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Staatliches Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçəs ˈbaʊˌhaʊs] ( listen)), commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught.[1] The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was founded by Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
in Weimar. The German term Bauhaus—literally "construction house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
did not have an architecture department during its first years of existence. Nonetheless, it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art (Gesamtkunstwerk) in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art, design and architectural education.[2] The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.[3] The school existed in three German cities: Weimar
Weimar
from 1919 to 1925, Dessau
Dessau
from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin
Berlin
from 1932 to 1933, under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer
Hannes Meyer
from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime, having been painted as a centre of communist intellectualism. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany
Germany
and emigrated all over the world.[4] The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar
Weimar
to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer
Hannes Meyer
to attend it.

Contents

1 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and German modernism

1.1 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and Vkhutemas

2 History of the Bauhaus

2.1 Weimar 2.2 Dessau 2.3 Berlin

3 Architectural output 4 Impact

4.1 The White City

5 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
staff and students 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and German modernism[edit]

The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Museum, Tel Aviv

Further information: New Objectivity
New Objectivity
(architecture) Germany's defeat in World War I, the fall of the German monarchy and the abolition of censorship under the new, liberal Weimar
Weimar
Republic allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, which had been suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism. Such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, and said that Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was entirely apolitical.[5] Just as important was the influence of the 19th century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function.[6] Thus, the Bauhaus style, also known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design. However, the most important influence on Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, and which had already made its presence felt in Germany
Germany
before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, and the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were already partly developed in Germany
Germany
before the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was founded. The German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund
Deutscher Werkbund
was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius
Hermann Muthesius
to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, and was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, and whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members (by 1914).

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
building in Chemnitz

The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG successfully integrated art and mass production on a large scale. He designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG
AEG
Turbine Factory, and made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, and both Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism
Expressionism
to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, and turned toward rational, functional, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school. They also responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar
Weimar
Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut, and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Berlin. The acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate, films, and sometimes fierce public debate. Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and Vkhutemas[edit] Main article: Vkhutemas The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Founded a year after the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
school, Vkhutemas
Vkhutemas
has close parallels to the German Bauhaus
Bauhaus
in its intent, organization and scope. The two schools were the first to train artist-designers in a modern manner.[7] Both schools were state-sponsored initiatives to merge the craft tradition with modern technology, with a basic course in aesthetic principles, courses in color theory, industrial design, and architecture.[7] Vkhutemas
Vkhutemas
was a larger school than the Bauhaus,[8] but it was less publicised outside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and consequently, is less familiar in the West.[9] With the internationalism of modern architecture and design, there were many exchanges between the Vkhutemas
Vkhutemas
and the Bauhaus.[10] The second Bauhaus
Bauhaus
director Hannes Meyer
Hannes Meyer
attempted to organise an exchange between the two schools, while Hinnerk Scheper of the Bauhaus collaborated with various Vkhutein members on the use of colour in architecture. In addition, El Lissitzky's book Russia: an Architecture for World Revolution published in German in 1930 featured several illustrations of Vkhutemas/Vkhutein projects there. History of the Bauhaus[edit] Weimar[edit] The school was founded by Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
in Weimar
Weimar
in 1919 as a merger of the Grand Ducal School of Arts and Crafts and the Weimar
Weimar
Academy of Fine Art. Its roots lay in the arts and crafts school founded by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1906 and directed by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Henry van de Velde.[11] When van de Velde was forced to resign in 1915 because he was Belgian, he suggested Gropius, Hermann Obrist
Hermann Obrist
and August Endell
August Endell
as possible successors. In 1919, after delays caused by the destruction of World War I
World War I
and a lengthy debate over who should head the institution and the socio-economic meanings of a reconciliation of the fine arts and the applied arts (an issue which remained a defining one throughout the school's existence), Gropius was made the director of a new institution integrating the two called the Bauhaus.[12] In the pamphlet for an April 1919 exhibition entitled "Exhibition of Unknown Architects", Gropius proclaimed his goal as being "to create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist." Gropius' neologism Bauhaus references both building and the Bauhütte, a premodern guild of stonemasons.[13] The early intention was for the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
to be a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts. In 1919 Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus. By the following year their ranks had grown to include German painter, sculptor and designer Oskar Schlemmer who headed the theater workshop, and Swiss painter Paul Klee, joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. A tumultuous year at the Bauhaus, 1922 also saw the move of Dutch painter Theo van Doesburg
Theo van Doesburg
to Weimar
Weimar
to promote De Stijl
De Stijl
("The Style"), and a visit to the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
by Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky.[14]

The main building of the Bauhaus-University Weimar
Weimar
(built 1904–1911, designed by Henry van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
to house the sculptors’ studio at the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School. Designated as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1996).

Foyer of the Bauhaus-University Weimar
Weimar
with Jugendstil staircase

From 1919 to 1922 the school was shaped by the pedagogical and aesthetic ideas of Johannes Itten, who taught the Vorkurs or "preliminary course" that was the introduction to the ideas of the Bauhaus.[12] Itten was heavily influenced in his teaching by the ideas of Franz Cižek
Franz Cižek
and Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel. He was also influenced in respect to aesthetics by the work of the Blaue Reiter group in Munich
Munich
as well as the work of Austrian Expressionist Oskar Kokoschka. The influence of German Expressionism
Expressionism
favoured by Itten was analogous in some ways to the fine arts side of the ongoing debate. This influence culminated with the addition of Der Blaue Reiter founding member Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
to the faculty and ended when Itten resigned in late 1922. Itten was replaced by the Hungarian designer László Moholy-Nagy, who rewrote the Vorkurs with a leaning towards the New Objectivity
New Objectivity
favored by Gropius, which was analogous in some ways to the applied arts side of the debate. Although this shift was an important one, it did not represent a radical break from the past so much as a small step in a broader, more gradual socio-economic movement that had been going on at least since 1907 when van de Velde had argued for a craft basis for design while Hermann Muthesius
Hermann Muthesius
had begun implementing industrial prototypes.[14] Gropius was not necessarily against Expressionism, and in fact himself in the same 1919 pamphlet proclaiming this "new guild of craftsmen, without the class snobbery," described "painting and sculpture rising to heaven out of the hands of a million craftsmen, the crystal symbol of the new faith of the future." By 1923 however, Gropius was no longer evoking images of soaring Romanesque cathedrals and the craft-driven aesthetic of the "Völkisch movement", instead declaring "we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines, radios and fast cars."[15] Gropius argued that a new period of history had begun with the end of the war. He wanted to create a new architectural style to reflect this new era. His style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. To these ends, Gropius wanted to reunite art and craft to arrive at high-end functional products with artistic merit. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
issued a magazine called Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Since the Weimar
Weimar
Republic lacked the quantity of raw materials available to the United States and Great Britain, it had to rely on the proficiency of a skilled labor force and an ability to export innovative and high quality goods. Therefore, designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. The school's philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry.[16][17] Weimar
Weimar
was in the German state of Thuringia, and the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
school received state support from the Social Democrat-controlled Thuringian state government. The school in Weimar
Weimar
experienced political pressure from conservative circles in Thuringian politics, increasingly so after 1923 as political tension rose. One condition placed on the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
in this new political environment was the exhibition of work undertaken at the school. This condition was met in 1923 with the Bauhaus' exhibition of the experimental Haus am Horn.[18] The Ministry of Education placed the staff on six-month contracts and cut the school's funding in half. On 26 December 1924 the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
issued a press release and setting the closure of the school for the end of March 1925.[19][20] At this point they had already been looking for alternative sources of funding. After the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar. This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture
Architecture
and Civil Engineering, and in 1996 changed its name to Bauhaus-University Weimar. Dessau[edit] Gropius's design for the Dessau
Dessau
facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of 1914 that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory
Fagus Factory
than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House.[21] During the Dessau
Dessau
years, there was a remarkable change in direction for the school. According to Elaine Hoffman, Gropius had approached the Dutch architect Mart Stam
Mart Stam
to run the newly founded architecture program, and when Stam declined the position, Gropius turned to Stam's friend and colleague in the ABC group, Hannes Meyer. Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February 1928,[1] and brought the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: five apartment buildings in the city of Dessau, and the Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School) in Bernau bei Berlin. Meyer favored measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs. This approach proved attractive to potential clients. The school turned its first profit under his leadership in 1929. But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict. As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program, and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, and other long-time instructors. Even though Meyer shifted the orientation of the school further to the left than it had been under Gropius, he didn't want the school to become a tool of left-wing party politics. He prevented the formation of a student communist cell, and in the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau
Dessau
school. Dessau
Dessau
mayor Fritz Hesse fired him in the summer of 1930.[22] The Dessau
Dessau
city council attempted to convince Gropius to return as head of the school, but Gropius instead suggested Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Mies was appointed in 1930, and immediately interviewed each student, dismissing those that he deemed uncommitted. Mies halted the school's manufacture of goods so that the school could focus on teaching. Mies appointed no new faculty other than his close confidant Lilly Reich. By 1931, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) was becoming more influential in German politics. When they gained control of the Dessau
Dessau
City Council they moved to close the school.[23] Berlin[edit] In late 1932, Mies rented a derelict factory in Berlin
Berlin
(Birkbusch Street 49) to use as the new Bauhaus
Bauhaus
with his own money. The students and faculty rehabilitated the building, painting the interior white. The school operated for ten months without further interference from the Nazi Party. In 1933, the Gestapo
Gestapo
closed down the Berlin
Berlin
school. Mies protested the decision, eventually speaking to the head of the Gestapo, who agreed to allow the school to re-open. However, shortly after receiving a letter permitting the opening of the Bauhaus, Mies and the other faculty agreed to voluntarily shut down the school[when?].[23] Although neither the Nazi Party nor Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
and Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
had already labeled the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
"un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
when he was fired in 1930. Even before the Nazis
Nazis
came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus
Bauhaus
had increased. The Nazi movement, from nearly the start, denounced the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
for its "degenerate art", and the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism".[1] Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin
Berlin
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was pressured to close in April 1933. Emigrants did succeed, however, in spreading the concepts of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
to other countries, including the "New Bauhaus" of Chicago:[24] Mies decided to emigrate to the United States for the directorship of the School of Architecture
Architecture
at the Armour Institute (now Illinois Institute of Technology) in Chicago and to seek building commissions.[a] The simple engineering-oriented functionalism of stripped-down modernism, however, did lead to some Bauhaus
Bauhaus
influences living on in Nazi Germany. When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt, began opening the new autobahn (highways) in 1935, many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism"—among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe.[25] Architectural output[edit]

A stage in the Festsaal, Dessau

Ceiling with light fixtures for stage in the Festsaal, Dessau

Dormitory balconies in the residence, Dessau

Mechanically opened windows, Dessau

The Mensa (Cafeteria), Dessau

The paradox of the early Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was that, although its manifesto proclaimed that the aim of all creative activity was building,[26] the school did not offer classes in architecture until 1927. During the years under Gropius (1919–1927), he and his partner Adolf Meyer observed no real distinction between the output of his architectural office and the school. So the built output of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
architecture in these years is the output of Gropius: the Sommerfeld house in Berlin, the Otte house in Berlin, the Auerbach house in Jena, and the competition design for the Chicago Tribune Tower, which brought the school much attention. The definitive 1926 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
building in Dessau is also attributed to Gropius. Apart from contributions to the 1923 Haus am Horn, student architectural work amounted to un-built projects, interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery. In the next two years under Meyer, the architectural focus shifted away from aesthetics and towards functionality. There were major commissions: one from the city of Dessau
Dessau
for five tightly designed "Laubenganghäuser" (apartment buildings with balcony access), which are still in use today, and another for the Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School) in Bernau bei Berlin. Meyer's approach was to research users' needs and scientifically develop the design solution. Mies van der Rohe
Mies van der Rohe
repudiated Meyer's politics, his supporters, and his architectural approach. As opposed to Gropius's "study of essentials", and Meyer's research into user requirements, Mies advocated a "spatial implementation of intellectual decisions", which effectively meant an adoption of his own aesthetics. Neither van der Rohe nor his Bauhaus students saw any projects built during the 1930s. The popular conception of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
as the source of extensive Weimar-era working housing is not accurate. Two projects, the apartment building project in Dessau
Dessau
and the Törten row housing also in Dessau, fall in that category, but developing worker housing was not the first priority of Gropius nor Mies. It was the Bauhaus contemporaries Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig
Hans Poelzig
and particularly Ernst May, as the city architects of Berlin, Dresden
Dresden
and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
respectively, who are rightfully credited with the thousands of socially progressive housing units built in Weimar
Weimar
Germany. The housing Taut built in south-west Berlin
Berlin
during the 1920s, close to the U-Bahn stop Onkel Toms Hütte, is still occupied. Impact[edit]

Typewriter Olivetti Studio 42 designed by the Bauhaus-alumnus Alexander Schawinsky in 1936

The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel
Israel
in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled, or were exiled by, the Nazi regime. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in 2004 was named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture;[27][28] it had some 4,000 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
buildings erected from 1933 onwards. In 1928, the Hungarian painter Alexander Bortnyik founded a school of design in Budapest
Budapest
called Miihely (also "Muhely"[29] or "Mugely"[30]), which means "the studio".[31] Located on the seventh floor of a house on Nagymezo Street,[31] it was meant to be the Hungarian equivalent to the Bauhaus.[32] The literature sometimes refers to it—in an oversimplified manner—as "the Budapest
Budapest
Bauhaus".[33] Bortnyik was a great admirer of László Moholy-Nagy
László Moholy-Nagy
and had met Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
in Weimar
Weimar
between 1923 and 1925.[34] Moholy-Nagy himself taught at the Miihely. Victor Vasarely, a pioneer of Op Art, studied at this school before establishing in Paris in 1930.[35] Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in Britain during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon
Isokon
project before the war caught up with them. Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design
Harvard Graduate School of Design
and worked together before their professional split. Their collaboration produced The Aluminum City Terrace in New Kensington, Pennsylvania and the Alan I W Frank House in Pittsburgh, among other projects. The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s, producing such students as Philip Johnson, I.M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin
Lawrence Halprin
and Paul Rudolph, among many others. In the late 1930s, Mies van der Rohe
Mies van der Rohe
re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson, and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world. Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus
New Bauhaus
school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. This school became the Institute of Design, part of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes
Werner Drewes
was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St. Louis. Herbert Bayer, sponsored by Paepcke, moved to Aspen, Colorado
Aspen, Colorado
in support of Paepcke's Aspen projects at the Aspen Institute. In 1953, Max Bill, together with Inge Aicher-Scholl and Otl Aicher, founded the Ulm School of Design (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung—HfG Ulm) in Ulm, Germany, a design school in the tradition of the Bauhaus. The school is notable for its inclusion of semiotics as a field of study. The school closed in 1968, but the "Ulm Model" concept continues to influence international design education.[36] The influence of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
on design education was significant. One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was to unify art, craft, and technology, and this approach was incorporated into the curriculum of the Bauhaus. The structure of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Vorkurs (preliminary course) reflected a pragmatic approach to integrating theory and application. In their first year, students learnt the basic elements and principles of design and colour theory, and experimented with a range of materials and processes.[37][38] This approach to design education became a common feature of architectural and design school in many countries. For example, the Shillito Design School in Sydney stands as a unique link between Australia and the Bauhaus. The colour and design syllabus of the Shillito Design School was firmly underpinned by the theories and ideologies of the Bauhaus. Its first year foundational course mimicked the Vorkurs and focused on the elements and principles of design plus colour theory and application. The founder of the school, Phyllis Shillito, which opened in 1962 and closed in 1980, firmly believed that "A student who has mastered the basic principles of design, can design anything from a dress to a kitchen stove".[39] One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
is in the field of modern furniture design. The ubiquitous Cantilever chair
Cantilever chair
and the Wassily Chair
Wassily Chair
designed by Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer
are two examples. (Breuer eventually lost a legal battle in Germany
Germany
with Dutch architect/designer Mart Stam
Mart Stam
over the rights to the cantilever chair patent. Although Stam had worked on the design of the Bauhaus's 1923 exhibit in Weimar, and guest-lectured at the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
later in the 1920s, he was not formally associated with the school, and he and Breuer had worked independently on the cantilever concept, thus leading to the patent dispute.) The single most profitable tangible product of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was its wallpaper. The physical plant at Dessau
Dessau
survived World War II
World War II
and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic. This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
theater under the name of Bauhausbühne (" Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Stage"). After German reunification, a reorganized school continued in the same building, with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
under Gropius in the early 1920s.[40] In 1979 Bauhaus- Dessau
Dessau
College started to organize postgraduate programs with participants from all over the world. This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus- Dessau
Dessau
Foundation which was founded in 1974 as a public institution. Later evaluation of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
design credo was critical of its flawed recognition of the human element, an acknowledgment of "… the dated, unattractive aspects of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
as a projection of utopia marked by mechanistic views of human nature…Home hygiene without home atmosphere."[41] The White City[edit] The White City of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(Hebrew: העיר הלבנה‎, Ha-Ir HaLevana) refers to a collection of over 4,000 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
or International style buildings built in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
from the 1930s by German Jewish
German Jewish
architects who emigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has the largest number of buildings in this style of any city in the world. In 2003, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Tel Aviv's White City a World Cultural Heritage site, as "an outstanding example of new town planning and architecture in the early 20th century."[42] Established in 2000, Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Center Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is an organization dedicated to the ongoing documentation of the architectural heritage.[43] In 2003, it hosted an exhibition on preservation of the architecture that showcased 25 buildings.[44] To further the architectural culture in the city, a small Bauhaus Museum
Bauhaus Museum
opened in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in 2008, designed by Israeli architect Ron Arad.[45][46] Bauhaus
Bauhaus
staff and students[edit] People who were educated, or who taught or worked in other capacities, at the Bauhaus. Further information: Category: Bauhaus
Bauhaus
teachers Further information: Category: Bauhaus
Bauhaus
alumni Further information: Women of the Bauhaus See also[edit]

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Archive Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Dessau
Dessau
Foundation Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Museum, Weimar Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Center Tel Aviv Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Museum, Tel Aviv Haus am Horn Max-Liebling House, Tel Aviv Modern architecture International style (architecture) Expressionist architecture Constructivist architecture New Objectivity
New Objectivity
(architecture) Form follows function Ulm School of Design IIT Institute of Design Neues Sehen
Neues Sehen
(New Vision)

Design portal

Footnotes[edit]

a The closure, and the response of Mies van der Rohe, is fully documented in Elaine Hochman's Architects of Fortune.

References[edit]

^ a b c Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 4th edn., 2009), ISBN 0-19-953294-X, pp. 64-66 ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus, ed. (1999). A Dictionary of Architecture
Architecture
and Landscape Architecture
Architecture
(Paperback). Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh (5th ed.). London: Penguin Books. p. 880. ISBN 0-14-051323-X.  ^ " Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Movemen". Rethinking the world Art and Technology – A new Unity.  ^ ...], [contributors Rachel Barnes (2001). The 20th-Century art book (Reprinted. ed.). London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0714835420.  ^ Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 416 ^ Funk and Wagnall's New Encyclopaedia, Vol 5, p. 348 ^ a b (in Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia; Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, Вхутемас ^ Wood, Paul (1999) The Challenge of the Avant-Garde. New Haven: Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-07762-9, p. 244 ^ Tony Fry (October 1999). A New Design Philosophy: An Introduction to Defuturing. UNSW Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-86840-753-1. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Colton, Timothy J. (1995) Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-58749-9; p. 215 ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus, ed. (1999). A Dictionary of Architecture
Architecture
and Landscape Architecture
Architecture
(Paperback). Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh (5th ed.). Penguin Books. p. 44. ISBN 0-19-860678-8.  ^ a b Frampton, Kenneth (1992). "The Bauhaus: Evolution of an Idea 1919–32". Modern Architecture: A Critical History (3rd ed. rev. ed.). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, Inc. p. 124. ISBN 0-500-20257-5.  ^ Whitford, Frank, ed. (1992). The Bauhaus: Masters & Students by Themselves. London: Conran Octopus. p. 32. ISBN 1-85029-415-1. He invented the name ' Bauhaus
Bauhaus
' not only because it specifically referred to bauen ('building', 'construction')—but also because of its similarity to the word Bauhütte, the medieval guild of builders and stonemasons out of which Freemasonry sprang. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was to be a kind of modern Bauhütte, therefore, in which craftsmen would work on common projects together, the greatest of which would be buildings in which the arts and crafts would be combined.  ^ a b Hal Foster, ed. (2004). "1923: The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
… holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany". Art Since 1900: Volume 1—1900 to 1944. Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh. New York, NY: Thames & Hudson. pp. 185–189. ISBN 0-500-28534-9.  ^ Curtis, William (1987). "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus". Modern Architecture
Architecture
Since 1900 (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. pp. 309–316. ISBN 0-13-586694-4.  ^ "The Bauhaus, 1919–1933". The MET. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 14 June 2016.  ^ "Bauhaus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 June 2016.  ^ Ackermann et al., Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(Cologne: Könemann, 1999), 406. ^ Michael Baumgartner and Josef Helfenstein At the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
in Weimar, 1921–1924 Archived 29 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine., at Zentrum Paul Klee ^ Magdalena Droste (2002) [1990] Bauhaus, 1919–1933 p.113 ^ Curtis, William (2000). "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus". Modern Architecture
Architecture
Since 1900 (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 120. ISBN 0-13-586694-4.  ^ Richard A. Etlin (2002). Art, culture, and media under the Third Reich. University of Chicago Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-226-22086-4. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ a b David Spaeth (1985). Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Rizzoli New York. pp. 87–93. ISBN 0-8478-0563-8.  ^ Jardi, Enric (1991) Paul Klee. Rizzoli Intl Pubns, p. 22 ^ Richard J Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 325 ^ Gropius, Walter (April 1919). "Manifesto of the Staatliches Bauhaus". BauhausManifesto.com.  ^ "Unesco celebrates Tel Aviv". BBC News. 8 June 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "White City of Tel-Aviv -- the Modern Movement". whc.unesco.org.  ^ Edward Lucie-Smith, Late Modern: The Visual Arts Since 1945, London: Thames & Hudson, 1976, p. 164. ^ William Chapin Seitz, Marla Price, Art in the Age of Aquarius, Smithsonian Inst Press, 1992, p. 92. ^ a b Gaston Diehl, Vasarely, New York: Crown, 1972, p. 12 ^ Jean Luc Daval, History of Abstract Painting, Paris: Hazan, 1989, p. 199. ^ See: William Chapin Seitz, Marla Price, Art in the Age of Aquarius, Smithsonian Inst Press, 1992, p. 92; Edward Lucie-Smith, Late Modern: The Visual Arts Since 1945, London: Thames & Hudson, 1976, p. 164; Jean Louis Ferrier, Yann Le Pichon, Art of our century: the story of western art, 1900 to the present 1990, London : Longman, p. 521. ^ Guitemie Maldonaldo, "Une réception différée et relayée. L'Atelier d'art abstrait et le "modèle-Bauhaus", 1950–1953", in: Martin Schieder, Isabelle Ewig, In die Freiheit geworfen: Positionen zur deutsch-französischen Kunstgeschichte nach 1945, Oldenbourg Verlag, 22 Nov 2006, p. 100. ^ Jean Louis Ferrier, Yann Le Pichon, Art of Our Century: The Story of Western Art, 1900 to the Present, 1990, London: Longman, p. 521. ^ Ulm, Ulmer Museum/HfG-Archiv. "HfG-Archiv Ulm - The HfG Ulm". www.hfg-archiv.ulm.de.  ^ Bayer, H., Gropius, W., & Gropius, I. (Eds.). (1975). Bauhaus 1919–1928. London: Secker& Warburg. ^ Itten, J. (1963). Design and Form: The Basic Course at the Bauhaus and Later (Revised edition, 1975). New York: John Wiley & Sons. ^ O'Connor, Z. (2013). "The Shillito Design School: Australia's link with the Bauhaus". The International Journal of Design in Society, 6(3), 149–159. ^ " Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Dessau".  ^ Schjeldahl, Peter, " Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Rules," The New Yorker, November 16, 2009 ^ UNESCO, Decision Text, World Heritage Centre, retrieved 14 September 2009 ^ "The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Center", Haaretz, 18 May 2008 ^ Esther Zandberg, Exhibition on Preservation of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
in Tel Aviv Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Haaretz, 15 October 2003 ^ Esther Hecht, " Bauhaus Museum
Bauhaus Museum
Opens in Tel Aviv's White City", Architectural Record, 21 April 2008 ^ David Bachar, "Surroundings / Daniella Luxembourg's Bauhaus
Bauhaus
kiosk", Haaretz, 1 May 2008

Bibliography[edit]

Oskar Schlemmer. Tut Schlemmer, Editor. The Letters and Diaries of Oskar Schlemmer. Translated by Krishna Winston. Wesleyan University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8195-4047-1 Stefan Boness, " Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
– The White City", Jovis, Berlin
Berlin
2012, ISBN 978-3-939633-75-4 Magdalena Droste, Peter Gossel, Editors. Bauhaus, Taschen America LLC, 2005. ISBN 3-8228-3649-4 Marty Bax. Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Lecture Notes 1930–1933. Theory and practice of architectural training at the Bauhaus, based on the lecture notes made by the Dutch ex- Bauhaus
Bauhaus
student and architect J.J. van der Linden of the Mies van der Rohe
Mies van der Rohe
curriculum. Amsterdam, Architectura & Natura 1991. ISBN 90-71570-04-5 Anja Baumhoff, The Gendered World of the Bauhaus. The Politics of Power at the Weimar
Weimar
Republic's Premier Art Institute, 1919–1931. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, New York 2001. ISBN 3-631-37945-5 Boris Friedewald, Bauhaus, Prestel, Munich, London, New York 2009. ISBN 978-3-7913-4200-9 Catherine Weill-Rochant, "Bauhaus": Architektur in Tel Aviv, Rita H. Gans. Ed., Kiriat Yearim, Zurich, 2008 (German and French) 'The Tel-Aviv School : a constrained rationalism' (Catherine Weill-Rochant)DOCOMOMO journal (Documentation and conservation of buildings, sites and neighbourhoods of the modern movement), April 2009. Peder Anker (1 January 2010). From Bauhaus
Bauhaus
to Ecohouse: A History of Ecological Design. LSU Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3551-8. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  Kirsten Baumann: " Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Dessau: Architecture
Architecture
Design Concept", JOVIS Verlag Berlin
Berlin
2007, ISBN 978-3-939633-11-2 Monika Markgraf (Ed.): "Archaeology of Modernism: Renovation Bauhaus Dessau", JOVIS Verlag Berlin
Berlin
2007, ISBN 978-3-936314-83-0 Torsten Blume / Burghard Duhm (Eds.): "Bauhaus.Theatre.Dessau: Change of Scene", JOVIS Verlag Berlin, ISBN 978-3-936314-81-6 Eric Cimino. Student Life at the Bauhaus, 1919-1933. M.A. Thesis, UMass-Boston, 2003. 

External links[edit]

100 years of Bauhaus

Library resources about Bauhaus

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bauhaus.

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Tate art glossary definition for Bauhaus Manifesto of the Staatliches Bauhaus
Bauhaus
by Walter Gropius Fostinum: Photographs and art from the Bauhaus Finding Aid for archive of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
student work, 1919–1933 Finding Aid for archive of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
typography collection, 1919–1937

v t e

Genres of modern architecture

Alphabetically

Art Deco Art Nouveau Bauhaus Blobitecture Brutalism Constructivism Contemporary Critical regionalism De Stijl Deconstructivism Expressionism Functionalism Futurism Googie High-tech International style Mid-Century modern Modernisme Neo-Futurism Neomodern New Classical New Objectivity Organicism Postconstructivism Postmodernism PWA Moderne Prairie School Rationalist-Fascist Stalinist Streamline Moderne Stripped Classicism Structuralism

By start year / decade

Modernisme
Modernisme
(1888–1911) Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
(1890–1910) Prairie School
Prairie School
(1890s–1920s) Expressionism
Expressionism
(1910–) De Stijl
De Stijl
(1917–1931) Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(1919–1933) Constructivism (1920–1932) New Objectivity
New Objectivity
(1922–1933) Streamline Moderne
Streamline Moderne
(1925–1950) Rationalist-Fascist (1920s–1930s) International style (1920s–1960s) Functionalism (1920s–1970s) Futurism
Futurism
(1920s–) Organicism (1920s–) Art Deco
Art Deco
(1910–1939) Postconstructivism
Postconstructivism
(1930s) PWA Moderne
PWA Moderne
(1933-1944) Stalinist (1930s–1950s) Googie (1940s–1960s) Mid-century modern
Mid-century modern
(1940s–1960s) Brutalism (1950s–1980s) Structuralism (1959–) Postmodernism
Postmodernism
(1960s–) Blobitecture
Blobitecture
(1960s–) Contemporary (1970s–) High-tech (1970s–) Critical regionalism
Critical regionalism
(1980s–) Deconstructivism
Deconstructivism
(1980s–) Neomodern
Neomodern
(1990s–) New Classical (1990s–) Neo-futurism
Neo-futurism
(2000s–)

Related articles

v t e

Avant-garde
Avant-garde
movements

Visual art

Abstract expressionism Art Nouveau Art & Language Conceptual art Constructivism Cubism Proto-Cubism Cubo-Futurism De Stijl Devětsil Divisionism Fauvism Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Color Field Incoherents Lyrical Abstraction Mail art Minimalism Mir iskusstva Neue Slowenische Kunst Nonconformism Pop art Rayonism Suprematism Vorticism Nouveau réalisme

Literature and poetry

Acmeism Angry Penguins Asemic writing Cyberpunk Ego-Futurism Experimental literature Flarf poetry Hungry generation Imaginism Language poets Neoteric Nouveau roman Oberiu Oulipo Ultraísmo Visual poetry Zaum

Music

By style

Jazz Metal Pop Rock

Prog Punk

Others

Aleatoric music Ars subtilior Atonal music Drone music Electroacoustic music Electronic music Experimental pop Free jazz Futurism
Futurism
(music) Industrial music Microtonal music Minimal music Musique concrète New Complexity No wave Noise music Post-rock Rock in Opposition Second Viennese School Serialism Spectral music Stochastic music Textural music Totalism Twelve-tone technique

Cinema and theatre

Cinéma pur Dogme 95 Drop Art Epic theatre Remodernist film Structural film Theatre of the Absurd Theatre of Cruelty

General

Bauhaus Constructivism Dada Expressionism Fluxus Futurism Lettrism Modernism Minimalism Postminimalism Neo-minimalism Neo-Dada Neoism Postmodernism Late modernism Primitivism Russian Futurism Russian symbolism Situationist International Social realism Socialist realism Surrealism Symbolism

Book

v t e

Art movements

Medieval

Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic)

Renaissance

Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque

17th century

Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age

18th century

Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism

19th century

Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School

20th century

Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Art & Language Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art

21st century

Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art

Related articles

List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Germany

For official site names, see each article or the List of World Heritage Sites in Germany.

Northern

Fagus Factory
Fagus Factory
in Alfeld Berlin
Berlin
Modernism
Modernism
Housing Estates Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar
Goslar
and Upper Harz Water Management System Speicherstadt
Speicherstadt
and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus
Chilehaus
in Hamburg St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim Hanseatic City of Lübeck Historic Centres of Stralsund
Stralsund
and Wismar

Central

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and its Sites in Weimar
Weimar
and Dessau Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz Dresden
Dresden
Elbe Valley (delisted in 2009) Luther Memorials in Eisleben
Eisleben
and Wittenberg Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski1 Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle Classical Weimar

Western

Aachen Cathedral Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey Cologne Cathedral Upper Middle Rhine Valley Speyer Cathedral Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier Völklingen Ironworks Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
in Essen

Southern

Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
(Weissenhof Estate) Town of Bamberg Frontiers of the Roman Empire:2 Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Maulbronn Monastery
Maulbronn Monastery
Complex Margravial Opera House Old Town of Regensburg
Regensburg
with Stadtamhof Monastic Island of Reichenau Pilgrimage Church of Wies Würzburg Residence
Würzburg Residence
with the Court Gardens and Residence Square Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura

Natural

Ancient Beech Forests4 Messel Pit Fossil Site Wadden Sea5

1 Shared with Poland 2 Shared with the United Kingdom 3 Shared with Austria, France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland 4 Shared with Slovakia and Ukraine 5 Shared with the Netherlands and Denmark

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123812096 LCCN: n81023070 GND: 4130303-9 SUDOC: 031932746 BNF: cb1194

.