The following is an incomplete list of Blue Gene/P installations. Per
November 2009, the
TOP500 list contained 15 Blue Gene/P installations
of 2-racks (2048 nodes, 8192 processor cores, 23.86 T
* On November 12, 2007, the first Blue Gene/P installation,
with 16 racks (16,384 nodes, 65,536 processors) was running at
Forschungszentrum Jülich in
Germany with a performance of 167 TFLOPS.
When inaugurated it was the fastest supercomputer in Europe and the
sixth fastest in the world. In 2009,
JUGENE was upgraded to 72 racks
(73,728 nodes, 294,912 processor cores) with 144 terabytes of memory
and 6 petabytes of storage, and achieved a peak performance of 1
PetaFLOPS. This configuration incorporated new air-to-water heat
exchangers between the racks, reducing the cooling cost substantially.
JUGENE was shut down in July 2012 and replaced by the Blue Gene/Q
* The 40-rack (40960 nodes, 163840 processor cores) "Intrepid"
Argonne National Laboratory was ranked #3 on the June 2008
Top 500 list. The Intrepid system is one of the major resources of
the INCITE program, in which processor hours are awarded to "grand
challenge" science and engineering projects in a peer-reviewed
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory installed a 36-rack Blue
Gene/P installation, "Dawn", in 2009.
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (
installed a 16-rack Blue Gene/P installation, "Shaheen ", in 2009.
* In 2012, a 6-rack Blue Gene/P was installed at
Rice University and
will be jointly administered with the
University of Sao Paulo .
* A 2.5 rack Blue Gene/P system is the central processor for the Low
Frequency Array for Radio astronomy (
LOFAR ) project in the
Netherlands and surrounding European countries. This application uses
the streaming data capabilities of the machine.
* A 2-rack Blue Gene/P was installed in September 2008 in
Bulgaria , and is operated by the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and
Sofia University .
* In 2010, a 2-rack (8192-core) Blue Gene/P was installed at the
University of Melbourne for the Victorian Life Sciences Computation
* In 2011, a 2-rack Blue Gene/P was installed at University of
Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand.
* In 2012, a 2-rack Blue Gene/P was installed at Rutgers University
in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was dubbed "Excalibur" as an homage to
the Rutgers mascot, the Scarlet Knight.
* In 2008, a 1-rack (1024 nodes) Blue Gene/P with 180 TB of storage
was installed at the
University of Rochester
University of Rochester in
Rochester, New York .
* The first Blue Gene/P in the ASEAN region was installed in 2010 at
the Universiti of Brunei Darussalam ’s research centre, the UBD-IBM
Centre . The installation has prompted research collaboration between
the university and
IBM research on climate modeling that will
investigate the impact of climate change on flood forecasting, crop
yields, renewable energy and the health of rainforests in the region
* In 2013, a 1-rack Blue Gene/P was donated to the Department of
Science and Technology for weather forecasts, disaster management,
precision agriculture, and health it is housed in the National
Computer Center, Diliman, Quezon City, under the auspices of
Philippine Genome Center (PGC) Core Facility for Bioinformatics (CFB)
at UP Diliman, Quezon City.
Veselin Topalov , the challenger to the World Chess Champion title
in 2010, confirmed in an interview that he had used a Blue Gene/P
supercomputer during his preparation for the match.
* The Blue Gene/P computer has been used to simulate approximately
one percent of a human cerebral cortex, containing 1.6 billion neurons
with approximately 9 trillion connections.
IBM Kittyhawk project team has ported
Linux to the compute
nodes and demonstrated generic Web 2.0 workloads running at scale on a
Blue Gene/P. Their paper, published in the ACM Operating Systems
Review , describes a kernel driver that tunnels
Ethernet over the tree
network, which results in all-to-all
TCP/IP connectivity. Running
Linux software like
MySQL , their performance results on
SpecJBB rank among the highest on record.
* In 2011, a
Rutgers University /
IBM / University of Texas team
KAUST Shaheen installation together with a Blue Gene/P
installation at the
IBM Watson Research Center into a "federated high
performance computing cloud", winning the IEEE SCALE 2011 challenge
with an oil reservoir optimization application.
IBM Blue Gene/Q installed at
Argonne National Laboratory ,
near Chicago, Illinois.
The third supercomputer design in the
Blue Gene series, BLUE GENE/Q
has a peak performance of 20
Petaflops , reaching LINPACK benchmarks
performance of 17
Petaflops . Blue Gene/Q continues to expand and
enhance the Blue Gene/L and /P architectures.
The Blue Gene/Q Compute chip is an 18 core chip. The
processor cores are 4-way simultaneously multithreaded , and run at
1.6 GHz. Each processor core has a
SIMD Quad-vector double precision
floating point unit (
IBM QPX). 16 Processor cores are used for
computing, and a 17th core for operating system assist functions such
as interrupts , asynchronous I/O , MPI pacing and RAS . The 18th core
is used as a redundant spare, used to increase manufacturing yield.
The spared-out core is shut down in functional operation. The
processor cores are linked by a crossbar switch to a 32 MB e
cache, operating at half core speed. The L2 cache is multi-versioned,
supporting transactional memory and speculative execution , and has
hardware support for atomic operations . L2 cache misses are handled
by two built-in
DDR3 memory controllers running at 1.33 GHz. The chip
also integrates logic for chip-to-chip communications in a 5D torus
configuration, with 2GB/s chip-to-chip links. The Blue Gene/Q chip is
manufactured on IBM's copper SOI process at 45 nm. It delivers a peak
performance of 204.8 G
FLOPS at 1.6 GHz, drawing about 55 watts. The
chip measures 19×19 mm (359.5 mm²) and comprises 1.47 billion
transistors. The chip is mounted on a compute card along with 16 GB
DRAM (i.e., 1 GB for each user processor core).
A Q32 compute drawer contains 32 compute cards, each water cooled.
A "midplane" (crate) contains 16 Q32 compute drawers for a total of
512 compute nodes, electrically interconnected in a 5D torus
configuration (4x4x4x4x2). Beyond the midplane level, all connections
are optical. Racks have two midplanes, thus 32 compute drawers, for a
total of 1024 compute nodes, 16,384 user cores and 16 TB RAM.
Separate I/O drawers, placed at the top of a rack or in a separate
rack, are air cooled and contain 8 compute cards and 8 PCIe expansion
Infiniband or 10 Gigabit
At the time of the Blue Gene/Q system announcement in November 2011,
an initial 4-rack Blue Gene/Q system (4096 nodes, 65536 user processor
cores) achieved #17 in the
TOP500 list with 677.1 Tera
outperforming the original 2007 104-rack BlueGene/L installation
described above. The same 4-rack system achieved the top position in
Graph500 list with over 250 GTEPS (giga traversed edges per
second ). Blue Gene/Q systems also topped the
Green500 list of most
energy efficient supercomputers with up to 2.1 GFLOPS/W .
In June 2012, Blue Gene/Q installations took the top positions in all
The following is an incomplete list of Blue Gene/Q installations. Per
June 2012, the
TOP500 list contained 20 Blue Gene/Q installations of
1/2-rack (512 nodes, 8192 processor cores, 86.35 T
FLOPS Linpack) and
larger. At a (size-independent) power efficiency of about 2.1
GFLOPS/W, all these systems also populated the top of the June 2012
Green 500 list.
* A Blue Gene/Q system called Sequoia was delivered to the Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) beginning in 2011 and was fully
deployed in June 2012. It is part of the Advanced Simulation and
Computing Program running nuclear simulations and advanced scientific
research. It consists of 96 racks (comprising 98,304 compute nodes
with 1.6 million processor cores and 1.6 PB of memory) covering an
area of about 3,000 square feet (280 m2). In June 2012, the system
was ranked as the world's fastest supercomputer. at 20.1 PFLOPS
peak, 16.32 P
FLOPS sustained (Linpack), drawing up to 7.9 megawatts of
power. In June 2013, its performance is listed at 17.17 PFLOPS
* A 10 P
FLOPS (peak) Blue Gene/Q system called _Mira _ was installed
Argonne National Laboratory in the Argonne Leadership Computing
Facility in 2012. It consist of 48 racks (49,152 compute nodes), with
70 PB of disk storage (470 GB/s I/O bandwidth).
* _JUQUEEN_ at the Forschungzentrum Jülich is a 28-rack Blue Gene/Q
system, and was from June 2013 to November 2015 the highest ranked
machine in Europe in the Top500.
* _Vulcan_ at
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a
24-rack, 5 P
FLOPS (peak), Blue Gene/Q system that became available in
2013. Vulcan will serve Lab-industry projects through Livermore's High
Performance Computing (HPC) Innovation Center as well as academic
collaborations in support of DOE/National Nuclear Security
Administration (NNSA) missions.
* _Fermi_ at the
CINECA Supercomputing facility, Bologna, Italy, is
a 10-rack, 2 P
FLOPS (peak), Blue Gene/Q system.
* A five rack Blue Gene/Q system with additional compute hardware
called _AMOS_ was installed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in
2013. The system was rated at 1048.6 teraflops, the most powerful
supercomputer at any private university, and third most powerful
supercomputer among all universities in 2014.
* An 838 T
FLOPS (peak) Blue Gene/Q system called _Avoca_ was
installed at the
Victorian Life Sciences Computation Initiative in
June, 2012. This system is part of a collaboration between
VLSCI, with the aims of improving diagnostics, finding new drug
targets, refining treatments and furthering our understanding of
diseases. The system consists of 4 racks, with 350 TB of storage,
65,536 cores, 64 TB RAM.
* A 209 T
FLOPS (peak) Blue Gene/Q system was installed at the
University of Rochester
University of Rochester in July, 2012. This system is part of the
Health Sciences Center for Computational Innovation, which is
dedicated to the application of high-performance computing to research
programs in the health sciences . The system consists of a single rack
(1,024 compute nodes) with 400 TB of high-performance storage.
* A 209 T
FLOPS peak (172 T
FLOPS LINPACK) Blue Gene/Q system called
_Lemanicus_ was installed at the
EPFL in March 2013. This system
belongs to the Center for Advanced Modeling Science CADMOS ( ) which
is a collaboration between the three main research institutions on the
shore of the
Geneva Lake in the French speaking part of Switzerland :
Université de Lausanne ,
Université de Genève and
EPFL . The system
consists of a single rack (1,024 compute nodes) with 2.1 PB of IBM
* A half-rack Blue Gene/Q system, with about 100 T
called _Cumulus_ was installed at A*STAR Computational Resource
Centre, Singapore, at early 2011.
Record-breaking science applications have been run on the BG/Q, the
first to cross 10 petaflops of sustained performance. The cosmology
simulation framework HACC achieved almost 14 petaflops with a 3.6
trillion particle benchmark run, while the Cardioid code, which
models the electrophysiology of the human heart, achieved nearly 12
petaflops with a near real-time simulation, both on Sequoia . A fully
compressible flow solver has also achieved 14.4 PFLOP/s (originally 11
PFLOP/s) on Sequoia, 72% of the machine's nominal peak performance.
CNK operating system
Deep Blue (chess computer)
INK (operating system)
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IBM Research: Blue