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The Bell System
Bell System
was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada
Canada
from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly. On December 31, 1983, the system was divided into independent companies by a U.S. Justice Department mandate. The general public in the United States often used the colloquial term Ma Bell (as in "Mother Bell") to refer to any aspect of this conglomerate, as it held a near-complete monopoly over telephone service in most areas of the country, and is still used by many to refer to any telephone company. Ma Bell is also used to refer to the various female voices in recordings for the Bell System: Mary Moore, Jane Barbe, and Pat Fleet, the current voice of AT&T.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation under Bell patent 1.2 Kingsbury Commitment 1.3 Nationwide monopoly

2 Present-day usage of the Bell name 3 Subsidiaries

3.1 Pre-1956 international holdings 3.2 Pre-1984 breakup 3.3 1984

3.3.1 Today

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit]

Logo
Logo
used from 1889 to 1900

Further information: History of AT&T In 1877, the American Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company, named after Alexander Graham Bell, opened the first telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut. Within a few years local exchange companies were established in every major city in the United States. Use of the Bell System name initially referred to those early telephone franchises and eventually comprised all telephone companies owned by American Telephone
Telephone
& Telegraph, referred to internally as associated companies, regional holding companies, or later Bell operating companies (BOCs). In 1899, American Telephone
Telephone
& Telegraph (AT&T) acquired the assets of its parent, the American Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company. American Bell had created AT&T to provide long-distance calls between New York and Chicago and beyond. AT&T became the parent of American Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company, and thus the head of the Bell System, because regulatory and tax rules were leaner in New York than in Boston, where American Bell was headquartered. Later, the Bell System
Bell System
and its moniker "Ma Bell" became a term that referred generally to all AT&T companies of which there were four major divisions:

AT&T Long Lines, providing long lines to interconnect local exchanges and long-distance calling services Western Electric
Western Electric
Company, Bell's equipment manufacturing arm Bell Labs, conducting research and development for AT&T Bell operating companies, providing local exchange telephone services.

In 1913, the federal government challenged the Bell System's growing monopoly over the phone system under AT&T ownership in an anti-trust suit, leading to the Kingsbury Commitment. Under the commitment, AT&T escaped break-up or nationalization in exchange for divesting itself of Western Union
Western Union
and allowing non-competing independent telephone companies to interconnect with its long-distance network. After 1934, the Federal Communication Commission
Federal Communication Commission
(FCC) assumed regulation of AT&T. Proliferation of telephone service allowed the company to become the largest corporation in the world until its dismantling by the United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
in 1984, at which time the Bell System
Bell System
ceased to exist.[1] Formation under Bell patent[edit] Receiving a U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone on March 7, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
formed the Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
in 1877, which in 1885 became AT&T.[2][3][4] When Bell's original patent expired 15 years later in 1894, the telephone market opened to competition and 6,000 new telephone companies started while the Bell Telephone
Telephone
company took a significant financial downturn.[2][4] On April 30, 1907, Theodore Newton Vail
Theodore Newton Vail
returned as President of AT&T.[2][4] Vail believed in the superiority of one national telephone system and AT&T adopted the slogan "One Policy, One System, Universal Service."[2][5] This became the company's philosophy for the next 70 years.[4] Under Vail, AT&T began acquiring many of the smaller telephone companies including Western Union telegraph.[2][4] Anxious to avoid action from government antitrust suits, AT&T entered into an agreement known as the Kingsbury Commitment with the federal government.[2][5] Kingsbury Commitment[edit] Main article: Kingsbury Commitment Following a government antitrust suit in 1913, AT&T agreed to the Kingsbury Commitment in which AT&T would sell its $30 million in Western Union
Western Union
stock, allow competitors to interconnect with its system, and not acquire other independent companies without permission from the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC).[2][4][6]

Bell System
Bell System
trademark used by AT&T and affiliated companies from 1921 to 1939

195 Broadway, headquarters for most of the 20th century

The Spirit of Communication
Spirit of Communication
as used on the Bell System's directories in the 1930s–40s

The Bell trademark pictured here was used from 1921 through 1939 by both the AT&T corporation and the regional operating corporations to co-brand themselves under a single Bell System
Bell System
trademark. The regional operating corporation's name was placed where "name of associated company" appears in this template version of the trademark. Nationwide monopoly[edit] Bell system telephones and related equipment were made by Western Electric, a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T Co. Member telephone companies paid a fixed fraction of their revenues as a license fee to Bell Labs. As a result of this vertical monopoly, by 1940 the Bell System effectively owned most telephone service in the United States, from local and long-distance service to the telephones themselves. This allowed Bell to prohibit its customers from connecting phones not made or sold by Bell to the system without paying fees. For example, if a customer desired a type of phone not leased by the local Bell monopoly, he or she had to purchase the phone at cost, give it to the phone company, then pay a 're-wiring' charge and a monthly lease fee in order to use it. In 1949, the United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
alleged in an antitrust lawsuit that AT&T and the Bell System
Bell System
operating companies were using their near-monopoly in telecommunications to attempt to establish unfair advantage in related technologies. The outcome was a 1956 consent decree limiting AT&T to 85% of the United States' national telephone network and certain government contracts, and from continuing to hold interests in Canada
Canada
and the Caribbean. The Bell System's Canadian operations included the Bell Canada
Canada
regional operating company and the Northern Electric manufacturing subsidiary of the Bell System's Western Electric equipment manufacturer. Western Electric
Western Electric
divested Northern Electric in 1956, but AT&T did not divest itself of Bell Canada
Canada
until 1975. ITT Corporation, then known as International Telephone
Telephone
& Telegraph Co. purchased the Bell System's Caribbean
Caribbean
regional operating companies. The Bell System
Bell System
also owned various Caribbean
Caribbean
regional operating companies, as well as 54% of Japan's NEC and a post-World War II reconstruction relationship with NTT before the 1956 boundaries were emplaced. Before 1956, the Bell System's reach was truly gargantuan. Even during the period from 1956 to 1984, the Bell System's dominant reach into all forms of communications was pervasive within the United States and influential in telecommunication standardization throughout the industrialized world. The 1984 Bell System divestiture
Bell System divestiture
brought an end to the affiliation branded as the Bell System. It resulted from another antitrust lawsuit filed by the U.S. Department of Justice in 1974, alleging illegal practices by the Bell System
Bell System
companies to stifle competition in the telecommunications industry. The parties settled the suit on January 8, 1982, superseding the former restrictions that AT&T and the DOJ had agreed upon in 1956. Present-day usage of the Bell name[edit] The Bell System
Bell System
service marks, including the circled-bell logo, especially as redesigned by Saul Bass
Saul Bass
in 1969, and the words Bell System in text, were used before January 1, 1984, when the AT&T divestiture of its regional operating companies took effect. Currently, the word mark Bell, the logo, and other related trademarks, are held by each of the remaining Bell companies, namely AT&T, Verizon, CenturyLink, and Cincinnati Bell.[7] International rights to the marks, except for Canada, are held by a joint venture of these companies, Bell IP Holdings.

A Verizon
Verizon
payphone with the Bell logo

Of the various resulting 1984 spinoffs, only BellSouth
BellSouth
actively used and promoted the Bell name and logo during its entire history, from the 1984 break-up to its merger with the new AT&T in 2006. Similarly, cessation of using either the Bell name or logo occurred for many of the other companies more than a decade after the 1984 break-up as part of an acquisition-related rebranding. The others have only used the marks on rare occasions to maintain their trademark rights, even less now that they have adopted names conceived long after divestiture. Examples include Verizon, which still used the Bell logo on its trucks and payphones until it updated its own logo in 2015, and Qwest, formerly US West, which licenses the Northwestern Bell and Mountain Bell
Mountain Bell
names to Unical Enterprises, who makes telephones under the Northwestern Bell
Northwestern Bell
name. Cincinnati Bell, a local franchise of the Bell System
Bell System
that was never wholly owned by AT&T and existed separately prior to 1984, also continues to use the Bell name. It stopped using the Bell logo in the summer of 2006, though it is still seen on some bills, vehicles, and other literature.[citation needed] In 1984, each regional Bell operating company was assigned a set list of names it was allowed to use in combination with the Bell marks. Aside from Cincinnati Bell, all these Bell System
Bell System
names have disappeared from the United States business landscape. Southwestern Bell used both the Bell name and the circled-bell trademark until SBC opted for all of its companies to do business under the "SBC" name in 2002. Bell Atlantic
Bell Atlantic
used the Bell name and circled-bell trademark until renaming itself Verizon
Verizon
in 2000. Pacific Bell
Pacific Bell
continued operating in California under that name (or the shortened "PacBell" nickname) until SBC purchased it. In Canada, Bell Canada
Canada
(divested from AT&T in 1975) continues to use the Bell name. For the decades that Nortel
Nortel
was named Northern Telecom, its research and development arm was Bell Northern Research. Bell Canada
Canada
and its holding-company parent, Bell Canada
Canada
Enterprises, still use the Bell name and used variations of the circled-bell logo until 1977, which until 1976 strongly resembled the 1921 to 1939 Bell System trademark shown above. Subsidiaries[edit] Pre-1956 international holdings[edit] Before the 1956 break-up, the Bell System
Bell System
included the companies listed below, plus those listed in the pre-1984 section. Northern Electric, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
regional operating companies were considered part of the Bell System
Bell System
proper before the 1956 break-up. Nippon Electric was considered a more distant affiliate of Western Electric than Northern Electric, where Nippon Electric via its own research and development adapted the designs of Western Electric's North American telecommunications equipment for use in Japan, which to this day gives much of Japan's telephone equipment and network a closer resemblance to North American ANSI and Telcordia standards than to European-originated ITU-T standards. Before the 1956 break-up, Northern Electric was predominantly focused only on manufacturing, without any significant amount of telecommunication-equipment research & development of its own. The post-World War II-occupation operation of Japan's NTT was considered an administrative adjunct to the North American Bell System.

Nortel Networks
Nortel Networks
Corporation, formerly Northern Telecom, an equipment-manufacturing company

Northern Electric, a former telecommunications equipment-manufacturing subsidiary of Western Electric Dominion Electric, a former recording equipment-manufacturing company

Various former Caribbean
Caribbean
regional operating companies, sold to ITT NEC, a currently existing equipment-manufacturing company in Japan

Nippon Electric, a former telecommunications equipment-manufacturing company 54% owned by Western Electric

NTT, a currently existing telecommunications company in Japan that was administered by AT&T as part of General Douglas MacArthur's post-WWII reconstruction

Manhole cover with Bell System
Bell System
logo

Pre-1984 breakup[edit] Further information: Breakup of the Bell System Immediately before the 1984 break-up, the Bell System
Bell System
had the following corporate structure:

American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company, a holding company and long-distance carrier

Illinois Bell
Illinois Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company Indiana Bell
Indiana Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, Incorporated Michigan Bell
Michigan Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company New England Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company New Jersey Bell
New Jersey Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company New York Telephone
Telephone
Company Northwestern Bell
Northwestern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company Pacific Northwest Bell
Pacific Northwest Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company South Central Bell
South Central Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company Southern Bell
Southern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company Southwestern Bell
Southwestern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company The Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Pennsylvania The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of Maryland The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of West Virginia The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of Virginia The Diamond State Telephone
Telephone
Company The Mountain States Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company

Malheur Home Telephone
Telephone
Company

The Ohio Bell
Ohio Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company The Pacific Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company

Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Nevada

Wisconsin Telephone
Telephone
Company

Other subsidiaries:

Bell Canada
Canada
(1880–1975)

Northern Electric (equipment manufacturing in Canada) (1914–1956)

Western Electric
Western Electric
Co., Inc. (equipment manufacturing)

Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories, Inc. (R&D (research & development), co-owned between AT&T and Western Electric)

Cincinnati Bell, Inc. (22.7% owned) The Southern New England Telephone
Telephone
Company (16.8% owned) Bellcomm, Inc. (1963–1972; formed to support the Apollo program)

1984[edit] On January 1, 1984, the former components of the Bell System
Bell System
were structured into the following companies, which became known as the Baby Bells.

American Information Technologies
American Information Technologies
Corporation, branded as Ameritech

Illinois Bell
Illinois Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company Indiana Bell
Indiana Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, Incorporated Michigan Bell
Michigan Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company The Ohio Bell
Ohio Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company Wisconsin Bell, Inc.

American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company

AT&T Communications, Inc. AT&T Information Systems, Inc. AT&T Technologies, Inc. Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories, Inc.

Bell Atlantic
Bell Atlantic
Corporation

New Jersey Bell
New Jersey Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company The Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Pennsylvania The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of Maryland The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of West Virginia The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of Virginia The Diamond State Telephone
Telephone
Company

Bell Communications Research, Inc., owned equally by all the Baby Bells BellSouth
BellSouth
Corporation

Southern Bell
Southern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company South Central Bell
South Central Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company

Cincinnati Bell, Inc.

Cincinnati Bell
Cincinnati Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company

NYNEX
NYNEX
Corporation

New York Telephone
Telephone
Company New England Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company

Pacific Telesis
Pacific Telesis
Group

Pacific Bell
Pacific Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company

Nevada Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company

Southwestern Bell
Southwestern Bell
Corporation

Southwestern Bell
Southwestern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company

The Southern New England Telephone
Telephone
Company U S WEST, Inc.

Northwestern Bell
Northwestern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company Pacific Northwest Bell
Pacific Northwest Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company The Mountain States Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company

Malheur Home Telephone
Telephone
Company

Today[edit] After 1984, there were multiple mergers of the operating companies themselves, as well as multiple Baby Bells
Baby Bells
that came together, and some components are now in the hands of companies independent from the historic Bell System. The structure of the companies today is as follows.

Remaining "Regional Bell Operating Companies"

AT&T Inc., a currently existing holding company

AT&T Corp., a current subsidiary AT&T Teleholdings, Inc. (formerly Ameritech
Ameritech
Corporation), a current subsidiary, also includes now defunct Pacific Telesis

Illinois Bell
Illinois Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC Indiana Bell
Indiana Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, Incorporated, a currently existing regional LEC Michigan Bell
Michigan Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC Pacific Bell
Pacific Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC

Nevada Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC, omitted from the MFJ

The Ohio Bell
Ohio Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC Wisconsin Bell, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC

BellSouth
BellSouth
Corporation, a current subsidiary. Its two operating companies merged into one:

BellSouth
BellSouth
Telecommunications, LLC, a currently existing regional LEC, includes Southern Bell
Southern Bell
& South Central Bell

Southwestern Bell
Southwestern Bell
Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC

Verizon
Verizon
Communications, Inc., formerly Bell Atlantic
Bell Atlantic
Corporation, a currently existing holding company

NYNEX
NYNEX
Corporation, a former RBOC
RBOC
holding company

Verizon
Verizon
New England, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC Verizon
Verizon
New York, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC

Verizon
Verizon
Delaware LLC, a currently existing regional LEC Verizon
Verizon
Maryland, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC Verizon
Verizon
New Jersey, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC Verizon
Verizon
Pennsylvania, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC Verizon
Verizon
Washington, D.C., Inc., a currently existing regional LEC Verizon
Verizon
Virginia, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC

CenturyLink, Inc., a currently existing independent LEC holding company

Qwest
Qwest
Communications International, Inc., a holding company acquired in 2011; originally a non-Bell company, acquired and merged U S WEST in 2000.

Qwest
Qwest
Services Corporation, a holding company within the Qwest corporate structure

Qwest
Qwest
Corporation, a currently existing regional LEC, originally Mountain Bell, includes defunct Malheur Bell, Northwestern Bell, Pacific Northwest Bell

Other "Bell Operating Companies"

Cincinnati Bell's alternative logo retains the iconic Bell logo.

The following telephone companies are considered independent of the Baby Bells:

Cincinnati Bell, Inc., a currently existing independent LEC holding company

Cincinnati Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
LLC, a currently existing LEC of which AT&T owned 27.8% before 1984 and thus was left separate in the 1984 break-up

FairPoint
FairPoint
Communications, Inc., a currently existing independent LEC holding company

Northern New England Telephone
Telephone
Operations LLC, a regional LEC created when Verizon
Verizon
New England lines in Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
were sold to FairPoint
FairPoint
in 2008

Telephone
Telephone
Operating Company of Vermont
Vermont
LLC, a regional LEC created when Verizon
Verizon
New England lines in Vermont
Vermont
were sold to FairPoint
FairPoint
in 2008

Frontier Communications
Frontier Communications
Corporation, a currently existing independent LEC holding company

Frontier Communications
Frontier Communications
ILEC Holdings, Inc., an LEC holding company created by Verizon
Verizon
and sold to Frontier in 2010

Frontier West Virginia, Inc., a currently existing regional LEC, formerly C&P Telephone
Telephone
of West Virginia

The Southern New England Telephone
Telephone
Company, a currently existing regional LEC that AT&T owned 16.8% of before 1984 and thus was left separate by the 1984 break-up

Other "Bell System" companies

The following companies were divested after 1984 from AT&T Corp. or the Baby Bells
Baby Bells
and do not provide telephone service.

Lucent Technologies, a research and equipment manufacturing company spun-off in 1995; merged with French company Alcatel in 2006 to form Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent
which was acquired by Finland's Nokia Corporation
Nokia Corporation
in 2016

Western Electric
Western Electric
Company, Incorporated, a former telecommunications and recording equipment-manufacturing company that ceased to have that name as of the 1984 break-up

Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent
Bell, a subsidiary of Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent
that was founded in Antwerp, Belgium
Belgium
in 1882, by Western Electric; came into Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent
ownership via ITT and Alcatel

Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories, Inc., the former AT&T-corporate research unit known as Bell Labs: also spun-off to Lucent Technologies, became Nokia Bell Labs
Bell Labs
in 2016

Avaya, Inc., a currently-existing equipment manufacturing company spun-off from Lucent in 2000 LSI Corporation, a currently existing holding company

Agere Systems, incorporated in 2000, the former Micro Electronics subsidiary of Lucent; was then spun-off in 2002 and acquired by LSI in 2007

Systimax Solutions, the Western Electric
Western Electric
Structured Cabling unit, once known as AT&T Network Systems was spun-off from Avaya
Avaya
in 2002 and is now part of CommScope Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson, a Swedish communications company

Telcordia Technologies, Inc., a currently existing research company, formerly known as Bell Communications Research (Bellcore)

Beginning in 1991, the Baby Bells
Baby Bells
began to consolidate operations or legally rename their Bell Operating Companies
Bell Operating Companies
according to the parent company name, such as " Bell Atlantic
Bell Atlantic
– Delaware, Inc." or "U S WEST Communications, Inc.", to unify their corporate images. See also[edit]

Bell Telephone
Telephone
Memorial Independent telephone company RBOC
RBOC
(Regional Bell Operating Company) The Telephone
Telephone
Cases

References[edit]

^ "AT&T History: The Bell System". AT&T Corporation. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-22.  ^ a b c d e f g "Unnatural Monopoly: Critical Moments". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  ^ "Bell's Telephone". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  ^ a b c d e f "AT&T Milestones in AT&T History". AT&T. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  ^ a b "AT&T History: The Bell System". AT&T. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  ^ Brooks, John. Telephone: The First Hundred Years, Harper & Row, 1976, ISBN 978-0-06-010540-2. ^ USPTO record for trademark serial no. 73727728 (example "Bell" registration originally held by Pacific Telesis): "Registration is nationwide, but is subject to the condition that registrant shall use the mark only in conjunction with one or more of the following modifiers; "Nevada Bell", "Pacific Bell", "Pacific Telephone", "Pacific Telesis", or "PacTel". Use of a modifier shall be considered to be in conjunction with the mark if it is used in sufficient proximity to the mark such that a reasonable observer would normally view the mark and the modifier in a single visual impression and would recognize that both the mark and the modifier are used by registrant. Registrant's right to exclusive use of the mark is subject to the rights of the [other RBOCs], to which concurrent registrations in the mark have also been issued, to use the mark in conjunction with one or more of the modifiers specified in those registrations[...]"

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

External links[edit]

Bell.com Bell System
Bell System
Memorial Blue Bell Telephone
Telephone
Sign History — New England Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Archive of Bell System
Bell System
Intercept Messages AT&T Corporation (1885–2005 company) History BellSouth
BellSouth
vs. FCC — reference for company names USPTO — see trademark database

v t e

Bell System

Parent company

American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company

Local telephone companies still extant

Wholly owned

Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Nevada The Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Pennsylvania The Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company The Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of Maryland The Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of West Virginia The Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone
Telephone
Company of Virginia Diamond State Telephone Illinois Bell Indiana Bell Michigan Bell Mountain Bell New England Telephone New Jersey Bell New York Telephone Northwestern Bell Ohio Bell Pacific Northwest Bell Pacific Telephone South Central Bell Southern Bell Southwestern Bell Wisconsin Telephone

Partially owned

Southern New England Telephone Cincinnati Bell

Other subsidiaries

Manufacturing

Western Electric

Research

Bell Labs

Long distance

Long Lines

Wireless

Advanced Mobile Phone Service

Regional Bell Companies

Bell Canada
Canada
(1880-1975)

Historical

Commemorative

Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
National Historic Site Bell Boatyard Bell Homestead National Historic Site Bell Telephone
Telephone
Memorial Telephone
Telephone
Pioneers of America Spirit of Communication

Defunct

Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company New England Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company International Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company The Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Canada Northern Electric Bell Telephone
Telephone
Manufacturing Company AT&T Technologies, Inc.

Related topics

Divestiture Regional Bell Operating Company

v t e

Alexander Graham Bell

Life and family

Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Melville Bell Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia Bell House (Virginia) Bras d'Or Lake Canadian Parliamentary Motion on Alexander Graham Bell Chichester Bell David Fairchild Graham Fairchild Edwin S. Grosvenor Gardiner Greene Hubbard Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Hubbard Bell Grossman Pillot Memorial Kendall Myers Mabel Gardiner Hubbard Mabel H. Grosvenor Melville Bell Grosvenor Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf Telephone
Telephone
Cases

People

Anthony Pollok Charles Williams Jr. Glenn Curtiss Marcellus Bailey Thomas Cowherd Thomas Selfridge Thomas A. Watson Walter Seymour Allward

Works

AEA Cygnet AEA June Bug AEA Red Wing AEA Silver Dart AEA White Wing Aerial Experiment Association Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Bell Boatyard Bell Oionus I Bell System Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company Canadian Aerodrome Baddeck No. 1 and No. 2 Canadian Aerodrome Company Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech Dictation machine Edison Gower- Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company
of Europe, Ltd. Elisha Gray
Elisha Gray
and Alexander Bell telephone controversy Graphophone HD-4 Hubbard Monoplane Life Extension Institute National Geographic Society National Telephone
Telephone
Company New England Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company Oriental Telephone
Telephone
Company Phonograph cylinder Photophone Visible Speech Volta Laboratory and Bureau

Tributes

Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
National Historic Site Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
School (Illinois) Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
honors and tributes Bell Homestead National Historic Site Bell Telephone
Telephone
Memorial Graham Bell Island HMCS Bras d'Or IEEE Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Medal Pioneers, a Volunteer Network Story of Alexander Graham Bell

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone
Telephone
Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone
Telephone
exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

.