In Australia, the "big four banks" refers to the four largest banks by market share, who between them hold 80% of the home loan markets in the country. In 2012, their combined total asset is A$2.66 trillion, which is about 200% of Australian GDP in 2011. In order of total assets, these are:
A longstanding policy of the federal government in Australia has been to maintain this status quo, called the "four pillars policy". The policy has been maintained through the Global Recession of 2008–09, as Westpac acquired St.George Bank and the Commonwealth Bank acquired Bankwest, reinforcing the special status of the "big four".
Being New Zealand's closest neighbour, with very close ties culturally and economically, has helped Australia dominate the banking sector there. Often referred to collectively as the 'big banks' or the 'big Aussie banks', the "Big Four" Australian banks also dominate the New Zealand banking sector in the form of:
These four subsidiaries are massively profitable and in some cases even outperform the Australian parent company. The extent to which they dominate the banking sector can be seen in profits: In the 2012/2013 financial year, the largest of the Big Banks, ANZ New Zealand, made a profit of NZ$1.37 billion. The smallest, BNZ, made a profit of NZ$695 million. State-owned Kiwibank, community trust-owned TSB Bank, SBS Bank (formerly Southland Building Society) and Heartland Bank, the next four largest banks by profit, made NZ$97 million, NZ$73.5 million, NZ$14 million and NZ$7 million (albeit with an underlying result of about NZ$30 million) respectively. In other words, the profit of New Zealand's next four largest banks (after the Big Four) is equal to less than 30% of the smallest of the Big Four, BNZ.
The "Big Four" banks of Belgium are a result of national- and international mergers in the early 90s.
|Itaú Unibanco||Largest Private bank||2017||US$ 452.6 billion|
|Banco do Brasil||Largest State Owned Bank||2017||US$ 430.2 billion|
|Caixa Econômica Federal||State Owned Bank||2017||US$ 406.0 billion|
|Banco Bradesco||Private Bank||2017||US$ 391.6 billion|
There are five banks dominating the Canadian banking world, hence the "Big Five" is used instead of "Big Four". The operation of Canadian banks include retail banking, mutual funds, insurance, credit cards, and brokerage activities. In addition, they have large international subsidiaries operated through subsidiaries (i.e. CIBC FirstCaribbean International Bank, and TD Bank, N.A.). The Canadian banking operations of the Big Five are largely conducted out of each parent company, unlike U.S. banks that use a holding company structure to hold their primary retail banking subsidiaries. The Big Five include:
During the 1920s, the term "Big Four" applied to the Four Northern Banks of the Republic of China (i.e. the four most capitalized commercial banks in Northern China). These were the Yien Yieh Commercial Bank, the Kincheng Banking Corporation, the Continental Bank and The China & South Sea Bank. These were contrasted with the Three Southern Banks of Southern China.
By 1949, the Big Four banks were the Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, the Central Bank of China and the Farmers Bank of China. All four were state-owned banks. These four, together with Central Trust of China, Postal Savings and Remittance Bureau of China, Central Cooperative Treasury of China, were called the "Four Banks, Two Bureaus, One Treasury" or "四行两局一库".
In the People's Republic of China, the Big Four state-owned commercial banks ("四大国有商业银行") are:
|Banco de Bogotá||Largest Private Bank||2017||COP 3.6 trillions|
|Bancolombia||Largest Private Bank||2017||COP 2.6 trillions|
|Banco Davivienda||Largest Private Bank||2017||COP 1,204 trillions|
|Banco de Occidente Credencial||Private Bank||2017||COP 932.827 billions|
|BBVA Colombia||Private Bank||2017||COP 346.333 billions|
|Banco Agrario de Colombia||State owned Bank||2017||COP 339.410 billions|
|Banco Colpatria||Private Bank||2017||COP 253.572 billion|
|Banco Caja Social||Private Bank||2017||COP 238.116 billions|
|Citibank Colombia||Private Bank||2017||COP 172.051 billions|
|Banco Popular||Private Bank||2017||COP 156.033 billions|
The biggest banks in Finland are:
Finland does not follow the Big 4 model so much as a model of 3 Major + 3 minor.
In 2013 the National Bank of Greece attempted to acquire Eurobank Ergasias but later the plan was abandoned.
In India, the largest four banks are:
In Ireland, the term "big four" applies to the four largest banks by market capitalisation. These all operate in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and have a wider international presence; these banks also issue banknotes in Northern Ireland.
Ever since Danske Bank has phased out its personal banking services, it has been suggested that either KBC Ireland or Permanent TSB could replace, in the medium-term, Danske Bank in the "Big Four" ranking.
In Italy the term "big four" is not explicitly used. As of 2017, the four largest banks by total assets are:
However, a widely cited grouping is the three "megabanks," which include only the first three listed above.
In Lebanon, where the banks have retained their banking secrecy laws since 1956, which is prevalent in the whole MENA region, and while adopting international measures to fight money laundering, the "big four" banks consist of:
Furthermore, as of September 2016, there are more than 51 banks in Lebanon, one of the smallest countries in the middle east, the fact that has always made investors from the Arab countries, especially the GCC petrodollar in addition to the European and world investors, to place their funds in the Lebanese banks.
The market leader for the Netherlands, ING Group, is one of the largest multinational banking and financial service corporations in the world, with products and services reaching over 41 countries worldwide.
The term "Big Five" is used instead of four, with five banks dominating the Nigerian banking world. In 2011, these top five banks had a combined balance sheet, including contingents, of 12.9 trillion naira ($821 billion), 33 percent higher than the prior year.
There are four banks that have at least ₱1 trillion (around US$20 billion) worth of assets as of 2017, making them the "big four" banks by default:
The term 'Big Three' is used instead of four. The 'Big Three' are:
The "Big Five" also includes:
Before the Siamese Revolution, the banking system were controlled by foreign powers, particularly the "big four" European banks.
In relation to the United Kingdom (England and Wales), the phrase "big four banks" is currently used to refer to the four largest UK-based banking groups, being:
After the merger of Westminster Bank and National Provincial Bank to form NatWest (now part of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group) in 1970, the term "big four" was used.
In Scotland the "big four" are:
From a retail banking perspective, U.S. Bancorp (headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota/bank charter Cincinnati, Ohio) and PNC Financial Services (headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania/bank charter Wilmington, Delaware) both have significantly more branches than Citibank, the retail banking arm of Citigroup. However, Citibank still has significantly more assets than U.S. Bancorp and PNC.
...The only banks with higher market capitalisation were Allied Irish Banks (AIB) and Bank of Ireland, both with strong retail and commercial presences. Ulster Bank and National Irish Bank are the other members of the 'Big Four' retail and commercial banks, both owned by overseas parents and not listed on the Irish Stock Exchange