Coordinates : 20°14′10″N 75°53′13″E / 20.236°N
75.887°E / 20.236; 75.887
BATTLE OF ASSAYE
Part of the
Second Anglo-Maratha War
Major General Wellesley (mounted) commanding his troops at the Battle
Assaye (J.C. Stadler after W.Heath )
23 September 1803
Decisive British victory
Maratha Empire :
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
9,500, (including two British infantry regiments and one cavalry
17 cannon 10,800 European trained Indian infantry
10,000–20,000 irregular infantry
30,000–40,000 irregular cavalry
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
18 missing 6,000 killed and wounded approx.
98 cannon lost
Second Anglo-Maratha War
* 1st Delhi
* 2nd Delhi
* Deeg Fort
The BATTLE OF ASSAYE was a major battle of the Second Anglo-Maratha
War fought between the
Maratha Empire and the British East India
Company . It occurred on 23 September 1803 near
Assaye in western
India where an outnumbered Indian and British force under the command
of Major General Arthur Wellesley (who later became the Duke of
Wellington ) defeated a combined
Maratha army of
Daulat Scindia and
the Raja of Berar . The battle was the Duke of Wellington's first
major victory and one he later described as his finest accomplishment
on the battlefield.
From August 1803, Wellesley's army and a separate force under the
command of his subordinate Colonel James Stevenson had been pursuing
Maratha cavalry -based army which threatened to raid south into
Hyderabad . After several weeks of pursuit and countermarching,
Scindia reinforced the combined
Maratha army with his modernized
infantry and artillery as the British forces closed in on his
Wellesley received intelligence indicating the location of the
Maratha encampment on 21 September and devised a plan whereby his two
armies would converge on the
Maratha position three days later.
Wellesley's force, however, encountered the
Maratha army – which was
under the command of Colonel
Anthony Pohlmann , a German formerly in
British service – 6 miles (9.7 km) farther south than he
anticipated. Although outnumbered, Wellesley resolved to attack at
once, believing that the
Maratha army would soon move off. Both sides
suffered heavily in the ensuing battle;
Maratha artillery caused large
numbers of casualties among Wellesley's troops but the vast numbers of
Maratha cavalry proved largely ineffective. A combination of bayonet
and cavalry charges eventually forced the
Maratha army to retreat with
the loss of most of their guns, but Wellesley's army was too battered
and exhausted to pursue.
Wellesley's victory at Assaye, preceded by the capture of Ahmednagar
and followed by victories at
Gawilghur , resulted in the
Scindia and Berar's armies in the
Deccan . Wellesley's
progress in the
Deccan was matched by Lieutenant General Gerard Lake
's successful campaigns in Northern
India and led to the British
becoming the dominant power in the heartlands of India.
* 1 Background
* 2 Prelude
* 3 Battle
* 3.1 Initial manoeuvres
* 3.2 British infantry attack
* 3.3 Culmination
* 4 Aftermath
* 5 In fiction
* 6 References
* 7 Bibliography
Second Anglo-Maratha War Lord Mornington , the
Governor-General of British
India between 1798 and 1805, oversaw a
rapid expansion of British territory in India.
Feuding between the two dominant powers within the
Maratha Empire ,
Holkar and Daulat Rao
Scindia , led to civil war at the
turn of the 19th century. The hostilities culminated in the Battle of
Poona in October 1802 where
Holkar defeated a combined army of Scindia
Baji Rao II – the
Peshwa and nominal overlord of the Maratha
Scindia retreated into his dominions to the north, but Baji
Rao was driven from his territory and sought refuge with the East
India Company at Bassein . He appealed to the Company for assistance,
offering to accept its authority if he were restored to his
Poona . Lord Mornington , the ambitious
Governor-General of British
India , seized on the opportunity to
extend Company influence into the
Maratha Empire which he perceived as
the final obstacle to British paramountcy over the Indian subcontinent
. The Treaty of Bassein was signed in December 1802 whereby the
Company agreed to restore Baji Rao in return for control over his
foreign affairs and a garrison of 6,000 Company troops permanently
stationed in Poona. The restoration was commanded by Lord
Mornington’s younger brother, Major General Arthur Wellesley , who
in March 1803 marched on
Mysore with 15,000 Company troops
and 9,000 Hyderabad allies. Wellesley entered
opposition on 20 April, and Baji Rao was formally restored to his
throne on 13 May.
The treaty gave offence to the other
Maratha leaders, who deemed that
the system of subsidiary alliances with the British was an unwarranted
interference into their affairs and fatal to the independent Maratha
Maratha leaders refused to submit to the Peshwa's
authority and tensions were raised further when
Holkar raided into
Hyderabad in May, claiming that the Nizam of Hyderabad (a British
ally) owed him money. Mornington consequently engaged the various
Maratha chieftains in negotiations. Lieutenant Colonel John Collins
was sent to Scindia's camp to discuss his objections and propose a
defensive alliance. However,
Scindia had formed a military alliance
with the Rajah of Berar with a view to bringing the
into a coalition against the British, and had begun to mass his forces
on the Nizam's border. Wellesley, who had been given control over the
Company's military and political affairs in central
India in June,
Scindia declare his intentions and withdraw his forces or
face the prospect of war. After a protracted period of negotiations,
Collins reported to Wellesley on 3 August that
Scindia refused to give
an answer and would not withdraw his troops. Wellesley's response was
to declare war on
Scindia and Berar "in order to secure the interests
of the British government and its allies".
India Company attacked the two principal
Maratha forces of
Scindia and the Raja of Berar from the north and the south. Of the
Holkar was hesitant to enter the war in
cooperation with his rival, Scindia, and remained aloof from the
hostilities, and the
Gaekwad of Baroda placed himself under British
protection. Operations in the north were directed by Lieutenant
General Gerard Lake who entered
Maratha territory from Cawnpore to
face Scindia's main army which was commanded by the French mercenary,
Pierre Perron . A second British force under the command of Major
General Wellesley confronted a combined army of
Scindia and Berar in
Deccan . Wellesley was determined to gain the initiative through
offensive action and told his senior subordinate, Colonel James
Stevenson , that "a long defensive war would ruin us and will answer
no purpose whatever".
Maratha army in the
Deccan was largely composed of fast-moving
cavalry able to live off the land. Consequently, Wellesley planned to
work in conjunction with a separate force under Colonel Stevenson to
enable his slower troops to outmanoeuvre the
Maratha army and force it
into a position where it could not avoid a pitched battle . Stevenson
was despatched from Hyderabad with an army of some 10,000 men to
Jafarabad to deny
Scindia and Berar the chance to raid east into the
Nizam's territory. In the meantime, Wellesley moved north from his
camp near the
Godavari River on 8 August with some 13,500 troops and
headed towards Scindia's nearest stronghold – the walled town and
fort at Ahmednuggur . The bulk of his forces were Company troops from
Mysore : five sepoy infantry battalions of the Madras Native Infantry
and three squadrons of Madras Native Cavalry. The core contingent of
British Army regulars included cavalry from the 19th Light Dragoons
and two battalions of Scottish infantry from the 74th and 78th
Regiment of Foot . Irregular light cavalry were also provided by the
Wellesley reached Ahmednuggur later the same day after a 7-mile (11
km) march and immediately ordered an escalade assault on the town
rather than enter into a time-consuming siege. The walled town, which
was garrisoned by 1,000 Arab mercenaries, upwards of 60 cannon and one
of Scindia’s infantry battalions under the command of French
officers, was captured with minimal losses after a brief action. The
adjacent fort's defenders capitulated four days later once the walls
were breached by British artillery. With the fortification providing
a logistics base and point of support for future operations into
Maratha territory, Wellesley installed a garrison and headed north
towards the Nizam\'s city of Aurungabad . Along the way he captured
Scindia’s other possessions south of the Godavari and established a
series of guarded bridges and ferries along the river to maintain his
communication and supply lines .
Map of the
The Marathas slipped past Stevenson and advanced on Hyderabad. After
receiving reports of their movement on 30 August, Wellesley hurried
east down to the Godavari to intercept. Stevenson, meanwhile, marched
westwards to the
Maratha city of Jalna which he took by storm.
Scindia learned of Wellesley's intentions and returned to a position
north of Jalna. Unable to make a clean break from the pursuing British
he abandoned plans to raid into Hyderabad and instead assembled his
infantry and artillery. The combined
Maratha army was around 50,000
strong, the core of which was 10,800 well equipped regular infantry
organised into three brigades , trained and commanded by European
adventurer and mercenary officers. Colonel
Anthony Pohlmann , a
Hanoverian and former East
India Company sergeant, commanded the
largest brigade with eight battalions. A further brigade with five
battalions was provided by
Begum Samru , and was commanded on her
behalf by a Frenchman, Colonel Jean Saleur. The third brigade had four
battalions and was commanded by Dutchman, Major John James Dupont. In
Maratha force included 10,000–20,000 of Berar's
irregular infantry, some 30,000–40,000 irregular light cavalry and
over 100 guns ranging in size from one to 18-pounders.
After several weeks of chasing down the
Maratha army, Wellesley and
Stevenson met at Budnapoor on 21 September and received intelligence
Maratha army was at Borkardan , around 30 miles (48 km) to
the north. They agreed a plan by which their two armies – moving
separately along either side of a range of hills with Wellesley to the
east and Stevenson to the west – would converge on Borkardan on 24
September. Wellesley's force reached Paugy on the afternoon of 22
September and departed camp before dawn. By noon, the army had marched
14 miles (23 km) to Naulniah, a small town 12 miles (19 km) south of
Borkardan, where they intended to rest before joining Stevenson to
Maratha army the next day. At this point, Wellesley
received further intelligence that rather than being at Borkardan, the
Maratha army was camped just 5 miles (8.0 km) north, but their cavalry
had moved off and the infantry were about to follow.
At about 13:00, Wellesley went forward with a cavalry escort to
Maratha position. The rest of his army followed
closely behind apart from a battalion of sepoys left at Naulniah to
guard the baggage. In all, Wellesley had 4,500 troops at his disposal
Maratha horse and 17 cannon. Aware that the
British were nearby, the
Maratha chiefs had positioned their army in a
strong defensive position along a tongue of land stretching east from
Borkardan between the Kailna River and its tributary the Juah.
Scindia and Berar did not believe Wellesley would attack with
his small force and had moved off from the area in the morning.
Command of their army was given to Pohlmann, who had positioned his
infantry to the east of the
Maratha camp in the plains around the
Assaye on the southern bank of the Juah.
To his surprise, Wellesley found the entire combined army before him.
Nevertheless, he resolved to attack at once, believing that if he
waited for Stevenson, the Marathas would have the chance to slip away
and force the pursuit to drag on. Wellesley was also eager to forge a
reputation for himself, and despite his numerical disadvantage, he was
confident that the Maratha’s irregular forces would be swept aside
by his disciplined troops, and only Scindia’s regular infantry could
be expected to stand and fight.
Pohlmann struck camp and deployed his infantry battalions in a line
facing southwards behind the steep banks of the Kailna with his cannon
arrayed directly in front. The great mass of
Maratha cavalry was kept
on the right flank and Berar\'s irregular infantry garrisoned Assaye
to the rear. The only observable crossing point over the river was a
small ford directly ahead of the
Maratha position. Pohlmann's strategy
was to funnel the British and Madras troops across the ford into the
mouth of his cannon, and then on to the massed infantry and cavalry
behind. Wellesley\'s local guides assured him that no other ford
existed nearby, but he quickly discarded the option of a frontal
assault as suicide. While reconnoitring he had noticed two unguarded
villages, Peepulgaon and Waroor, one on each bank of the Kaitna beyond
Maratha left. On the assumption that a ford must exist between the
two villages, Wellesley ordered the area to be further reconnoitred by
his Chief Engineer, Captain John Johnson, who reported that there was
indeed a ford at that spot. Thus Wellesley led his army east to the
crossing in an attempt to launch an attack on Pohlmann's left flank.
At around 15:00, the British crossed to the northern bank of the
Kaitna unopposed apart from a distant harassing fire from the Maratha
cannon which was largely inaccurate but succeeded in decapitating
Wellesley's dragoon orderly . Once across, Wellesley ordered his six
infantry battalions to form into two lines, with his cavalry as a
reserve in a third. His allied
Mysore cavalry were ordered
to remain south of the Kaitna to keep in check a large body of Maratha
cavalry which hovered around the British rear. Pohlmann soon
recognised Wellesley’s intentions and swung his infantry and guns
through 90 degrees to establish a new line spread approximately 1 mile
(1.6 km) across the isthmus with their right flank on the Kaitna and
the left on Assaye. Although the new position secured the Maratha
flanks, it restricted Pohlmann from bringing his superior numbers into
Maratha redeployment was swifter and more efficient than
Wellesley had anticipated and he immediately reacted by extending his
front to deny Pohlmann the opportunity to outflank him. A battalion
of pickets and the 74th Highlanders , which formed the right of the
first and second lines, were ordered to move obliquely to the right.
This allowed the 78th to anchor the left flank and Madras infantry
battalions (the 1/10th, 1/8th, 1/4th and 2/12th) to form the centre of
the British line. Wellesley's intention was to force back the
Marathas from their guns and then – operating by his left to avoid
the heavily defended
Assaye – throw them back on the Juah and
complete their destruction with his cavalry.
BRITISH INFANTRY ATTACK
Map of the battle. The British and Indian infantry move forward
to attack the redeployed
Maratha cannonade intensified as the British redeployed. Although
British artillery was brought forward to counter, it was ineffective
against the mass firepower of the
Maratha guns and quickly disabled
through the weight of shot directed against it. British casualties
mounted as the
Maratha guns turned their attention to the infantry and
subjected them to a barrage of canister , grape and round shot .
Wellesley decided that his only option to neutralise the artillery and
get his men out of the killing field was to advance directly into the
mouth of the
Maratha artillery. He ordered his cannon to be abandoned
and gave the command for his infantry to march forward with bayonets
Maratha cannonade punched holes in the British line, but the
infantry maintained a steady pace, closing up the gaps in their ranks
as they advanced. The 78th Highlanders were the first to reach the
enemy in the southern sector next to the River Kailna. They paused 50
yards (46 m) from the
Maratha gunners and unleashed a volley of musket
fire before launching into a bayonet charge. The four battalions of
Madras infantry to the right of the 78th, accompanied by the Madras
Pioneers , reached Pohlmann's line shortly afterwards and attacked in
the same fashion. The gunners stood by their cannon but were no match
for the bayonets of the British and Madras troops who swiftly pressed
on towards the
Maratha infantry. However, instead of meeting the
Maratha right broke and fled northwards towards the Juah,
causing the rest of the southern half of the line to follow. The
officers of the Madras battalions temporarily lost control as the
sepoys , encouraged by their success, pushed too far in pursuit.
Maratha cavalry momentarily threatened to charge but were checked by
the 78th who remained in order and re-formed to face the danger.
In the northern sector of the battlefield however, Wellesley's right
flank was in turmoil. The commander of the pickets, Lieutenant Colonel
William Orrock, had mistaken his orders and continued his oblique path
directly towards Assaye. Major Samuel Swinton of the 74th regiment
was ordered to support the pickets and followed close behind. This
created a large gap in the centre of the British line, and brought the
two battalions under a barrage of cannonade from the artillery around
the village and the
Maratha left. The two battalions began to fall
back in disarray and Pohlmann ordered his remaining infantry and
cavalry forward to attack. The Marathas gave no quarter; the pickets
were virtually annihilated but the remnants of the 74th were able to
form a rough square behind hastily piled bodies of dead. Realising
that the destruction of his right would leave his army exposed and
outflanked, Wellesley ordered a detachment of British cavalry under
Colonel Patrick Maxwell consisting of the
19th Light Dragoons and
elements of the 4th and 5th Madras Native
Cavalry into action. From
their position at the rear, the cavalry dashed directly towards the
74th's square, crashed into the swarming attackers and routed them.
Maxwell pressed his advantage and continued his charge into the
Maratha infantry and guns on the left, driving them backwards and
across the Juah "with great slaughter".
Maratha gunners re-man their cannons (illustration by Alfred
A number of
Maratha gunners who had feigned death when the British
advanced over their position re-manned their guns and began to pour
cannon fire into the rear of the 74th and Madras infantry. Wellesley
ordered his four sepoy battalions to re-form and ward off any threat
Maratha infantry and cavalry while the 78th were sent back to
Maratha gun line. Wellesley, meanwhile, galloped back to
7th Madras Native Cavalry, which had been held back in reserve to the
east, and led a cavalry charge from the opposite direction. The
gunners again stood their ground but were eventually driven from their
guns and this time it was ensured that all those who remained were
While Wellesley was preoccupied with re-taking the gun line, Pohlmann
rallied his infantry and redeployed them into a semicircle with their
backs to the Juah; their right flank across the river and their left
in Assaye. However, most of the
Maratha cannon, which had inflicted
heavy losses on Wellesley's infantry, had been captured or lay
abandoned on the battlefield. Reluctant to join the fray, the Maratha
cavalry lingered in the distance to the west. Most were Pindarries :
loosely organised and lightly armed horsemen whose traditional role
was to cut down fleeing enemy troops, harass convoy lines and carry
out raids into enemy territory. They were not trained to attack
well-formed infantry or heavily armed European cavalry, and did not
play a further part in the battle.
With the remanned
Maratha artillery silenced, Wellesley turned his
attention to Pohlmann's reformed infantry. Although Maxwell had
suffered heavy losses, he had rallied his cavalry and returned to the
field of battle. Wellesley ordered him to charge the
flank, while the infantry moved forward as a single line to meet the
centre and right. The cavalry spurred forward but were met with a
volley of canister shot which struck Maxwell, killing him instantly.
Their momentum lost, the cavalry did not complete their charge but
veered away from the
Maratha line at the last moment. The British and
Madras infantry marched on against the
Maratha position but Pohlmann's
men, their morale low, did not wait for the attack and instead
retreated northwards across the Juah. Descriptions differ as to the
manner of their departure:
Maratha sources claim the line marched away
from the battlefield in an orderly manner on Pohlmann's orders but
British accounts claim the
Maratha infantry fled in an uncontrolled
panic. Berar's irregulars inside Assaye, now leaderless and having
witnessed the fate of the regular infantry, abandoned the village and
marched off northwards at around 18:00, followed shortly afterwards by
Maratha cavalry. Wellesley's troops, however, were exhausted and
in no condition to pursue and the native allied cavalry which had
remained on the south bank of the Kailna and had not been engaged,
refused to pursue without the support of the British and Madras
The whole country strewn with killed and wounded, both Europeans
and natives, ours as well as the enemies. An unnamed British cavalry
officer in the aftermath of Assaye.
India Company and
British Army casualties amounted to 428
killed, 1138 wounded and 18 missing; a total of 1,584 – over a third
of the force engaged in combat. The 74th and the picket battalion
were decimated; from a strength of about 500, the 74th lost ten
officers killed and seven wounded, and 124 other ranks killed and 270
wounded. The pickets lost all their officers except their commander,
Lieutenant Colonel William Orrock, and had only about 75 men
remaining. Of the ten officers forming the general's staff, eight
were wounded or had their horses killed. Wellesley himself lost two
horses; the first was shot from underneath him and the second was
speared as he led the charge to re-capture the
Maratha gun line. The
Maratha casualties is more difficult to ascertain.
Despatches from British officers give a figure of 1,200 dead and many
more wounded but some modern historians have estimated a total of
6,000 dead and wounded. The Marathas also surrendered seven stands
of colours , large amounts of stores and ammunition and 98 cannon –
most of which were later taken into service by the East
Scindia and Berar\'s army was not finished as a fighting
force, several of Scindia's regular infantry battalions and artillery
crews had been destroyed. Their command structure had also been
damaged: many of their European officers, including Colonel Pohlmann
and Major Dupont, surrendered to the Company – which had offered
amnesty to Europeans in the service of the
Maratha armies – or
deserted and sought employment with other native chieftains.
The sound of the guns at
Assaye was heard by Stevenson who
immediately broke up his camp 10 miles (16 km) to the west in an
attempt to join the battle. However, he was misled by his guide and
marched first on Borkardan before he reached the battlefield on the
evening of 24 September. Suspecting that his guide had intentionally
led him astray, Stevenson later had him hanged. He remained with
Wellesley to assist with the wounded – troops were still being
carried from the battlefield four days after the engagement – until
ordered to recommence the pursuit of the
Maratha army on 26 September.
Wellesley remained to the south while he established a hospital at
Ajanta and awaited reinforcements from
Poona . Two months later, he
combined with Stevenson to rout
Scindia and Berar's demoralised and
weakened army at
Argaon , and shortly afterwards stormed Berar's
Gawilghur . These victories, coupled with Lieutenant
General Lake 's successful campaign in the north, induced the two
Maratha chiefs to sue for peace.
Assaye elephant emblem awarded
Wellesley later told Stevenson that "I should not like to see again
such a loss as I sustained on the 23rd September, even if attended by
such a gain", and in later life he referred to
Assaye as "the
bloodiest for the numbers that I ever saw". Lieutenant Colonel Thomas
Munro , the Company's district collector at
Mysore , was critical of
the high proportion of casualties and questioned Wellesley's decision
not to wait for Stevenson. He wrote to Wellesley: "I am tempted to
think that you did it with a view of sharing the glory with the
smallest numbers". In response, Wellesley politely rebuffed Munro's
accusations and defended his action as necessary because he had
received and acted upon incorrect intelligence regarding the Maratha
Assaye was 34-year-old Wellesley's first major success and
despite his anguish over the heavy losses, it was a battle he always
held in the highest estimation. After his retirement from active
military service, the
Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington (as he later became known)
Assaye the finest thing he ever did in the way of fighting
even when compared to his later military career.
Lord Mornington and his Council lauded the battle as a "most
brilliant and important victory", and presented each of the Madras
units and British regiments involved in the engagement with a set of
honorary colours. The British regiments and native units were also
Assaye battle honour and most were later given permission
to adopt an
Assaye elephant as part of their insignia. A public
monument was also erected by the East
India Company at Fort William ,
Calcutta to commemorate the victory. The 74th Regiment of foot later
became known as the
Assaye regiment due to their stand at the battle
and their modern-day successors, the
Royal Highland Fusiliers (2
SCOTS), still celebrate the anniversary of the battle each year. Of
the native infantry battalions, only the
Madras Sappers survive in
their original form in the
Indian Army but they no longer celebrate
Assaye as it has been declared a repugnant battle honour by the
* Cornwell, Bernard , Sharpe\'s Triumph : Richard Sharpe and the
Battle of Assaye, September 1803, HarperCollins, 1998, ISBN
0-00-225630-4 . The book includes most of the important events of the
battle, although mostly focusing on the British forces with Indian
regiments generally in the background. Building on the real events,
Wellington loses a third horse and is tipped into the enemy ranks
where he is saved by Sharpe, who in doing so earns his commission as
an officer. The battle is mentioned numerous times throughout the
series as a personal achievement for both Sharpe and Wellington (whose
careers progress in parallel), and whenever characters from 78th or
other highland infantry units appear, as Sharpe feels their actions at
Assaye were a testament to their courage and discipline.
* ^ A B C D Millar p. 82.
* ^ A B C D Holmes p. 81.
* ^ A B Millar p. 83.
* ^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India
Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 69–71. ISBN
* ^ Millar p. 28.
* ^ A B Holmes p. 68.
* ^ Millar p. 13.
* ^ A B Holmes p. 69.
* ^ Severn p. 171.
* ^ Corrigan p. 72.
* ^ Holmes p. 70.
* ^ Severn p. 170.
* ^ Millar p. 34.
* ^ Severn p. 176.
* ^ Severn p. 177.
* ^ Gurwood p. 69.
* ^ A B C Holmes p. 73.
* ^ A B Corrigan p. 73.
* ^ A B Millar p. 27.
* ^ Millar p. 37.
* ^ Cooper p. 92.
* ^ Cooper pp. 87–88.
* ^ A B Cooper p. 94.
* ^ Millar p. 48.
* ^ A B C Holmes p. 71.
* ^ A B Cooper p.102
* ^ Millar p. 22.
* ^ A B Corrigan p. 74.
* ^ Cooper p. 99.
* ^ A B C Cooper p. 100.
* ^ Black p. 260.
* ^ Cooper p. 101.
* ^ Corrigan p. 76.
* ^ Sandes Military Engineer in
India Vol I, pp. 207–208.
* ^ Cooper p. 105.
* ^ Millar p. 57.
* ^ A B Roy p. 128.
* ^ A B Cooper p. 108.
* ^ The picquets of the day were composed of a half company from
each of the Wellesley's seven infantry battalions, and were commanded
by the officer of the day (Biddulph p. 138).
* ^ Biddulph p. 141.
* ^ Millar p. 61.
* ^ A B Cooper p. 110.
* ^ Millar p. 62.
* ^ Sandes The Indian Sappers and Miners, p. 41.
* ^ A B C Cooper p. 111.
* ^ A B Millar p. 65.
* ^ A B Millar p. 69.
* ^ Cooper p. 112.
* ^ A B Holmes p. 79.
* ^ Thorn p. 276.
* ^ Cooper p. 114.
* ^ Millar p. 73.
* ^ A B C Cooper p. 115.
* ^ A B Cooper p. 117.
* ^ Holmes p. 80.
* ^ Cooper pp. 114–115.
* ^ A B Millar p. 81.
* ^ A B Corrigan p. 77.
* ^ A B Biddulph p. 144.
* ^ Bennell p. 290.
* ^ Weller p. 190.
* ^ Biddulph p. 145.
* ^ A B C Corrigan p. 78.
* ^ Biddulph p. 146.
* ^ Holmes p. 82.
* ^ Gurwood p. 170.
* ^ A B Bradshaw pp. 121–132.
* ^ Wellesley p. 20.
* ^ Gurwood p. 335.
* ^ Singh p. 107.
* ^ "SCOTS History". Ministry of Defence . 2009. Retrieved
* ^ Singh p. 297.
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* Biddulph, John (1899), The Nineteenth and their times, London:
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* Bradshaw, John (1894), Sir Thomas Munro and the British Settlement
of the Madras Presidency, Rulers of
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* Cooper, Randolph G. S. (2003), The Anglo-
Maratha Campaigns and the
Contest for India, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press , ISBN
* Corrigan, Gordon (2006), Wellington: A Military Life, London:
Continuum International Publishing Group , ISBN 1-85285-515-0
* Gurwood, John , ed. (1837), The dispatches of Field Marshal the
Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington from 1799–1818, II, London: Murray , ISBN
* Holmes, Richard (2003), Wellington: The Iron Duke, London: Harper
Collins , ISBN 0-00-713750-8
* Millar, Simon (2006),
Assaye 1803: Wellington's First and
'Bloodiest' Victory, Oxford:
Osprey Publishing , ISBN 1-84603-001-3
* Roy, Kaushik (2004), India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the
Great to Kargil, Hyderabad : Orient Blackswan , ISBN 81-7824-109-9
* Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1933), The Military Engineer in India, Vol
I, Chatham, Great Britain: Institution of the
* Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1948), The Indian Sappers and Miners,
Chatham, Great Britain: Institution of the
* Severn, John Kenneth (2007), Architects of Empire: The Duke of
Wellington and His Brothers, Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma
Press , ISBN 0-8061-3810-6
* Singh, Sarbans (1993), Battle Honours of the Indian Army
1757–1971, New Delhi: Vision Books, ISBN 81-7094-115-6
* Thorn, William (1818), Memoir of the War in India, London: Thomas
* Weller, Jac (1972), Wellington in India, London:
Longman , ISBN
* Wellesley, Gerald , ed. (1956), The Conversations of the First
Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington with George William Chad, Cambridge: Saint Nicolas
* Rajaram II
* Shahu II
* Pratap Singh
* Moro Pant Trimbak Pingle
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
* Parashuram Trimbak Kulkarni
Balaji Baji Rao
Balaji Baji Rao
* Madhavrao Ballal
* Sawai Madhavrao
Baji Rao II
Tulsi Bai Holkar
Bhonsle of Nagpur
Gaekwad of Baroda
Scindia of Gwalior
Holkar of Indore (subsidiary or feudatory states)
* Pavan Khind
* Raigarh (1689)
* 1st Delhi
* 1st Trichinopoly
* Katwa (1st)
* 2nd Trichinopoly
* Katwa (2nd)
* Expeditions in Bengal
* 2nd Delhi
* 3rd Panipat
* Bahadur Benda
* 3rd Delhi
Maratha-Mughal War of 27 years
* First Anglo-
Second Anglo-Maratha War
* Third Anglo-
* British Empire
* Nizam of Hyderabad
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington
Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington
* MOTHER: Anne Hill
Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley
William Wellesley-Pole, 3rd Earl of Mornington
Henry Wellesley, 1st Baron Cowley
Lady Anne Smith
Catherine Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington
Catherine Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington
* CHILDREN: Arthur
BATTLES AND WARS
* FLANDERS CAMPAIGN
Battle of Boxtel
* FOURTH ANGLO-MYSORE WAR
Battle of Seringapatam
Battle of Seringapatam
* SECOND ANGLO-MARATHA WAR
* Battle of Assaye
* PENINSULAR WAR
Battle of Roliça
Battle of Vimeiro
Second Battle of Porto
Battle of Talavera
Battle of Sabugal
* Third Siege of Badajoz
Battle of Salamanca
Battle of Vitoria
* HUNDRED DAYS
Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
Stratfield Saye House
* Wellington\'s Column
* Wellington Monuments
Wellington College, Berkshire
* Royal Exchange
* Hyde P