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A biblical canon or canon of scripture[1] is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. The English word "canon" comes from the Greek κανών, meaning "rule" or "measuring stick". Christians became the first to use the term in reference to scripture, but Eugene Ulrich regards the idea as Jewish.[2][3] Most of the canons listed below are considered by adherents "closed" (i.e., books cannot be added or removed),[4] reflecting a belief that public revelation has ended and thus some person or persons can gather approved inspired texts into a complete and authoritative canon, which scholar Bruce Metzger
Bruce Metzger
defines as "an authoritative collection of books".[5] In contrast, an "open canon", which permits the addition of books through the process of continuous revelation, Metzger defines as "a collection of authoritative books". These canons have developed through debate and agreement on the part of the religious authorities of their respective faiths and denominations. Believers consider canonical books as inspired by God or as expressive of the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people. Some books, such as the Jewish-Christian gospels, have been excluded from various canons altogether, but many disputed books—considered non-canonical or even apocryphal by some—are considered to be Biblical apocrypha
Biblical apocrypha
or deuterocanonical or fully canonical by others. Differences exist between the Jewish Tanakh and Christian
Christian
biblical canons, although the Jewish Tanakh
Tanakh
did form the basis for the Christian
Christian
Old Testament, and between the canons of different Christian
Christian
denominations. In some cases where varying strata of scriptural inspiration have accumulated, it becomes prudent to discuss texts that only have an elevated status within a particular tradition. This becomes even more complex when considering the open canons of the various Latter Day Saint sects—which are usually viewed as divergent from biblical Christianity
Christianity
(and moreover, Judaism)—and the scriptural revelations purportedly given to several leaders over the years within that movement.

Contents

1 Jewish canons

1.1 Rabbinic Judaism 1.2 Beta Israel 1.3 Samaritan canon

2 Christian
Christian
biblical canons

2.1 Early Church

2.1.1 Earliest Christian
Christian
communities 2.1.2 Marcion's list 2.1.3 Apostolic Fathers

2.2 Eastern Church

2.2.1 Alexandrian Fathers 2.2.2 Eastern canons

2.3 Western Church

2.3.1 Latin Fathers 2.3.2 Luther's canon

2.4 Canons of various Christian
Christian
traditions

2.4.1 Old Testament

2.4.1.1 Table 2.4.1.2 Table notes

2.4.2 New Testament

2.4.2.1 Table 2.4.2.2 Table notes

3 Latter Day Saint canons

3.1 The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints 3.2 Other Latter Day Saint sects

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Bibliography

7 Further reading 8 External links

Jewish canons[edit] Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
canon Rabbinic Judaism[edit]

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Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: יהדות רבנית) recognizes the twenty-four books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh (Hebrew: תַּנַ"ךְ) or Hebrew Bible.[6] Evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BC and 200 AD, and a popular position is that the Torah
Torah
was canonized c. 400 BC, the Prophets c. 200 BC, and the Writings c. 100 AD[7] perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia—however, this position is increasingly criticised by modern scholars.[8][9][10][11][12][13] According to Marc Zvi Brettler, the Jewish scriptures outside the Torah
Torah
and the Prophets were fluid, different groups seeing authority in different books.[14]

A scroll of the Book
Book
of Esther; one of the five megillot of the Tanakh.

The book of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
includes a prohibition against adding or subtracting (4:2, 12:32) which might apply to the book itself (i.e. a "closed book", a prohibition against future scribal editing) or to the instruction received by Moses
Moses
on Mt. Sinai.[15] The book of 2 Maccabees, itself not a part of the Jewish canon, describes Nehemiah (c. 400 BC) as having "founded a library and collected books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings" (2:13–15). The Book
Book
of Nehemiah
Nehemiah
suggests that the priest-scribe Ezra
Ezra
brought the Torah
Torah
back from Babylon to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Second Temple
Second Temple
(8–9) around the same time period. Both I and II Maccabees suggest that Judas Maccabeus
Judas Maccabeus
(c. 167 BC) likewise collected sacred books (3:42–50, 2:13–15, 15:6–9), indeed some scholars argue that the Jewish canon was fixed by the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty.[16] However, these primary sources do not suggest that the canon was at that time closed; moreover, it is not clear that these sacred books were identical to those that later became part of the canon. The Great Assembly, also known as the Great Synagogue, was, according to Jewish tradition, an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism, marking a transition from an era of prophets to an era of Rabbis. They lived in a period of about two centuries ending c. 70 AD. Among the developments in Judaism
Judaism
that are attributed to them are the fixing of the Jewish Biblical canon, including the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, and the Twelve Minor Prophets; the introduction of the triple classification of the oral Torah, dividing its study into the three branches of midrash, halakot, and aggadot; the introduction of the Feast of Purim; and the institution of the prayer known as the Shemoneh 'Esreh as well as the synagogal prayers, rituals, and benedictions.[citation needed] In addition to the Tanakh, mainstream Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
considers the Talmud
Talmud
(Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד ) to be another central, authoritative text. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs, and history. The Talmud
Talmud
has two components: the Mishnah
Mishnah
(c. 200 AD), the first written compendium of Judaism's oral Law; and the Gemara
Gemara
(c. 500 AD), an elucidation of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Tanakh. There are numerous citations of Sirach
Sirach
within the Talmud, even though the book was not ultimately accepted into the Hebrew canon. The Talmud
Talmud
is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is often quoted in other rabbinic literature. Certain groups of Jews, such as the Karaites, do not accept the oral Law as it is codified in the Talmud
Talmud
and only consider the Tanakh
Tanakh
to be authoritative. Beta Israel[edit]

This article contains Ethiopic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters.

Ethiopian Jews—also known as Beta Israel
Israel
(Ge'ez: ቤተ እስራኤል—Bēta 'Isrā'ēl)—possess a canon of scripture that is distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. Mäṣḥafä Kedus (Holy Scriptures) is the name for the religious literature of these Jews, which is written primarily in Ge'ez. Their holiest book, the Orit, consists of the Pentateuch, as well as Joshua, Judges, and Ruth. The rest of the Ethiopian Jewish canon is considered to be of secondary importance. It consists of the remainder of the Hebrew canon—with the possible exception of the Book
Book
of Lamentations—and various deuterocanonical books. These include Sirach, Judith, Tobit, 1 and 2 Esdras, 1 and 4 Baruch, the three books of Meqabyan, Jubilees, Enoch, the Testament of Abraham, the Testament of Isaac, and the Testament of Jacob. The latter three patriarchal testaments are distinct to this scriptural tradition.[note 1] A third tier of religious writings that are important to Ethiopian Jews, but are not considered to be part of the canon, include the following: Nagara Muse (The Conversation of Moses), Mota Aaron
Aaron
(Death of Aaron), Mota Muse (Death of Moses), Te'ezaza Sanbat (Precepts of Sabbath), Arde'et (Students), the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Gorgorios, Mäṣḥafä Sa'atat ( Book
Book
of Hours), Abba Elias (Father Elija), Mäṣḥafä Mäla'əkt ( Book
Book
of Angels), Mäṣḥafä Kahan (Book of Priests), Dərsanä Abrəham Wäsara Bägabs (Homily on Abraham
Abraham
and Sarah
Sarah
in Egypt), Gadla Sosna (The Acts of Susanna), and Baqadāmi Gabra Egzi'abḥēr (In the Beginning God Created). In addition to these, Zëna Ayhud (the Ethiopic version of Josippon) and the sayings of various fālasfā (philosophers) are sources that are not necessarily considered holy, but nonetheless have great influence. Samaritan canon[edit] Main article: Samaritan Torah Another version of the Torah, in the Samaritan alphabet, also exists. This text is associated with the Samaritans
Samaritans
(Hebrew: שומרונים; Arabic: السامريون), a people of whom the Jewish Encyclopedia states: "Their history as a distinct community begins with the taking of Samaria by the Assyrians in 722 BC."[17]

The Abisha Scroll, the oldest scroll among the Samaritans
Samaritans
in Nablus.

The Samaritan Pentateuch's relationship to the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
is still disputed. Some differences are minor, such as the ages of different people mentioned in genealogy, while others are major, such as a commandment to be monogamous, which only appears in the Samaritan version. More importantly, the Samaritan text also diverges from the Masoretic in stating that Moses
Moses
received the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
on Mount Gerizim—not Mount Sinai—and that it is upon this mountain (Gerizim) that sacrifices to God should be made—not in Jerusalem. Scholars nonetheless consult the Samaritan version when trying to determine the meaning of text of the original Pentateuch, as well as to trace the development of text-families. Some scrolls among the Dead Sea scrolls have been identified as proto-Samaritan Pentateuch text-type.[18] Comparisons have also been made between the Samaritan Torah
Torah
and the Septuagint
Septuagint
version. Samaritans
Samaritans
consider the Torah
Torah
to be inspired scripture, but do not accept any other parts of the Bible—probably a position also held by the Sadducees.[19] They did not expand their canon by adding any Samaritan compositions. There is a Samaritan Book
Book
of Joshua; however, this is a popular chronicle written in Arabic and is not considered to be scripture. Other non-canonical Samaritan religious texts include the Memar Markah (Teaching of Markah) and the Defter (Prayerbook)—both from the 4th century or later.[20] The people of the remnants of the Samaritans
Samaritans
in modern-day Israel/Palestine retain their version of the Torah
Torah
as fully and authoritatively canonical.[17] They regard themselves as the true "guardians of the Law." This assertion is only re-enforced by the claim of the Samaritan community in Nablus
Nablus
(an area traditionally associated with the ancient city of Shechem) to possess the oldest existing copy of the Torah—one that they believe to have been penned by Abisha, a grandson of Aaron.[21] Christian
Christian
biblical canons[edit]

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Main articles: Christian
Christian
biblical canons, Development of the Christian biblical canon, and Canonical gospels Early Church[edit] Earliest Christian
Christian
communities[edit] The Early Church
Early Church
used the Old Testament, namely the Septuagint (LXX)[22] among Greek speakers, with a canon perhaps as found in the Bryennios List or Melito's canon. The Apostles
Apostles
did not otherwise leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead, the New Testament
New Testament
developed over time. Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the earliest Christian
Christian
communities. The Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
were circulating in collected forms by the end of the 1st century AD. Justin Martyr, in the early 2nd century, mentions the "memoirs of the Apostles", which Christians (Greek: Χριστιανός) called "gospels", and which were considered to be authoritatively equal to the Old Testament.[23] Marcion's list[edit] Marcion of Sinope
Marcion of Sinope
was the first Christian
Christian
leader in recorded history (though later considered heretical) to propose and delineate a uniquely Christian
Christian
canon[24] (c. AD 140). This included 10 epistles from St. Paul, as well as a version of the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, which today is known as the Gospel
Gospel
of Marcion. By doing this, he established a particular way of looking at religious texts that persists in Christian
Christian
thought today.[25] After Marcion, Christians began to divide texts into those that aligned well with the "canon" (measuring stick) of accepted theological thought and those that promoted heresy. This played a major role in finalizing the structure of the collection of works called the Bible. It has been proposed that the initial impetus for the proto-orthodox Christian
Christian
project of canonization flowed from opposition to the canonization of Marcion.[25] Apostolic Fathers[edit] A four-gospel canon (the Tetramorph) was asserted by Irenaeus
Irenaeus
in the following quote: "It is not possible that the gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For, since there are four-quarters of the earth in which we live, and four universal winds, while the church is scattered throughout all the world, and the 'pillar and ground' of the church is the gospel and the spirit of life, it is fitting that she should have four pillars breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh… Therefore the gospels are in accord with these things… For the living creatures are quadriform and the gospel is quadriform… These things being so, all who destroy the form of the gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those [I mean] who represent the aspects of the gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer."[26]

A folio from P46; an early 3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles.

By the early 3rd century, Christian
Christian
theologians like Origen of Alexandria may have been using—or at least were familiar with—the same 27 books found in modern New Testament
New Testament
editions, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of some of the writings (see also Antilegomena).[27] Likewise by 200, the Muratorian fragment
Muratorian fragment
shows that there existed a set of Christian
Christian
writings somewhat similar to what is now the New Testament, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them.[28] Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church
Early Church
over the New Testament
New Testament
canon, the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 3rd century.[29] Eastern Church[edit] Alexandrian Fathers[edit] Origen of Alexandria
Origen of Alexandria
(184/85–253/54), an early scholar involved in the codification of the Biblical canon, had a thorough education both in Christian theology
Christian theology
and in pagan philosophy, but was posthumously condemned at the Second Council of Constantinople
Second Council of Constantinople
in 553 since some of his teachings were considered to be heresy. Origen's canon included all of the books in the current New Testament
New Testament
canon except for four books: James, 2nd Peter, and the 2nd and 3rd epistles of John.[30] He also included the Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas
which was later rejected. The religious scholar Bruce Metzger
Bruce Metzger
described Origen's efforts, saying "The process of canonization represented by Origen proceeded by way of selection, moving from many candidates for inclusion to fewer."[31] This was one of the first major attempts at the compilation of certain books and letters as authoritative and inspired teaching for the Early Church at the time, although it is unclear whether Origen intended for his list to be authoritative itself. In his Easter letter of 367, Patriarch Athanasius of Alexandria
Athanasius of Alexandria
gave a list of exactly the same books that would become the New Testament–27 book–proto-canon,[32] and used the phrase "being canonized" (kanonizomena) in regard to them.[33] Athanasius also included the Book
Book
of Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah, in his Old Testament
Old Testament
canon. However, from this canon, he omitted the Book
Book
of Esther. Eastern canons[edit] The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making sharp delineations with regard to the canon. They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted (for example, the classification of Eusebius, see also Antilegomena) and were less often disposed to assert that the books which they rejected possessed no spiritual quality at all. For example, the Trullan Synod of 691–692, which Pope Sergius I (in office 687-701) rejected[34] (see also Pentarchy), endorsed the following lists of canonical writings: the Apostolic Canons
Apostolic Canons
(c. 385), the Synod of Laodicea (c. 363), the Third Synod of Carthage (c. 397), and the 39th Festal Letter of Athanasius (367).[35] And yet, these lists do not agree. Similarly, the New Testament canons of the Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences, yet five of these Churches are part of the same communion and hold the same theological beliefs.[36] The Revelation
Revelation
of John is said to be one of the most uncertain books; it was not translated into Georgian until the 10th century, and it has never been included in the official lectionary of the Eastern Orthodox Church, whether in Byzantine or modern times. Western Church[edit] Main articles: Latin Church
Latin Church
and Catholic Bible Latin Fathers[edit] The first council that accepted the present Catholic canon (the Canon of Trent) may have been the Synod of Hippo Regius in North Africa (393). A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Council of Carthage (397)
Council of Carthage (397)
and the Council of Carthage (419).[37] These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.[38] Pope Damasus I's Council of Rome in 382, if the Decretum Gelasianum is correctly associated with it, issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above,[32] or if not, the list is at least a 6th-century compilation.[39] Likewise, Damasus' commissioning of the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West.[40] In a letter (c. 405) to Exsuperius of Toulouse, a Gallic bishop, Pope Innocent I mentioned the sacred books that were already received in the canon.[41] When these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church."[42] Thus, from the 4th century, there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament
New Testament
canon (as it is today),[43] and by the 5th century the East, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book
Book
of Revelation
Revelation
and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the New Testament canon.[44] Luther's canon[edit] Main article: Luther's canon Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546) moved seven Old-Testament books (Tobit, Judith, 1-2 Maccabees, Book
Book
of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch) into a section he called the Apocrypha. To refer to these books without calling them "apocrypha," Catholic and Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox later referred to them as the Deuterocanonicals—while still accepting their full canonicity. Luther removed the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation
Revelation
from the canon (partially because they were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola scriptura and sola fide),[45] but this was not generally accepted among his followers. However, these books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible
Bible
to this day. Canons of various Christian
Christian
traditions[edit] Final dogmatic articulations of the canons were made at the Council of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism,[46] the Thirty-Nine Articles
Thirty-Nine Articles
of 1563 for the Church of England, the Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Confession of Faith
of 1647 for Calvinism, and the Synod of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of 1672 for the Eastern Orthodox. Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete. The following tables reflect the current state of various Christian canons. Old Testament[edit] Main article: Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon All of the major Christian
Christian
traditions accept the books of the Hebrew protocanon in its entirety as divinely inspired and authoritative, in various ways and degrees. Furthermore, all of these traditions, with the exception of the Protestants, add to this number various deuterocanonical books. However, in some Protestant Bibles—especially the English King James Bible
Bible
and the Lutheran Bible—many of these deuterocanonical books are retained as part of the tradition in a section called the "Apocrypha." Some books listed here, like the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs for the Armenian Apostolic Church, may have once been a vital part of a Biblical tradition, may even still hold a place of honor, but are no longer considered to be part of the Bible. Other books, like the Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
for the Roman Catholic Church, may have been included in manuscripts, but never really attained a high level of importance within that particular tradition. The levels of traditional prominence for others, like Psalms 152–155 and the Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon of the Syriac churches, remain unclear. In so far as the Oriental Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
canon is concerned, some points of clarity should be made. First, the books of Lamentations, Jeremiah, and Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
and 4 Baruch, are all considered canonical by the Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
Churches. However, it is not always clear as to how these writings are arranged or divided. In some lists, they may simply fall under the title "Jeremiah", while in others, they are divided in various ways into separate books. Moreover, the book of Proverbs is divided into two books—Messale (Prov. 1–24) and Tägsas (Prov. 25–31). Additionally, while the books of Jubilees
Jubilees
and Enoch are fairly well-known among western scholars, 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan
Meqabyan
are not. The three books of Meqabyan
Meqabyan
are often called the "Ethiopian Maccabees", but are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees that are known or have been canonized in other traditions. Finally, the Book
Book
of Joseph ben Gurion, or Pseudo-Josephus, is a history of the Jewish people thought to be based upon the writings of Josephus.[note 2] The Ethiopic version (Zëna Ayhud) has eight parts and is included in the Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
broader canon.[note 3][47] Table[edit]

Western tradition Eastern Orthodox tradition Oriental Orthodox tradition Assyrian Eastern tradition

Books Protestant [O 1] Lutheran Anglican Roman Catholic Greek Orthodox Slavonic Orthodox Georgian Orthodox Armenian Apostolic [O 2] Syriac Orthodox Coptic Orthodox Orthodox Tewahedo [O 3] Assyrian Church of the East

Pentateuch

Genesis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Exodus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Leviticus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Numbers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Deuteronomy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

History

Joshua Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Judges Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Ruth Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 and 2 Samuel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 and 2 Kings Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 and 2 Chronicles Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Prayer of Manasseh No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) [O 4] No (Apocrypha) [O 4] No – inc. in some mss. Yes (?) (part of Odes) [O 5] Yes (?) (part of Odes) [O 5] Yes (?) (part of Odes) [O 5] Yes (?) Yes (?) Yes (?) Yes (part of 2 Chronicles) Yes (?)

Ezra (1 Ezra) Yes Yes Yes Yes 1 Esdras Yes Esdras B' Yes 1 Esdras Yes 1 Ezra Yes 1 Ezra Yes Yes Yes Yes

Nehemiah (2 Ezra) Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Esdras Yes Esdras Γ' Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 Esdras (3 Ezra) No − inc. in some eds. No No 1 Esdras (Apocrypha) No 3 Esdras (inc. in some mss.) Yes Esdras A' Yes 2 Esdras Yes 2 Ezra Yes 2 Ezra [O 6] No (?) – inc. in some mss. No – inc. in some mss. Yes Ezra
Ezra
Kali No (?) – inc. in some mss.

2 Esdras
2 Esdras
3–14 (4 Ezra) [O 7] No − inc. in some eds. No No 2 Esdras (Apocrypha) No 4 Esdras (inc. in some mss.) No (Greek ms. lost) [O 8] No 3 Esdras (appendix) Yes (?) 3 Ezra Yes 3 Ezra [O 6] No (?) – inc. in some mss. No – inc. in some mss. Yes Ezra
Ezra
Sutu'el No (?) – inc. in some mss.

2 Esdras
2 Esdras
1–2; 15–16 (5 and 6 Ezra) [O 7] No − inc. in some eds. No No (part of 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
apocryphon) No (part of 4 Esdras) No (Greek ms.) [O 9] No No No No No No No

Esther[O 10] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Additions to Esther No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Tobit No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Judith No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 Maccabees No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes

2 Maccabees No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes

3 Maccabees No − inc. in some eds. No No − inc. in some eds. No Yes Yes Yes Yes [O 6] Yes No – inc. in some mss. No Yes

4 Maccabees No No No No No (appendix) No (appendix) Yes No (early tradition) No (?) – inc. in some mss. No (Coptic ms.) No No (?) – inc. in some mss.

Jubilees No No No No No No No No No No Yes No

Enoch No No No No No No No No No No Yes No

1 Meqabyan No No No No No No No No No No Yes No

2 and 3 Meqabyan[O 11] No No No No No No No No No No Yes No

Ethiopic Pseudo-Josephus(Zëna Ayhud) No No No No No No No No No No Yes (broader canon) [O 12] No

Josephus' Jewish War VI No No No No No No No No No – inc. in some mss. [O 13] No No No – inc. in some mss. [O 13]

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs No No No No No (Greek ms.) No No No – inc. in some mss. No No No No

Joseph and Asenath No No No No No No No No – inc. in some mss. No No No (early tradition?) [O 14] No

Wisdom

Book
Book
of Job Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Psalms
Psalms
1–150[O 15] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Psalm 151 No No No No – inc. in some mss. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Psalms
Psalms
152–155 No No No No No No No No Yes (?) No No No (?) – inc. in some mss.

Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon[O 16] No No No No No – inc. in some mss. No No No No – inc. in some mss. No No No – inc. in some mss.

Proverbs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (in 2 books) Yes

Ecclesiastes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Song of Songs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Book
Book
of Wisdom No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Sirach
Sirach
(1–51)[O 17] No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes [O 18] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Prayer of Solomon ( Sirach
Sirach
52) [O 19] No No No No (?) – inc. in some mss. No No No No No No No No

Major prophets

Isaiah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Ascension of Isaiah No No No No No No No No – liturgical (?) [O 20] No No No – Ethiopic mss. (early tradition?) [O 21] No

Jeremiah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Lamentations (1–5) Yes Yes Yes Yes [O 22] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (part of Säqoqawä Eremyas) [O 23] No

Ethiopic Lamentations (7:1–11,63) No No No No No No No No No No Yes (part of Säqoqawä Eremyas) [O 23] No

Baruch No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [O 24][O 25] Yes

Letter of Jeremiah No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes (chapter 6 of Baruch) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (part of Säqoqawä Eremyas) [O 26][O 23][O 25] Yes

Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch ( 2 Baruch 1–77)[O 27] No No No No No No No No Yes (?) No No No (?) – inc. in some mss.

Letter of Baruch ( 2 Baruch 78–87)[O 27] No No No No No No No No Yes (?) No No Yes (?)

Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (3 Baruch)[O 28] No No No (Greek ms.) No (Slavonic ms.) No No No No No No No No

4 Baruch No No No No No No No No No No Yes (part of Säqoqawä Eremyas) No

Ezekiel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Daniel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Additions to Daniel[O 29] No − inc. in some eds. No (Apocrypha) No (Apocrypha) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Minor prophets

Hosea Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Joel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Amos Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Obadiah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Jonah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Micah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Nahum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Habakkuk Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Zephaniah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Haggai Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Zechariah Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Malachi Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Table notes[edit]

^ The term "Protestant" is not accepted by all Christian
Christian
denominations who often fall under this title by default—especially those who view themselves as a direct extension of the New Testament
New Testament
church. However, the term is used loosely here to include most of the non-Roman Catholic Protestant, Charismatic/Pentecostal, Reformed, and Evangelical
Evangelical
churches. Other western churches and movements that have a divergent history from Roman Catholicism, but are not necessarily considered to be historically Protestant, may also fall under this umbrella terminology. ^ The growth and development of the Armenian Biblical canon
Biblical canon
is complex. Extra-canonical Old Testament
Old Testament
books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either exclusive to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status. These include the Deaths of the Prophets, an ancient account of the lives of the Old Testament
Old Testament
prophets, which is not listed in this table. (It is also known as the Lives of the Prophets.) Another writing not listed in this table entitled the Words of Sirach—which is distinct from Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
and its prologue—appears in the appendix of the 1805 Armenian Zohrab Bible
Bible
alongside other, more commonly known works. ^ Adding to the complexity of the Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
Biblical canon, the national epic Kebra Negast
Kebra Negast
has an elevated status among many Ethiopian Christians to such an extent that some consider it to be inspired scripture. ^ a b The English Apocrypha
Apocrypha
includes the Prayer of Manasseh, 1 & 2 Esdras, the Additions to Esther, Tobit, Judith, 1 & 2 Maccabees, the Book
Book
of Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, and the Additions to Daniel. The Lutheran Apocrypha
Apocrypha
omits from this list 1 & 2 Esdras. Some Protestant Bibles include 3 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
as part of the Apocrypha. However, many churches within Protestantism—as it is presented here—reject the Apocrypha, do not consider it useful, and do not include it in their Bibles. ^ a b c The Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
is included as part of the Book
Book
of Odes, which follows the Psalms
Psalms
in Eastern Orthodox Bibles. The rest of the Book
Book
of Odes consists of passages found elsewhere in the Bible. ^ a b c 2 Ezra, 3 Ezra, and 3 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
are included in Bibles and have an elevated status within the Armenian scriptural tradition, but are considered "extra-canonical." ^ a b In many eastern Bibles, the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Ezra
Ezra
is not an exact match to the longer Latin Esdras– 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
in KJV or 4 Esdras in the Vulgate—which includes a Latin prologue (5 Ezra) and epilogue (6 Ezra). However, a degree of uncertainty continues to exist here, and it is certainly possible that the full text—including the prologue and epilogue—appears in Bibles and Biblical manuscripts
Biblical manuscripts
used by some of these eastern traditions. Also of note is the fact that many Latin versions are missing verses 7:36–7:106. (A more complete explanation of the various divisions of books associated with the scribe Ezra
Ezra
may be found in the article entitled "Esdras".) ^ Evidence strongly suggests that a Greek manuscript of 4 Ezra
Ezra
once existed; this furthermore implies a Hebrew origin for the text. ^ An early fragment of 6 Ezra
Ezra
is known to exist in the Greek language, implying a possible Hebrew origin for 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
15–16. ^ Esther's placement within the canon was questioned by Luther. Others, like Melito, omitted it from the canon altogether. ^ 2 and 3 Meqabyan, though relatively unrelated in content, are often counted as a single book. ^ Some sources place Zëna Ayhud within the "narrower canon." ^ a b A Syriac version of Josephus's Jewish War VI appears in some Peshitta
Peshitta
manuscripts as the "Fifth Book
Book
of Maccabees," which is clearly a misnomer. ^ Several varying historical canon lists exist for the Orthodox Tewahedo tradition. In one particular list found in a British Museum manuscript (Add. 16188), a book of Assenath is placed within the canon. This most likely refers to the book more commonly known as Joseph and Asenath. An unknown book of Uzziah
Uzziah
is also listed there, which may be connected to the lost Acts of Uziah referenced in 2 Chronicles 26:22. ^ Some traditions use an alternative set of liturgical or metrical Psalms. ^ In many ancient manuscripts, a distinct collection known as the Odes of Solomon
Solomon
is found together with the similar Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon. ^ The book of Sirach
Sirach
is usually preceded by a non-canonical prologue written by the author's grandson. ^ In some Latin versions, chapter 51 of Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
appears separately as the "Prayer of Joshua, son of Sirach." ^ A shorter variant of the prayer by King Solomon
Solomon
in 1 Kings 8:22–52 appeared in some medieval Latin manuscripts and is found in some Latin Bibles at the end of or immediately following Ecclesiasticus. The two versions of the prayer in Latin may be viewed online for comparison at the following website: BibleGateway.com: Sirach
Sirach
52 / 1 Kings 8:22–52; Vulgate ^ The "Martyrdom of Isaiah" is prescribed reading to honor the prophet Isaiah within the Armenian Apostolic liturgy (see this list). While this likely refers to the account of Isaiah's death within the Lives of the Prophets, it may be a reference to the account of his death found within the first five chapters of the Ascension of Isaiah, which is widely known by this name. The two narratives have similarities and may share a common source. ^ The Ascension of Isaiah has long been known to be a part of the Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
scriptural tradition. Though it is not currently considered canonical, various sources attest to the early canonicity—or at least "semi-canonicity"—of this book. ^ In some Latin versions, chapter 5 of Lamentations appears separately as the "Prayer of Jeremiah." ^ a b c Ethiopic Lamentations is not included in the current printed bibles.<http://crosswire.org/~dfh/Files/EthiopianCanonAndParatext.pdf> ^ The canonical Ethiopic version of Baruch has five chapters, but is shorter than the LXX text. ^ a b Some Ethiopic translations of Baruch may include the traditional Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
as the sixth chapter. ^ The "Letter to the Captives" found within Säqoqawä Eremyas—and also known as the sixth chapter of Ethiopic Lamentations—may contain different content from the Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
(to those same captives) found in other traditions. ^ a b The Letter of Baruch is found in chapters 78–87 of 2 Baruch—the final ten chapters of the book. The letter had a wider circulation and often appeared separately from the first 77 chapters of the book, which is an apocalypse. ^ Included here for the purpose of disambiguation, 3 Baruch is widely rejected as a pseudepigraphon and is not part of any Biblical tradition. Two manuscripts exist—a longer Greek manuscript with Christian
Christian
interpolations and a shorter Slavonic version. There is some uncertainty about which was written first. ^ Bel and the Dragon, Susanna, & The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children.

New Testament[edit] Main article: Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon Among the various Christian
Christian
denominations, the New Testament
New Testament
canon is a generally agreed-upon list of 27 books. However, the way in which those books are arranged may vary from tradition to tradition. For instance, in the Lutheran, Slavonic, Orthodox Tewahedo, Syriac, and Armenian traditions, the New Testament
New Testament
is ordered differently from what is considered to be the standard arrangement. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia usually follow the local Orthodox order for the New Testament. The Syriac Orthodox Church
Syriac Orthodox Church
and the Assyrian Church of the East both adhere to the Peshitta
Peshitta
liturgical tradition, which historically excludes five books of the New Testament
New Testament
Antilegomena: 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation. However, those books are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions. Other New Testament
New Testament
works that are generally considered apocryphal nonetheless appear in some Bibles and manuscripts. For instance, the Epistle
Epistle
to the Laodiceans[note 4] was included in numerous Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts, in the eighteen German Bibles prior to Luther's translation, and also a number of early English Bibles, such as Gundulf's Bible
Bible
and John Wycliffe's English translation—even as recently as 1728, William Whiston
William Whiston
considered this epistle to be genuinely Pauline. Likewise, the Third Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians[note 5] was once considered to be part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible,[48] but is no longer printed in modern editions. Within the Syriac Orthodox tradition, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians
Third Epistle to the Corinthians
also has a history of significance. Both Aphrahat
Aphrahat
and Ephraem of Syria
Ephraem of Syria
held it in high regard and treated it as if it were canonical.[49] However, it was left-out of the Peshitta
Peshitta
and ultimately excluded from the canon altogether. The Didache,[note 6] The Shepherd of Hermas,[note 7] and other writings attributed to the Apostolic Fathers, were once considered scriptural by various early Church fathers. They are still being honored in some traditions, though they are no longer considered to be canonical. However, certain canonical books within the Orthodox Tewahedo traditions find their origin in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers as well as the Ancient Church Orders. The Orthodox Tewahedo churches recognize these eight additional New Testament
New Testament
books in its broader canon. They are as follows: the four books of Sinodos, the two books of the Covenant, Ethiopic Clement, and the Ethiopic Didascalia.[50] Table[edit]

Books Protestant tradition Roman Catholic tradition Eastern Orthodox tradition Armenian Apostolic tradition [N 1] Coptic Orthodox tradition Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
traditions Syriac Christian
Christian
traditions

Canonical gospels[N 2]

Matthew Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 3]

Mark[N 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 3]

Luke Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 3]

John[N 4][N 5] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 3]

Apostolic history

Acts[N 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
and Thecla [N 6][51][52] No No No No (early tradition) No No No (early tradition)

Pauline epistles

Romans Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 Corinthians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

2 Corinthians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Corinthians to Paul and 3 Corinthians [N 6][N 7] No No No No − inc. in some mss. No No No (early tradition)

Galatians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Ephesians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Philippians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Colossians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Laodiceans No − inc. in some eds. [N 8] No − inc. in some mss. No No No No No

1 Thessalonians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

2 Thessalonians Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 Timothy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

2 Timothy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Titus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Philemon Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

General epistles

Hebrews Yes[N 9] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

James Yes[N 9] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 Peter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

2 Peter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 10]

1 John[N 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

2 John Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 10]

3 John Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 10]

Jude Yes[N 9] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 10]

Apocalypse[N 11]

Revelation Yes[N 9] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[N 10]

Apostolic Fathers[N 12] and Church Orders[N 13]

1 Clement[N 14] No (Codices Alexandrinus and Hierosolymitanus)

2 Clement[N 14] No (Codices Alexandrinus and Hierosolymitanus)

Shepherd of Hermas[N 14] No (Codex Siniaticus)

Epistle
Epistle
of Barnabas[N 14] No (Codices Hierosolymitanus and Siniaticus)

Didache[N 14] No (Codex Hierosolymitanus)

Ser`atä Seyon (Sinodos) No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Te'ezaz (Sinodos) No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Gessew (Sinodos) No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Abtelis (Sinodos) No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Book
Book
of the Covenant 1 (Mäshafä Kidan) No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Book
Book
of the Covenant 2 (Mäshafä Kidan) No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Ethiopic Clement (Qälëmentos)[N 15] No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Ethiopic Didescalia (Didesqelya)[N 15] No No No No No Yes (broader canon) No

Table notes[edit]

^ The growth and development of the Armenian Biblical canon
Biblical canon
is complex. Extra-canonical New Testament
New Testament
books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either distinct to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status. Some of the books are not listed in this table. These include the Prayer of Euthalius, the Repose of St. John the Evangelist, the Doctrine of Addai (some sources replace this with the Acts of Thaddeus), a reading from the Gospel
Gospel
of James (some sources replace this with the Apocryphon of James), the Second Apostolic Canons, the Words of Justus, Dionysius Aeropagite, the Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
(some sources replace this with the Preaching of Peter), and a Poem by Ghazar. (Various sources also mention undefined Armenian canonical additions to the Gospels of Mark and John, however, these may refer to the general additions—Mark 16:9–20 and John 7:53–8:11—discussed elsewhere in these notes.) A possible exception here to canonical exclusivity is the Second Apostolic Canons, which share a common source—the Apostolic Constitutions—with certain parts of the Orthodox Tewahedo New Testament
New Testament
broader canon. The correspondence between King Agbar and Jesus
Jesus
Christ, which is found in various forms—including within both the Doctrine of Addai
Doctrine of Addai
and the Acts of Thaddeus—sometimes appears separately (see this list). It is noteworthy that the Prayer of Euthalius and the Repose of St. John the Evangelist
St. John the Evangelist
appear in the appendix of the 1805 Armenian Zohrab Bible. However, some of the aforementioned books, though they are found within canon lists, have nonetheless never been discovered to be part of any Armenian Biblical manuscript. ^ Though widely regarded as non-canonical, the Gospel
Gospel
of James obtained early liturgical acceptance among some Eastern churches and remains a major source for many of Christendom's traditions related to Mary, the mother of Jesus. ^ a b c d The Diatessaron, Tatian's gospel harmony, became a standard text in some Syriac-speaking churches down to the 5th century, when it gave-way to the four separate gospels found in the Peshitta. ^ a b c d Parts of these four books are not found in the most reliable ancient sources; in some cases, are thought to be later additions; and have therefore not historically existed in every Biblical tradition. They are as follows: Mark 16:9–20, John 7:53–8:11, the Comma Johanneum, and portions of the Western version of Acts. To varying degrees, arguments for the authenticity of these passages—especially for the one from the Gospel
Gospel
of John—have occasionally been made. ^ Skeireins, a commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
of John in the Gothic language, was included in the Wulfila Bible. It exists today only in fragments. ^ a b The Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
and Thecla, the Epistle
Epistle
of the Corinthians to Paul, and the Third Epistle to the Corinthians
Third Epistle to the Corinthians
are all portions of the greater Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
narrative, which is part of a stichometric catalogue of New Testament
New Testament
canon found in the Codex Claromontanus, but has survived only in fragments. Some of the content within these individual sections may have developed separately, however. ^ The Third Epistle to the Corinthians
Third Epistle to the Corinthians
often appears with and is framed as a response to the Epistle
Epistle
of the Corinthians to Paul. ^ The Epistle to the Laodiceans
Epistle to the Laodiceans
is present in some western non-Roman Catholic translations and traditions. Especially of note is John Wycliffe's inclusion of the epistle in his English translation, and the Quakers' use of it to the point where they produced a translation and made pleas for its canonicity (Poole's Annotations, on Col. 4:16). The epistle is nonetheless widely rejected by the vast majority of Protestants. ^ a b c d These four works were questioned or "spoken against" by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament
New Testament
to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran body since. Traditional German Luther Bibles are still printed with the New Testament in this changed "Lutheran" order. The vast majority of Protestants embrace these four works as fully canonical. ^ a b c d e The Peshitta
Peshitta
excludes 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions include later translations of those books. Still today, the official lectionary followed by the Syriac Orthodox Church
Syriac Orthodox Church
and the Assyrian Church of the East, present lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions. ^ The Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter, though not listed in this table, is mentioned in the Muratorian fragment
Muratorian fragment
and is part of a stichometric catalogue of New Testament
New Testament
canon found in the Codex Claromontanus. It was also held in high regard by Clement of Alexandria. ^ Other known writings of the Apostolic Fathers
Apostolic Fathers
not listed in this table are as follows: the seven Epistles of Ignatius, the Epistle
Epistle
of Polycarp, the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the Epistle
Epistle
to Diognetus, the fragment of Quadratus of Athens, the fragments of Papias of Hierapolis, the Reliques of the Elders Preserved in Irenaeus, and the Apostles' Creed. ^ Though they are not listed in this table, the Apostolic Constitutions were considered canonical by some including Alexius Aristenus, John of Salisbury, and to a lesser extent, Grigor Tat`evatsi. They are even classified as part of the New Testament canon within the body of the Constitutions itself. Moreover, they are the source for a great deal of the content in the Orthodox Tewahedo broader canon. ^ a b c d e These five writings attributed to the Apostolic Fathers are not currently considered canonical in any Biblical tradition, though they are more highly regarded by some more than others. Nonetheless, their early authorship and inclusion in ancient Biblical codices, as well as their acceptance to varying degrees by various early authorities, requires them to be treated as foundational literature for Christianity
Christianity
as a whole. ^ a b Ethiopic Clement and the Ethiopic Didascalia are distinct from and should not be confused with other ecclesiastical documents known in the west by similar names.

Latter Day Saint canons[edit]

A 21st-century artistic representation of the Golden Plates
Golden Plates
with Urim and Thummim.

Main article: Revelation
Revelation
(Latter Day Saints) The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit] Main article: Standard works The standard works of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) consists of several books that constitute its open scriptural canon, and include the following:

The King James Version of the Bible[note 8] – without the Apocrypha The Book
Book
of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus
Jesus
Christ The Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints The Pearl of Great Price

The Pearl of Great Price contains five sections: "Selections from the Book
Book
of Moses", "The Book
Book
of Abraham", "Joseph Smith—Matthew", "Joseph Smith—History" and "The Articles of Faith". The Book
Book
of Moses
Moses
and Joseph Smith—Matthew are portions of the Book
Book
of Genesis and the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew (respectively) from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. (The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible is also known as the Inspired Version of the Bible.) The manuscripts of the unfinished Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible
Bible
(JST) state that "the Song of Solomon
Solomon
is not inspired scripture."[53] However, it is still printed in every version of the King James Bible
Bible
published by the church. The Standard Works are printed and distributed by the LDS church in a single binding called a "Quadruple Combination" or a set of two books, with the Bible
Bible
in one binding, and the other three books in a second binding called a "Triple Combination". Current editions of the Standard Works include a bible dictionary, photographs, maps and gazetteer, topical guide, index, footnotes, cross references, excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible
Bible
and other study aids. Other Latter Day Saint sects[edit] Canons of various Latter Day Saint denominations diverge from the LDS Standard Works. Some accept only portions of the Standard Works. For instance, the Bickertonite sect does not consider the Pearl of Great Price or Doctrines and Covenants to be scriptural. Rather, they believe that the New Testament
New Testament
scriptures contain a true description of the church as established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and that both the King James Bible
Bible
and Book
Book
of Mormon are the inspired word of God.[54] Some denominations accept earlier versions of the Standard Works or work to develop corrected translations. Others have purportedly received additional revelation. The Community of Christ
Community of Christ
points to Jesus
Jesus
Christ as the living Word of God,[55] and it affirms the Bible, along with the Book
Book
of Mormon, as well as its own regularly appended version of Doctrines and Covenants as scripture for the church. While it publishes a version of the Joseph Smith Translation—which includes material from the Book
Book
of Moses—the Community of Christ
Community of Christ
also accepts the use of other translations of the Bible, such as the standard King James Version and the New Revised Standard Version. Like the aforementioned Bickertonites, the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) rejects the Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
and the Pearl of Great Price, as well as the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, preferring to use only the King James Bible
Bible
and the Book
Book
of Mormon as doctrinal standards. The Book
Book
of Commandments is accepted as being superior to the Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
as a compendium of Joseph Smith's early revelations, but is not accorded the same status as the Bible
Bible
or Book of Mormon. The Word of the Lord and The Word of the Lord Brought to Mankind by an Angel are two related books considered to be scriptural by certain (Fettingite) factions that separated from the Temple Lot church. Both books contain revelations allegedly given to former Church of Christ (Temple Lot) Apostle Otto Fetting
Otto Fetting
by an angelic being who claimed to be John the Baptist. The latter title (120 messages) contains the entirety of the former's material (30 msgs.) with additional revelations (90 msgs.) purportedly given to William A. Draves by this same being, after Fetting's death. Neither are accepted by the larger Temple Lot body of believers.[56] The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) considers the Bible
Bible
(when correctly translated), the Book
Book
of Mormon, and editions of the Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
published prior to Joseph Smith's death (which contained the Lectures on Faith) to be inspired scripture. They also hold the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible
Bible
to be inspired, but do not believe modern publications of the text are accurate. Other portions of The Pearl of Great Price, however, are not considered to be scriptural—though are not necessarily fully rejected either. The Book
Book
of Jasher was consistently used by both Joseph Smith and James Strang, but as with other Latter Day Saint denominations and sects, there is no official stance on its authenticity, and it is not considered canonical.[57] An additional work called The Book
Book
of the Law of the Lord is also accepted as inspired scripture by the Strangites. They likewise hold as scriptural several prophecies, visions, revelations, and translations printed by James Strang, and published in the Revelations of James J. Strang. Among other things, this text contains his purported "Letter of Appointment" from Joseph Smith and his translation of the Voree plates. The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ (Cutlerite) accepts the following as scripture: the Inspired Version of the Bible
Bible
(including the Book
Book
of Moses
Moses
and Joseph Smith–Matthew), the Book
Book
of Mormon, and the 1844 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
(including the Lectures on Faith). However, the revelation on tithing (section 107 in the 1844 edition; 119 in modern LDS editions) is emphatically rejected by members of this church, as it is not believed to be given by Joseph Smith. The Book
Book
of Abraham
Abraham
is rejected as scripture, as are the other portions of the Pearl of Great Price that do not appear in the Inspired Version of the Bible. Many Latter Day Saint denominations have also either adopted the Articles of Faith or at least view them as a statement of basic theology. (They are considered scriptural by the larger LDS church and are included in The Pearl of Great Price.) At times, the Articles have been adapted to fit the respective belief systems of various faith communities. See also[edit]

Book
Book
of Mormon portal Religion portal Spirituality portal

Book: Abrahamic religions Book: Christianity Book: Judaism

Books of the Bible Bible
Bible
translations Biblical criticism Biblical manuscripts Canon (fiction) – a concept inspired by Biblical canon Canonical criticism Jewish apocrypha List of Old Testament
Old Testament
pseudepigrapha New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible

Notes[edit]

^ Because of the lack of solid information on this subject, the exclusion of Lamentations from the Ethiopian Jewish canon is not a certainty. Furthermore, some uncertainty remains concerning the exclusion of various smaller deuterocanonical writings from this canon including the Prayer of Manasseh, the traditional additions to Esther, the traditional additions to Daniel, Psalm 151, and portions of Säqoqawä Eremyas. ^ Josephus's The Jewish War
The Jewish War
and Antiquities of the Jews
Jews
are highly regarded by Christians because they provide valuable insight into 1st century Judaism
Judaism
and early Christianity. Moreover, in Antiquities, Josephus
Josephus
made two extra-Biblical references to Jesus, which have played a crucial role in establishing him as a historical figure. ^ The Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
broader canon in its fullest form—which includes the narrower canon in its entirety, as well as nine additional books—is not known to exist at this time as one published compilation. Some books, though considered canonical, are nonetheless difficult to locate and are not even widely available in Ethiopia. While the narrower canon has indeed been published as one compilation, there may be no real emic distinction between the broader canon and the narrower canon, especially in so far as divine inspiration and scriptural authority are concerned. The idea of two such classifications may be nothing more than etic taxonomic conjecture. ^ A translation of the Epistle to the Laodiceans
Epistle to the Laodiceans
can be accessed online at the Internet Sacred Texts Archive. ^ The Third Epistle to the Corinthians
Third Epistle to the Corinthians
can be found as a section within the Acts of Paul, which has survived only in fragments. A translation of the entire remaining Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
can be accessed online at Early Christian
Christian
Writings. ^ Various translations of the Didache
Didache
can be accessed online at Early Christian
Christian
Writings. ^ A translation of the Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas
can be accessed online at the Internet Sacred Texts Archive. ^ The LDS Church uses the King James Version (KJV) in English-speaking countries; other versions are used in non-English speaking countries.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Ulrich, Eugene (2002). "The Notion and Definition of Canon". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. pp. 29, 34.  Ulrich's article defines "canon" as follows: "...the definitive list of inspired, authoritative books which constitute the recognized and accepted body of sacred scripture of a major religious group, that definitive list being the result of inclusive and exclusive decisions after a serious deliberation". It is further defined[by whom?] as follows: "...the definitive, closed list of the books that constitute the authentic contents of scripture." ^ Ulrich (2002), p. 28. "The term is late and Christian
Christian
... though the idea is Jewish". ^ McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. (2002). "Introduction". The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 13.  "We should be clear, however, that the current use of the term "canon" to refer to a collection of scripture books was introduced by David
David
Ruhnken in 1768 in his Historia critica oratorum graecorum for lists of sacred scriptures. While it is tempting to think that such usage has its origins in antiquity in reference to a closed collection of scriptures, such is not the case." The technical discussion includes Athanasius's use of "kanonizomenon=canonized" and Eusebius's use of kanon and "endiathekous biblous=encovenanted books" and the Mishnaic term Sefarim Hizonim (external books). ^ Athanasius. Letter 39.6.3. "Let no man add to these, neither let him take ought from these." ^ Ulrich (2002), pp. 30, 32–33. "But it is necessary to keep in mind Bruce Metzger's distinction between "a collection of authoritative books" and "an authoritative collection of books." ^ For the number of books of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
see: Darshan, G. (2012). "The Twenty-Four Books of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
and Alexandrian Scribal Methods". In Niehoff, M. R. Homer and the Bible
Bible
in the Eyes of Ancient Interpreters: Between Literary and Religious Concerns. Leiden: Brill. pp. 221–44.  ^ McDonald & Sanders (2002), p. 4. ^ W. M., Christie. "The Jamnia Period in Jewish History" (PDF). Journal of Theological Studies. os-XXVI (104): 347–64.  ^ Lewis, Jack P. (April 1964). "What Do We Mean by Jabneh?". Journal of Bible
Bible
and Religion. Oxford University Press. 32 (2): 125–32. JSTOR 1460205.  ^ Freedman, David
David
Noel, ed. (1992). Anchor Bible
Bible
Dictionary, Vol. III. New York: Doubleday. pp. 634–37.  ^ Lewis, Jack P. (2002). "Jamnia Revisited". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers.  ^ McDonald & Sanders (2002), p. 5. ^ Cited are Neusner's Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
in the Age of Constantine, pp. 128–45, and Midrash
Midrash
in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism, pp. 1–22. ^ Brettler, Marc Zvi (2005). How To Read The Bible. Jewish Publication Society. pp. 274–75. ISBN 978-0-8276-1001-9.  ^ Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2002). "The Formation of the Hebrew Canon: Isaiah as a Test Case". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 60.  ^ Davies, Philip R. (2002). "The Jewish Scriptural Canon in Cultural Perspective". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 50. With many other scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost certainly the achievement of the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty.  ^ a b "Samaritans". Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. 1906.  ^ VanderKam, James C. (2002). "Questions of Canon through the Dead Sea Scrolls". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 94.  Citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on biblical manuscripts: Qumran scribe type c.25%, proto- Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
c. 40%, pre-Samaritan texts c. 5%, texts close to the Hebrew model for the Septuagint
Septuagint
c. 5% and nonaligned c. 25%. ^ "Sadducees". Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. 1906. With the destruction of the Temple and the state the Sadducees
Sadducees
as a party no longer had an object for which to live. They disappear from history, though their views are partly maintained and echoed by the Samaritans, with whom they are frequently identified (see Hippolytus, "Refutatio Hæresium", ix. 29; Epiphanius, l.c. xiv.; and other Church Fathers, who ascribe to the Sadducees
Sadducees
the rejection of the Prophets and the Hagiographa; comp. also Sanh. 90b, where "Ẓadduḳim" stands for "Kutim" [Samaritans]; Sifre, Num. 112; Geiger, l.c. pp. 128–29), and by the Karaites (see Maimonides, commentary on Ab. i. 3; Geiger, "Gesammelte Schriften", iii. 283–321; also Anan ben David; Karaites).  ^ Bowman, John (trans.) (ed.) (1977). Samaritan Documents, Relating To Their History, Religion and Life. Pittsburgh Original Texts & Translations Series No. 2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Crown, Alan D. (October 1991). "The Abisha Scroll
Scroll
– 3,000 Years Old?". Bible
Bible
Review. ^ Sanders, J. A. (2002). "The Issue of Closure in the Canonical Process". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 259. ... the so-called Septuagint
Septuagint
was not in itself formally closed.  Attributed to Albert Sundberg's 1964 Harvard dissertation. ^ Ferguson, Everett (2002). "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament
New Testament
Canon". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. pp. 302–03 ; cf. Justin Martyr. First Apology. 67.3. ^ Metzger, Bruce (1997). The Canon of the New Testament. Oxford University Press. p. 98. The question whether the Church's canon preceded or followed Marcion's canon continues to be debated.  ^ a b von Harnack, Adolf (1914). "Appendix VI". Origin of the New Testament.  ^ Ferguson (2002), p. 301; cf. Irenaeus. Adversus Haereses. 3.11.8. ^ Both points taken from Noll, Mark A. (1997). Turning Points. Baker Academic. pp. 36–37.  ^ de Jonge, H. J. (2003). "The New Testament
New Testament
Canon". In de Jonge, H. J.; Auwers, J. M. The Biblical Canons. Leuven University Press. p. 315.  ^ Ackroyd, P. R.; Evans, C. F., eds. (1970). The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 308.  ^ Prat, Ferdinand (1911). "Origen and Origenism". The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. According to Eusebius' Church History 6.25: a 22 book OT [though Eusebius doesn't name Minor Prophets, presumably just an oversight?] + 1 DeuteroCanon ["And outside these are the Maccabees, which are entitled S<ph?>ar beth sabanai el."] + 4 Gospels but on the Apostle "Paul ... did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; and even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines." ^ Metzger (1997), p. 141. ^ a b Lindberg, Carter (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 1-4051-1078-3.  ^ Brakke, David
David
(1994). "Canon Formation and Social Conflict in Fourth Century Egypt: Athanasius of Alexandria's Thirty Ninth Festal Letter". Harvard Theological Review. 87 (4): 395–419. doi:10.1017/s0017816000030200.  ^ Ekonomou, Andrew J. (2007). Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-73911977-8.  ^ Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry (eds.). "Council in Trullo". Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 14.  ^ Metzger (1997) ^ McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. (2002). "Appendix D-2". The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. Note 19. Revelation
Revelation
was added later in 419 at the subsequent synod of Carthage.  ^ Ferguson (2002), p. 320; Bruce, F. F. (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press. p. 230. ; cf. Augustine. De Civitate Dei. 22.8. ^ Bruce (1988), p. 234. ^ Bruce (1988), p. 225. ^ "Innocent I". Bible
Bible
Research. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ Ferguson (2002), p. 320; Metzger (1997), pp. 237–38; Bruce (1988), p. 97. ^ Bruce (1988), p. 215. ^ Ackroyd & Evans (1970), p. 305; cf. Reid, George (1908). "Canon of the New Testament". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "German Bible
Bible
Versions". Bible
Bible
Research.  ^ Reid (1908). ^ "The Bible". Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
Church. 2003. Retrieved 20 January 2012. ^ Saifullah, M. S. M. "Canons & Recensions of the Armenian Bible". Islamic Awareness. Retrieved 25 January 2012.  ^ Metzger (1997), pp. 219, 223; cf. 7, 176, 182. Cited in Epp, Eldon Jay (2002). "Issues in the Interrelation of New Testament
New Testament
Textual Criticism and Canon". In McDonald, L. M.; Sanders, J. A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 492.  ^ Cowley, R. W. (1974). "The Biblical Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church Today". Ostkirchliche Studien. 23: 318–23.  ^ Burris, Catherine; van Rompay, Lucas (2002). "Thecla in Syriac Christianity: Preliminary Observations". Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies. 5 (2): 225–36.  ^ Carter, Nancy A. (2000), The Acts of Thecla: A Pauline Tradition Linked to Women, Conflict and Community in the Christian
Christian
Church, archived from the original on 13 February 2012  ^ "Song of Solomon". Bible
Bible
Dictionary. The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-Day Saints. p. 776. ^ Lovalvo, V. James (1986). Dissertation on the Faith and Doctrine of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Bridgewater, Michigan: The Church of Jesus Christ. pp. 115–16.  ^ " Scripture
Scripture
in the Community of Christ". Community of Christ
Community of Christ
Theology Task Force. Saints Herald. August 2006. p. 15. ^ Sheldon, William. "A Synopsis of the Church of Christ Beliefs and Practices as Compared to Other Latter Day Saint Churches". The Interactive Bible.  Refers to the Bible
Bible
and Book
Book
of Mormon as "the only safe standards". ^ "Strangite Scriptures". Strangite.org. Retrieved 3 March 2012.

Bibliography[edit]

Ante-Nicene Fathers. Eerdmans Press. Lightfoot, Joseph; Harmer, John; Holmes, Michael, eds. (1992). The Apostolic Fathers. Barker Book
Book
House. ISBN 978-0-8010-5676-5.  Encyclopedia of the Early Church. Oxford. Beckwith, R. T. (1986). The Old Testament
Old Testament
Canon of the New Testament Church and Its Background in Early Judaism. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-3617-5.  Davis, L. D. (1983). The First Seven Ecumenical Councils (325-787): Their History and Theology. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5616-7.  Ferguson, Everett. Encyclopedia of Early Christianity.  Fox, Robin Lane (1992). The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible. Penguin Books.  Gamble, Harry Y. (2002). The New Testament
New Testament
Canon: Its Making and Meaning. Wipf & Stock Publishers. ISBN 1-57910-909-8.  Hennecke-Schneemelcher. NT Apocrypha Nersessian, V. (2001). "The Armenian Canon of the New Testament". The Bible
Bible
in the Armenian Tradition. Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-0-89236-640-8.  Jurgens, W. A. Faith of the Early Fathers.  Sundberg, Albert (1964). The Old Testament
Old Testament
of the Early Church. Harvard Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Barnstone, Willis (ed.) (1984). The Other Bible: Ancient Alternative Scriptures. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-7394-8434-0. Childs, Brevard S.. (1984). The New Testament
New Testament
as Canon: An Introduction. SCM Press. ISBN 0-334-02212-6. McDonald, Lee Martin (2009). Forgotten Scriptures. The Selection and Rejection of Early Religious Writings. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-23357-0. McDonald, Lee Martin (1988). The Formation of the Christian
Christian
Biblical Canon. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0-687-13293-2. McDonald, Lee Martin (2000). Early Christianity
Christianity
and Its Sacred Literature. Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 1-56563-266-4. McDonald, Lee Martin (2007). 'The Biblical Canon: Its Origin, Transmission, and Authority. Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56563-925-6. Souter, Alexander (1954). The Text and Canon of the New Testament. 2nd ed. Studies in Theology, No. 25. London: Duckworth. Stonehouse, Ned Bernhard (1929). The Apocalypse
Apocalypse
in the Ancient Church: A Study in the History of the New Testament
New Testament
Canon. Oosterbaan & Le Cointre. Taussig, Hal (2013). A New New Testament: A Bible
Bible
for the 21st Century Combining Traditional and Newly Discovered Texts. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Wall, Robert W.; Lemcio, Eugene E. (1992). The New Testament
New Testament
as Canon: A Reader in Canonical Criticism. JSOT Press. ISBN 1-85075-374-1. Westcott, Brooke Foss. (1875). A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament. 4th ed. London: Macmillan.

External links[edit]

The Canon of Scripture
Scripture
– contains multiple links and articles The Canons of the Old Testament
Old Testament
and New Testament
New Testament
Through the Ages Cross Wire Bible
Bible
Society Old Testament
Old Testament
Reading Room and New Testament
New Testament
Reading Room – Online resources referenced by Tyndale Seminary The Development of the Canon of the New Testament
New Testament
– includes very detailed charts and direct links to ancient witnesses Catholic Encyclopedia: Canon of the New Testament Jewish Encyclopedia: Bible
Bible
Canon What's in Your Bible? – a chart comparing Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic, Syriac, Ethiopian, and Protestant canons ( Bible
Bible
Study Magazine, November–December 2008.) Online Latter Day Saint scripture:

The Standard Works (LDS Church) Lectures on Faith (1844 edition of Doctrine and Covenants) The Book
Book
of the Law of the Lord (Strangite) The Revelations of James Strang
James Strang
(Strangite) The Word of the Lord (Brought to Mankind by an Angel) (Fettingite/Elijah Message)

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