Benvenuto Tisi (or Il Garofalo) (1481 – September 6, 1559) was
a Late-Renaissance-Mannerist Italian painter of the School of Ferrara.
Garofalo's career began attached to the court of the Duke d'Este. His
early works have been described as "idyllic", but they often conform
to the elaborate conceits favored by the artistically refined
Ferrarese court. His nickname, Garofalo, may derive from his habit of
signing some works with a picture of a carnation (in Italian,
1.1 Early training
1.2 Mature works and assessment
2 List of works
5 External links
Born in Canaro near Ferrara, Tisi is claimed to have apprenticed under
Panetti and perhaps Costa and was a contemporary, and sometimes
collaborator with Dosso Dossi. In 1495 he worked at
Cremona under his
maternal uncle Niccolò Soriano, and at the school of Boccaccino,
who initiated him into Venetian colouring. He may have spent three
years (1509–1512), in Rome. This led to a stylized classical style,
more influenced by Giulio Romano.
Invited by a Ferrarese gentleman, Geronimo Sagrato, to Rome, he worked
Raphael in the decoration of the Stanza della Segnatura.
From Rome family affairs recalled him to Ferrara; there Duke Alfonso I
commissioned him to execute paintings, along with the Dossi, in the
Delizia di Belriguardo and in other palaces. Thus the style of Tisi
partakes of the Lombard, the Roman and the Venetian modes.
He painted extensively in Ferrara, both in oil and in fresco, two of
his principal works being the "Massacre of the Innocents" (1519), in
the church of S. Francesco, and his masterpiece "Betrayal of Christ"
(1524). For the former he made clay models for study and a clay
figure. He continued constantly at work until in 1550 blindness
overtook him, painting on all feast-days in monasteries for the love
of God. He had married at the age forty-eight, and died at
the 6th (or 16th) of September 1559, leaving two children.
Coronation of Saint Catherine, Capitoline Museums
He was a friend of Giulio Romano, Giorgione,
Titian and Ariosto; in a
picture of "Paradise" he painted
Ariosto between St Catherine and St
Sebastian. In youth he was fond of lute-playing and also of fencing.
He ranks among the best of the Ferrarese painters; his leading pupil
was Girolamo da Carpi.
Mature works and assessment
Even his least successful works retain, amid their frigid and
porcelain quality, a harmony which marks Venetian colouring. His
youthful works include the "Boar Hunt" in the Palazzo Sciarra. Later,
the "Knight's Procession" in the
Palazzo Colonna in Rome — gave
promise of an Italianate Cuyp, less commonplace, more romantic, and
more refined than the Dutch artist.
His youthful works include the Boar Hunt in the Palazzo Sciarra and
the Virgin in the Clouds with Four Saints (1518) in the Gallerie
dell'Accademia in Venice, considered one of his masterpieces. The
Pietà (1527) in the
Brera Gallery in Milan reveals an increasingly
stylized treatment. The Madonna (1532) in the
Modena Gallery is a
charming picture; however, the large Triumph of Religion in the
Ferrara has been described as a "bookish" affair, whose
episodes are difficult to elucidate. Garofalo is one of the painters
known and described by Vasari. From 1550 till his death Garofalo was
Girolamo da Carpi
Girolamo da Carpi is said to have apprenticed in Garofalo's
workshop, and worked with him in Ferrarese projects in the 1530–40.
Other pupils include Stefano Falzagalloni. Il Garofalo also influenced
Antonio Pirri and Nicola Pisano (painter) (active 1499–1538).
List of works
The Virgin and Child with Saints Dominic and Catherine of Siena (c.
1500–1505) - National Gallery, London 
Adoration of the Child (1508–1509) - Pinacoteca Nazionale, Ferrara
Adoration of the Magi (c. 1520–1530) - High Museum of Art, Atlanta
Madonna and Child (1510) - Galleria dell'Arte Studiolo, Milan 
Neptune and Pallas (1512) - Art Gallery, Dresden [permanent dead
Madonna delle Nuvole (1514) - Pinacoteca Nazionale, Ferrara
Catherine of Alexandria
Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1515–1530) - National Gallery,
Madonna del Baldacchino (1517) - National Gallery, London
The Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints William of Aquitaine,
Clare, Anthony of Padua and Francis (1517–1518) - National Gallery,
The Vision of Saint Augustine (c. 1518) - National Gallery, London 
Massacre of the Innocents (1519) - Pinacoteca Nazionale, Ferrara
The Holy Family with Saints John the Baptist, Elizabeth, Zacharias and
(?) Francis (1520) - National Gallery, London 
The Agony in the Garden (1520s–1530s) - National Gallery, London 
Baptism of Christ (1520–1525) - Birmingham Museum of Art, Alabama
[permanent dead link]
Madonna del Pilastro (1523) - Pinacoteca Nazionale, Ferrara
Madonna Enthroned with Saints (1524) - Cathedral, Ferrara
A Pagan Sacrifice (1526) - National Gallery, London 
An Allegory of Love (c. 1527–1539) - National Gallery, London 
Annunciation (1528) - Musei Capitolini, Rome 
Madonna Enthroned with Saints (1532) - Modena
Madonna and Child and St. Jerome, c. 1530s, oil on panel, Dallas
Museum of Art
Adoration of the Magi, c. 1530s, oil on panel, Rijksmuseum
Madonna in Glory (1532) - Musei Capitolini, Rome
Raising of Lazarus (1534) - Pinacoteca Nazionale, Ferrara
The Miracle of the Swine (c. 1535) – Alnwick Castle, Northumberland
Madonna and Child in Glory (c. 1535) – Lowe Art Museum, Miami,
Florida. United States
Vestal Virgin Claudia Quinta tows the ship bearing the statue of
Cibele- Palazzo Barberini, Rome
Christ and the Samaritan Woman (1536) 
The Triumph of Bacchus (1540 finished by Garofalo, from unfinished
1517 draft by Raffael) - Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden,
Blessing of Saint John the Baptist (1542) - San Salvatore, Bologna
Conversion of Saint Paul (1545)- Galleria Borghese, Rome
Annunciation (1550) - Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
Holy Family - Musee de Angers 
Holy Family [permanent dead link]
Jesus in the Orchard 
Madonna and Child Enthroned - Dunedin Public Art Gallery, Dunedin.
Madonna Enthroned with Saints 
Madonna with Saint John and Saint Elisabeth - Courtauld Institute,
Mars, Venus and Cupido - Wawel Royal Castle, Kraków
St Sebastian - Museo di Capodimonte, Naples 
Washing feet of Christ - National Gallery, Washington DC 
^ a b c Chisholm 1911.
^ a b Gillet 1913.
^ Art in Northern Italy, by Corrado Ricci; editor: New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons (1911); page 324.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tisio,
Benvenuto". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 1014.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain: Gillet, Louis (1912). "Benvenuto Tisio da
Garofalo". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 14. New
York: Robert Appleton.
Freedberg, Sydney J. (1993). Pelican History of Art, ed.
Italy, 1500–1600. Penguin Books.
Francis P. Smyth and John P. O'Neill (Editors in Chief) (1986).
National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, ed. The Age of Correggio and
the Carracci: Emilian
Painting of the 16th and 17th Centuries.
Dosso Dossi, Garofalo, and the Costabili Polyptych: Imaging Spiritual
Authority, The Art Bulletin, June, 2000 by Giancarlo Fiorenza
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Benvenuto Tisi da Garofalo.
Works by Garofalo at Census of Ferrarese Paintings and Drawings
MUVIG MUseo VIrtuale del Garofalo (virtual museum of Il Garofalo) at
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