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BATANGAS, officially known as the PROVINCE OF BATANGAS (Filipino : Lalawigan ng Batangas) is a province in the Philippines
Philippines
located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon
Luzon
. Its capital is the city of Batangas
Batangas
and is bordered by the provinces of Cavite
Cavite
and Laguna to the north and Quezon
Quezon
to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea
South China Sea
. Poetically, Batangas
Batangas
is often referred to by its ancient name Kumintáng.

Batangas
Batangas
is one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila
Manila
. It is home to the well-known Taal Volcano , one of the Decade Volcanoes , and Taal Heritage town , a small town that has ancestral houses and structures dating back to the 19th century. The province also has numerous beaches and diving spots including Anilao in Mabini , Sombrero Island in Tingloy
Tingloy
, Ligpo Island and Sampaguita Beach in Bauan
Bauan
, Matabungkay in Lian , Punta Fuego in Nasugbu , Calatagan and Laiya in San Juan .

Batangas City
Batangas City
has the second largest international seaport in the Philippines
Philippines
after Metro Manila. The identification of the city as an industrial growth center in the region and being the focal point of the Calabarzon program is seen in the increasing number of business establishments in the city's Central Business District (CBD) as well as numerous industries operating in the province's industrial parks .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Spanish colonization * 2.3 American period

* 2.4 Japanese occupation

* 2.4.1 Liberation

* 2.5 Post-American period

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Administrative divisions

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Language * 4.2 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Products

* 5.2 Developments

* 5.2.1 Batangas
Batangas
Port and STAR

* 5.3 Electric power

* 5.3.1 Distribution * 5.3.2 Generation

* 5.4 Transportation * 5.5 Roads * 5.6 Water transport

* 6 Government

* 6.1 Current officials * 6.2 List of former governors

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Way of life * 7.2 Mythology and literature * 7.3 Music * 7.4 Architecture and sculpture * 7.5 Museums

* 8 Flora and fauna * 9 Notable people from Batangas
Batangas
* 10 References * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The first recorded name of the province was Kumintáng, whose political center was the present-day municipality (town) of Balayan . Balayan was considered the most progressive town of the region. An eruption of Taal Volcano destroyed a significant portion of the town, causing residents to transfer to Bonbon (now Taal ), the name eventually encompassing the bounds of the modern province.

The term Batangan means a raft which the people used so that they could fish in the nearby Taal Lake . It also meant the numerous logs found in the Calumpang River , the body of water that runs through the northeastern portion of the town and assumes the shape of a tuning fork .

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

Long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, large centers of population already thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined the Pansipit River , a major waterway. The province had been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
until the first phase of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were also trading with Japan
Japan
and India
India
. The Philippines
Philippines
ancestors were Buddhists and Hindus, but far from India
India
and intermixed with animistic beliefs.

Archaeological findings show that before the settlement of the Spaniards in the country, the Tagalogs , especially the Batangueños, had attained a semblance of high civilization. This was shown by certain jewelry, made from a chambered nautilus' shell, where tiny holes were created by a drill-like tool. The prehistoric Batangueños were influenced by India
India
as shown in the origin of most languages from Sanskrit and certain ancient potteries. A Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot strongly resembles the iconographic portrayal of Buddha in Siam, India, and Nepal. The pot shows Buddha Amithaba in the tribhanga pose inside an oval nimbus. Scholars also noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was also depicted.

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One of the major archaeological finds was in January 1941, where two crude stone figures were found in Palapat in the municipality of Calatagan. They were later donated to the National Museum. One of them was destroyed during World War II
World War II
.

Eighteen years later, a grave was excavated in nearby Punta Buaya. Pieces of brain coral were carved behind the heads of the 12 remains that were found. The site was named Likha (meaning "Create"). The remains were accompanied by furniture that could be traced as early as the 14th century. Potteries, as well as bracelets, stoneware, and metal objects were also found in the area, suggesting that the people who lived there had extensive contact with people from as far as China.

The presence of dining utensils such as plates or "chalices" found with the remains also suggest that prehistoric Batangueños believed in the idea of life-after-death. Thus, the Batangueños, like their neighbors in other parts of Asia, have similar customs of burying furniture with the dead.

Like the nearby tribes, the Batangan or the early Batangueños were a non-aggressive people. Partly because most of the tribes in their immediate environment were related to them by blood. Some weapons Batangans used included the bakyang (bows and arrows), the bangkaw (spears), and the suwan (bolo).

Being highly superstitious, the use of agimat (amulet or talisman) showed that these people believed in the presence of higher beings and other things unseen. The natives believed that forces of nature were a manifestation these higher beings.

The term 'Tagalog' may have been derived from the word 'Taga-Ilog' or "river dwellers" referring to the Pasig River located further up north of the region. However, Wang Teh-Ming in his writings on Sino- Filipino relations points out that Batangas
Batangas
was the real center of the Tagalog tribe, which he then identified as Ma-yi or Ma-i. According to the Chinese Imperial Annals, Ma-yi had its center in the province and extends to as far as Cavite
Cavite
, Laguna , Rizal
Rizal
, Quezon
Quezon
, Bataan
Bataan
, Bulacan
Bulacan
, Mindoro , Marinduque , Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
, some parts of Zambales , and Tarlac
Tarlac
. However, many historians interchangeably use the term Tagalog and Batangueño.

Henry Otley Beyer, an American archaeologist, also showed in his studies that the early Batangueños had a special affinity with the precious stone known as the jade. He named the Late Paleolithic Period of the Philippines
Philippines
as the Batangas
Batangas
Period in recognition of the multitude of jade found in the excavated caves in the province. Beyer identified that the jade-cult reached the province as early as 800 B.C. and lasted until 200 B.C.

SPANISH COLONIZATION

In 1570, Spanish generals Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo explored the coast of Batangas
Batangas
on their way to Manila
Manila
and came upon a Malay settlement at the mouth of Pansipit River . In 1572, the town of Taal was founded and its convent and stone church were constructed later.

Officially, the Province of Bonbon was founded by Spain in 1578, through Fr. Estaban Ortiz and Fr. Juan de Porras. It was named after the name that was given to it by the Muslim
Muslim
natives who inhabited the area.

In 1581, the Spanish government abolished Bonbon Province and created a new province which came to be known as Balayan Province . The new province was composed of the present provinces of Batangas, Mindoro , Marinduque , southeast Laguna , and Camarines . After the devastating eruption of Taal Volcano in 1754, the old town of Taal, present day San Nicolas, was buried. The capital was eventually transferred to Batangas
Batangas
(now a city) for fear of further eruptions where it has remained to date.

In the same years that de Goiti and Salcedo visited the province, the Franciscan
Franciscan
missionaries came to Taal, which later became the first Spanish settlement in Batangas
Batangas
and one of the earliest in the Philippines. In 1572, the Augustinians founded Taal in the place of Wawa, now San Nicolas, and from there began preaching in Balayan and in all the big settlements around the lake of Bombon (Taal). The Augustinians, who were the first missionaries in the diocese , remained until the revolution against Spain . Among the first missionaries were eminent men which included Alfonso de Albuquerque, Diego Espinas, Juan de Montojo, and others.

During the first ten years, the whole region around the Lake of Bombon was completely Christianized. It was done through the preaching of men who had learned the first rudiments of the language of the people. At the same time, they started writing manuals of devotion in Tagalog, such as novenas , and had written the first Tagalog grammar that served other missionaries who came.

Foundation of important parishes followed throughout the years: 1572, the Taal Parish
Parish
was founded by the Augustinians; 1581, the Batangas Parish
Parish
under Fray Diego Mexica; 1596, Bauan
Bauan
Parish
Parish
administered by the Augustinian missionaries; 1605, Lipa Parish
Parish
under the Augustinian administration;1774, Balayan Parish
Parish
was founded; 1852, Nasugbu Parish; and 1868, Lemery Parish.

The town of Nasugbu became an important centre of trade during the Spanish occupation of the country. It was the site of the first recorded battle between two European Forces in Asia in Fortune Island , Nasugbu , Batangas. In the late part of the 20th century, the inhabitants of Fortune Island discovered a sunken galleon that contained materials sold in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade .

Batangas
Batangas
was also among the first of the eight Philippine provinces to revolt against Spain and one of the provinces placed under Martial Law by Spanish Governor-General Ramon Blanco on August 30, 1896. This event was given distinction when Marcela Agoncillo , also a native of the province, made the Philippine Flag
Philippine Flag
, which bears a sun with eight rays to represent these eight provinces.

AMERICAN PERIOD

Map of Batangas
Batangas
in 1918

When the Americans forbade the Philippine flag from being flown anywhere in the country, Batangas
Batangas
was one of the places where the revolutionaries chose to propagate their propaganda. Many, especially the revolutionary artists, chose Batangas
Batangas
as the place to perform their plays. In an incident recorded by Amelia Bonifacio in her diary, the performance of Tanikalang Ginto in the province led not only to the arrest of the company but all of the audience. Later, the play was banned from being shown anywhere in the country.

General Miguel Malvar is recognized as the last Filipino general to surrender to the United States
United States
in the Philippine-American War .

JAPANESE OCCUPATION

After the attack on Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
on December 7, 1941, the Japanese sent their planes to attack the Philippines
Philippines
, launching major air raids throughout the country. The bombings resulted in the destruction of the Batangas
Batangas
Airport located in Batangas City
Batangas City
, of which nothing remains today. Batangas
Batangas
was also a scene of heavy fighting between the Philippine Army Air Corps and the Japanese A6M Zero
A6M Zero
Fighter Planes . The most notable air combat battle took place at height of 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) on December 12, 1941 when 6 Filipino fighters led by Capt. Jesús Villamor engaged the numerically superior enemy of 54 Japanese bombers and fighter escorts which raided the Batangas Airfield. Capt. Jesús Villamor won the battle, suffering only one casualty, Lt. César Basa who was able to bail out on a parachute as his plane was shot down only to be strafed by machine-gun fire from the A6M Zeroes.

When Gen. Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
ordered the overall retreat of the American-Filipino Forces to Bataan
Bataan
in 1942, the province was ultimately abandoned and later came under direct Japanese occupation. During this time, the Imperial Japanese Army committed many crimes against civilians including the massacre of 328 people in Bauan
Bauan
, 320 in Taal , 300 in Cuenca , 107 in San Jose , and 39 in Lucero.

Liberation

BATTLE OF BATANGAS

Part of World War II
World War II

DATE January 31 to August 15, 1945

LOCATION Batangas

RESULT Allied Victory

BELLIGERENTS

United States
United States

* Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines

Empire of Japan
Japan

* Second Philippine Republic
Second Philippine Republic

STRENGTH

362,000 Filipino troops 30,000 Batangueño guerrillas 65,000 American troops 156,000 Japanese troops

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

FILIPINO TROOPS 4,500 killed 14,000 wounded BATANGUEñO GUERRILLAS 700 killed 2,140 wounded AMERICAN TROOPS 2,000 killed 10,200 wounded JAPANESE TROOPS 40,000 killed 12,000 wounded 3,000 captured

XIV Corps of 158th RCT, 11th Airborne Division and 1st Cavalry Division campaign in Batangas
Batangas
and nearby province.

As part of the Philippines
Philippines
Campaign (1944–45) , the province's liberation began on January 31, 1945, when elements of the 11th Airborne Division under the U.S. Eighth Army went ashore on the beaches of Nasugbu, Batangas
Nasugbu, Batangas
. However, Batangas
Batangas
was not the main objective of the invasion force. Instead, most of its units headed north to capture Manila
Manila
and by March 3, the capital was completely secured.

Liberation of Batangas
Batangas
proper by American forces began in March 1945 under the 11th Airborne Division and the 158th Regimental Combat Team (or 158th RCT). The 158th Regimental Combat Team stationed in Nasugbu was tasked to secure the shores and nearby towns of Balayan and Batangas
Batangas
. The 11th Airborne Division from the Tagaytay Ridge would attack the Japanese defenses north of Taal Lake and open the Lipa corridor. By March 11 the 158th RCT had reached Batangas City
Batangas City
. In order to secure the two bays, 158th RCT needed to capture the entire Calumpang Peninsula near the town of Mabini , which was still held by some elements of the Japanese 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force . Fighting continued until March 16 when the whole peninsula was finally captured.

Afterwards, the 158th RCT turned northward to meet the Japanese Fuji Force defenses at Mt. Maculot in Cuenca on March 19. The 158th RCT disengaged the Japanese on March 23 and were relieved by the 11th Airborne's 187th Glider Infantry Regiment . Another 11th Airborne Division task force, the 188th Infantry was ordered to dispatch troops around Batangas City
Batangas City
and its remaining frontiers. Meanwhile, the 11th Airborne Division's 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment had begun the opening of the Lipa corridor at Santo Tomas and Tanauan before being relieved by the 1st Cavalry Division and moving via Tagaytay to Bauan and San Jose. Lipa after being Liberated by the Allied Forces

The last major offensive for the capture of the Lipa Corridor began when 188th Infantry Task Force from Batangas City
Batangas City
left for Lipa on March 24. The same that day, the 187th Infantry Task Force launched an attack against the remaining Japanese positions in Mt. Maculot. Heavy fighting continued until April 17. The final capture of Mt. Maculot came by April 21.

The 188th Infantry Task Force met stiff resistance from Fuji Force\'s 86th Airfield Battalion on March 26. To the north, the 1st Cavalry Division attacked the remaining Japanese defenses in the towns of Santo Tomas and Tanauan and succeeded in linking up with the advancing 187th and 188th task forces from the south. Lipa was captured by the 1st Cavalry Division on March 29. The final defeat of the Fuji Force came at Mt. Malepunyo at the hands of the 511th on May 2.

With the capture of Lipa and Mt. Malepunyo, organized resistance ended in the province. Some elements of the 188th Infantry Task Force were left to clear the Batangas
Batangas
mountains located southeast of province from the remaining Japanese.

Throughout the battle, recognized Filipino guerrilla fighters played an important key role in the advancement of the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops, providing key roads and information for the Japanese location of defenses and movements. The 11th Airborne Division and attached Filipino guerillas had 390 casualties of which 90 were killed. The Japanese however lost 1,490 men. By the end of April 1945, Batangas
Batangas
was liberated and fully secured for Allied control, thus ending all hostilities.

The movements of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army happened from January 3, 1942 to June 30, 1946 and included the province of Batangas
Batangas
in southern Luzon. During the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Manila, southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan from 1942 to 1945, (including the provinces of Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro, and Palawan), units of the Philippine Constabulary, with the local guerrilla resistance joined with the U.S. liberation military forces against the Japanese Imperial armed forces.

Under the Southern Luzon
Luzon
Campaign, local Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, and 46th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 4th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary joined the battle for the liberation of Batangas.

POST-AMERICAN PERIOD

After Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
made his famous landing in the Island of Leyte
Leyte
, he came next to the town of Nasugbu to mark the liberation of Luzon
Luzon
. This historic landing is remembered by the people of Batangas every last day of January, a holiday for the Nasugbugueños.

After the Philippines
Philippines
was freed from America, statesmen from Batangas featured prominently in the government. These include the legislators Felipe Agoncillo , Galicano Apacible
Galicano Apacible
(who later became the Secretary of Agriculture), Ramon Diokno , Apolinario R. Apacible , Expedito Leviste , Gregorio Katigbak , Teodoro Kalaw , Claro M. Recto , and José Laurel, Jr.

It is also notable that when President Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
left the Philippines
Philippines
during the Japanese Occupation, the Japanese government in the Philippines
Philippines
chose the Batangueño José Laurel, Sr. as the de jure President of the Puppet Republic.

GEOGRAPHY

Batangas
Batangas
is a combination of plains and mountains, including one of the world's smallest volcanoes, Mt. Taal , with an elevation of 600 metres (2,000 ft), located in the middle of the Taal Lake . Other important peaks are Mt. Makulot with an elevation of 830 metres (2,720 ft), Mt. Talamitam with 700 metres (2,300 ft), Mt. Pico de Loro with 664 metres (2,178 ft), Mt. Batulao with 811 metres (2,661 ft), Mt. Manabo with 830 metres (2,720 ft), and Mt. Daguldol with 672 metres (2,205 ft).

Batangas
Batangas
has several islands, including Tingloy, Verde Island (Isla Verde), and Fortune Island of Nasugbu .

According to Guinness World Records , the largest island in a lake on an island is situated in Batangas
Batangas
(particularly at Vulcan Point in Crater Lake, which rests in the middle of Taal Island in Lake Taal , on the island of Luzon
Luzon
).

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Batangas
Batangas
comprises 31 municipalities and 3 cities .

* † Provincial capital and component city * ∗ Component city * Municipality

CITY OR MUNICIPALITY DISTRICT POPULATION ±% P.A. AREA DENSITY BRGY. COORDINATES

(2015) (2010)

KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI

AGONCILLO III 7000140000000099999♠1.4% 38,059 35,794 1.18% 49.96 19.29 760 2,000 21 13°56′05″N 120°55′43″E / 13.9348°N 120.9285°E / 13.9348; 120.9285 (Agoncillo)

ALITAGTAG III 6999900000000000000♠0.9% 25,300 23,649 1.29% 24.76 9.56 1,000 2,600 19 13°51′55″N 121°00′17″E / 13.8653°N 121.0046°E / 13.8653; 121.0046 (Alitagtag)

BALAYAN I 7000340000000000000♠3.4% 90,699 81,805 1.98% 108.73 41.98 830 2,100 48 13°57′01″N 120°44′00″E / 13.9503°N 120.7334°E / 13.9503; 120.7334 (Balayan)

BALETE III 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 22,661 20,214 2.20% 25.00 9.65 910 2,400 13 14°01′00″N 121°05′59″E / 14.0168°N 121.0998°E / 14.0168; 121.0998 (Balete)

BATANGAS CITY † V 7001122000000000000♠12.2% 329,874 305,607 1.47% 282.96 109.25 1,200 3,100 105 13°45′22″N 121°03′28″E / 13.7561°N 121.0577°E / 13.7561; 121.0577 ( Batangas
Batangas
City)

BAUAN II 7000340000000000000♠3.4% 91,297 81,351 2.22% 53.31 20.58 1,700 4,400 40 13°47′33″N 121°00′27″E / 13.7925°N 121.0076°E / 13.7925; 121.0076 (Bauan)

CALACA I 7000300000000000000♠3.0% 81,859 70,521 2.88% 114.58 44.24 710 1,800 40 13°55′49″N 120°48′46″E / 13.9304°N 120.8128°E / 13.9304; 120.8128 (Calaca)

CALATAGAN I 7000210000000000000♠2.1% 56,449 51,997 1.58% 112.00 43.24 500 1,300 25 13°49′58″N 120°37′56″E / 13.8329°N 120.6322°E / 13.8329; 120.6322 (Calatagan)

CUENCA III 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 32,783 31,236 0.92% 58.18 22.46 560 1,500 21 13°54′05″N 121°02′57″E / 13.9015°N 121.0492°E / 13.9015; 121.0492 (Cuenca)

IBAAN IV 7000200000000000000♠2.0% 52,970 48,482 1.70% 68.99 26.64 770 2,000 26 13°49′11″N 121°08′09″E / 13.8196°N 121.1358°E / 13.8196; 121.1358 (Ibaan)

LAUREL III 7000150000000000000♠1.5% 39,444 35,674 1.93% 71.29 27.53 550 1,400 21 14°03′01″N 120°56′00″E / 14.0504°N 120.9332°E / 14.0504; 120.9332 (Laurel)

LEMERY I 7000350000000000000♠3.5% 93,157 81,825 2.50% 109.80 42.39 850 2,200 46 13°53′01″N 120°54′48″E / 13.8837°N 120.9132°E / 13.8837; 120.9132 (Lemery)

LIAN I 7000200000000000000♠2.0% 52,660 45,943 2.63% 76.80 29.65 690 1,800 19 14°02′09″N 120°39′12″E / 14.0357°N 120.6534°E / 14.0357; 120.6534 (Lian)

LIPA ∗ VI 7001123000000000000♠12.3% 332,386 283,468 3.08% 209.40 80.85 1,600 4,100 72 13°56′29″N 121°09′51″E / 13.9414°N 121.1642°E / 13.9414; 121.1642 (Lipa)

LOBO II 7000150000000000000♠1.5% 41,504 37,070 2.17% 175.03 67.58 240 620 26 13°38′50″N 121°12′36″E / 13.6473°N 121.2100°E / 13.6473; 121.2100 (Lobo)

MABINI II 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 46,211 44,391 0.77% 44.47 17.17 1,000 2,600 34 13°44′51″N 120°56′28″E / 13.7476°N 120.9412°E / 13.7476; 120.9412 (Mabini)

MALVAR III 7000210000000000000♠2.1% 56,270 45,952 3.93% 33.00 12.74 1,700 4,400 15 14°03′15″N 121°09′17″E / 14.0542°N 121.1548°E / 14.0542; 121.1548 (Malvar)

MATAASNAKAHOY III 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 29,187 27,177 1.37% 22.10 8.53 1,300 3,400 16 13°57′45″N 121°06′49″E / 13.9625°N 121.1137°E / 13.9625; 121.1137 (Mataas na Kahoy)

NASUGBU I 7000500000000000000♠5.0% 134,113 122,483 1.74% 278.51 107.53 480 1,200 42 14°04′24″N 120°37′56″E / 14.0734°N 120.6322°E / 14.0734; 120.6322 (Nasugbu)

PADRE GARCIA IV 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 48,302 44,877 1.41% 41.51 16.03 1,200 3,100 18 13°52′40″N 121°12′42″E / 13.8777°N 121.2116°E / 13.8777; 121.2116 (Padre Garcia)

ROSARIO IV 7000430000000000000♠4.3% 116,764 105,561 1.94% 226.88 87.60 510 1,300 48 13°50′39″N 121°12′13″E / 13.8442°N 121.2035°E / 13.8442; 121.2035 (Rosario)

SAN JOSE IV 7000290000000000000♠2.9% 76,971 68,517 2.24% 53.29 20.58 1,400 3,600 33 13°52′49″N 121°06′07″E / 13.8802°N 121.1019°E / 13.8802; 121.1019 (San Jose)

SAN JUAN IV 7000400000000000000♠4.0% 108,585 94,291 2.72% 273.40 105.56 400 1,000 42 13°49′29″N 121°23′46″E / 13.8246°N 121.3962°E / 13.8246; 121.3962 (San Juan)

SAN LUIS II 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 33,149 30,701 1.47% 42.56 16.43 780 2,000 26 13°51′31″N 120°54′59″E / 13.8585°N 120.9163°E / 13.8585; 120.9163 (San Luis)

SAN NICOLAS III 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 22,623 20,599 1.80% 14.37 5.55 1,600 4,100 18 13°55′49″N 120°57′08″E / 13.9302°N 120.9521°E / 13.9302; 120.9521 (San Nicolas)

SAN PASCUAL II 7000240000000000000♠2.4% 65,424 59,598 1.79% 50.70 19.58 1,300 3,400 29 13°47′04″N 121°01′49″E / 13.7844°N 121.0302°E / 13.7844; 121.0302 (San Pascual)

SANTA TERESITA III 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 21,127 17,415 3.75% 16.30 6.29 1,300 3,400 17 13°52′11″N 120°58′37″E / 13.8698°N 120.9769°E / 13.8698; 120.9769 (Santa Teresita)

SANTO TOMAS III 7000670000000000000♠6.7% 179,844 124,740 7.21% 95.41 36.84 1,900 4,900 30 14°06′24″N 121°09′42″E / 14.1068°N 121.1616°E / 14.1068; 121.1616 (Santo Tomas)

TAAL I 7000210000000000000♠2.1% 56,327 51,503 1.72% 29.76 11.49 1,900 4,900 42 13°52′49″N 120°55′26″E / 13.8803°N 120.9238°E / 13.8803; 120.9238 (Taal)

TALISAY III 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 45,301 39,600 2.59% 28.20 10.89 1,600 4,100 21 14°05′40″N 121°01′19″E / 14.0944°N 121.0219°E / 14.0944; 121.0219 (Talisay)

TANAUAN ∗ III 7000640000000000000♠6.4% 173,366 152,393 2.49% 107.16 41.37 1,600 4,100 48 14°05′07″N 121°09′10″E / 14.0853°N 121.1528°E / 14.0853; 121.1528 (Tanauan)

TAYSAN IV 7000140000000099999♠1.4% 38,007 35,357 1.39% 93.62 36.15 410 1,100 20 13°47′48″N 121°11′19″E / 13.7968°N 121.1885°E / 13.7968; 121.1885 (Taysan)

TINGLOY II 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 17,919 16,870 1.16% 33.07 12.77 540 1,400 15 13°39′33″N 120°52′24″E / 13.6592°N 120.8734°E / 13.6592; 120.8734 (Tingloy)

TUY I 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 43,743 40,734 1.37% 94.65 36.54 460 1,200 22 14°01′19″N 120°43′48″E / 14.0219°N 120.7299°E / 14.0219; 120.7299 (Tuy)

TOTAL 2,694,335 2,377,395 2.41% 3,119.75 1,204.54 860 2,200 1,078 (SEE GEOGROUP BOX )

* ^ Coordinates
Coordinates
mark the city/town center , and are sortable by latitude .

DEMOGRAPHICS

Population census of Batangas
Batangas

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1990 1,476,783 —

1995 1,658,567 +2.20%

2000 1,905,348 +3.02%

2007 2,245,869 +2.29%

2010 2,377,395 +2.09%

2015 2,694,335 +2.41%

Source: National Statistics Office

The population of Batangas
Batangas
in the 2015 q39825 was 2,694,335 people, with a density of 860 inhabitants per square kilometre or 2,200 inhabitants per square mile.

In the recent years, waves of migration from the Visayas
Visayas
had brought significant number of Visayans to the province. There are also a few who can speak Spanish , since Batangas
Batangas
was an important centre during the colonial period.

Batangas
Batangas
also has one of the highest literacy rates in the country at 96.5%, wherein the males have a slightly higher literacy rate at 97.1% than females with 95.9%. Combined average of literacy is 96%.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Tagalog Batangas

The dialect of Tagalog spoken in the province closely resembles the Old Tagalog spoken before the arrival of the Spanish. Hence, the Summer Institute of Linguistics called this province the heartland of the Tagalog language . A strong presence of the Tagalog culture is clearly visible to the present day.

Linguistically, Batangueños are also known for their unique affectation of often placing the particles eh or ga (equivalent to the particle ba in Filipino ), usually as a marker of stress on the sentence, at the end of their spoken sentences or speech; for example: "Ay, oo, nga eh!" ("Aye, yes, indeed!"). Some even prolong the particle 'eh' into 'ala eh', though it really has no meaning in itself.

English is widely understood in the province. Spanish is also understood to some extent, especially in the towns of Nasugbu , Taal, and Lemery, which still have significant Spanish-speaking minorities. Visayan is also spoken by a significant minority due to the influx of migrants from Central Philippines
Philippines
.

RELIGION

Batangas
Batangas
has Abrahamic religions like Roman Catholicism which is followed by very large majority of the population at 97%. Islam
Islam
, is also present which can be found mostly in Balayan, Lipa and Batangas City. Jews
Jews
are 0.02% of the population. The rest are divided between other Christian denominations. The vast majority of other Christian denominations in the Philippines
Philippines
are Members Church of God International or colloquially known as Ang Dating Daan headed by Bro. Eliseo Soriano and Daniel Razon

ECONOMY

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PRODUCTS

Batangas
Batangas
is known for its fan knife, locally known as balisong , with its manufacture also becoming an industry in the province.

Pineapples are also common in Batangas. Aside from the fruit, the leaves are also useful such that an industry has been created from it. In the municipality of Taal, pineapple leaves are processed to form a kind of cloth known as jusi (pronounced 'hu-si), from which the Barong Tagalog , the national costume of the Philippines
Philippines
is made.

Livestock as an industry is also thriving in Batangas. Cattle from Batangas
Batangas
are widely sought throughout the country. The term Bakang Batangas
Batangas
( Batangas
Batangas
Cow) is associated with the country's best species of cattle. The cattle industry in Batangas
Batangas
is famous, that every Saturday is an auction day in the municipalities of San Juan, Bauan and Padre Garcia.

Fishing plays a very important part of the economy of the province. Although the tuna industry in the country is centered in General Santos , Batangas
Batangas
is also known for the smaller species of the said fish. The locals even have their own names for it. Some of them are Tambakol , yellow-finned Berberabe, tambakulis, Tulingan , Bonito and another species also called Bonito but actually the Gymnosarda unicolor . There is also an important industry for the Tanigue .

Aside from the South China
China
Sea, Taal Lake also provides a source of freshwater fishes to the country. The lake is home to Sardinella tawilis or simply tawilis , a species of freshwater sardine that is endemic to the lake. Taal Lake also provides farmed Chanos chanos or bangus. There is also a good volume of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Oreochromis aureus , both locally called tilapia. It is ecologically important to note that neither bangus nor tilapia are native to the lake. Thus they are considered an invasive species to the lake.

Sugar is also a major industry. After Hacienda Luisita , the country's former largest sugar producer, was broken-up for land reform, the municipality of Nasugbu has been the home of the current largest sugar producing company, the Central Azucarera Don Pedro . Rice cakes and sweets are also a strong industry.

Some towns (those adjacent to Laguna ) have a prosperous bamboo based industry, where several houses and furniture are made of bamboo. Natives say that food cooked in bamboo has an added scent and flavor. Labong or baby bamboo is cooked with coconut milk or with other ingredients to make a Batangas
Batangas
delicacy.

The city of Batangas
Batangas
hosts the second most important international seaport in the island of Luzon, serving as a primary entry point for goods from the southern part of the country, and international ports.

DEVELOPMENTS

Batangas
Batangas
Port And STAR

Batangas City
Batangas City
is the principal port for ferry access to Mindoro, Tablas, Romblon, and other islands. Montenegro Lines is the largest of a number of passenger shipping companies operating out of Batangas. Condensate tankers offload at Batangas
Batangas
in sizeable quantity.

On January 19, 2008, Phase 2 of the Batangas City
Batangas City
International Container Port was opened by the Philippines
Philippines
President, and is operated by the Philippine Ports Authority ).

On the same day, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo also inspected a major road project in Southern Tagalog. She then inspected the P1.5-billion, 19.74 kilometer Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR Tollway), Stage II-Phase 1 connecting Lipa and Batangas
Batangas
and the South Luzon
Luzon
Expressway (SLEX) road widening, expansion and the STAR Tollway development projects in Batangas.

ELECTRIC POWER

Distribution

Poles of the Batangas
Batangas
II Electric Cooperative in Lipa. Batangas II Electric Cooperative is one of three power distribution utilities operating in Batangas, along with Batangas
Batangas
I Electric Cooperative and Meralco
Meralco
.

Electric power in Batangas
Batangas
is mostly distributed by electric cooperatives , namely the Batangas
Batangas
I Electric Cooperative (BATELEC-I) and Batangas
Batangas
II Electric Cooperative (BATELEC-II). The former serves the western part of Batangas, like Nasugbu , Calatagan , Balayan , Lemery , and Taal , while the latter serves the eastern part, like Lipa , Tanauan, Talisay, San Jose, and Rosario. Santo Tomas , the First Philippine Industrial Park (FPIP) in Tanauan , San Pascual and Batangas City
Batangas City
, however, are served by the Metro Manila-based electric company, Meralco
Meralco
. Some large industrial customers are supplied by the 69,000 volt subtransmission grid, operated by National Grid Corporation of the Philippines
Philippines
, Batangas
Batangas
II Electric Cooperative, and Meralco.

Generation

The province houses three major power plants that generate electricity for the Luzon
Luzon
grid, like the 600 MW Calaca Coal Fired Power Plant in Calaca, the 500 MW, 1000 MW, and 414 MW San Lorenzo-Santa Rita-San Gabriel Combined Cycle Power Plant, and the 1251 MW Ilijan Power Plant, both in Batangas
Batangas
City. The Calaca Power Plant has an initial nameplate capacity of 600 MW, is being expanded to generate 1300 MW, with an addition of 2x350 MW (700 MW) capacity in a second power plant, constructed under an agreement between Semirara Mining and Meralco.

Most power plants in Batangas, however, uses fossil fuels, like coal and natural gas, and are subjected to controversy because of environmental effects regarding combustion. One power plant to be built at Mabacong, Batangas City
Batangas City
faced opposition from environmentalists and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa, owing to its effect on residents and the aquatic ecosystem on Verde Island Passage .

TRANSPORTATION

ROADS

STAR Tollway in Tanauan. Since 2010, STAR Tollway has been interconnected with the South Luzon
Luzon
Expressway to Metro Manila

Batangas
Batangas
has a total of 556 kilometres (345 mi) of national roads, mostly paved. The Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR Tollway, or E2), Maharlika Highway (N1 and AH26 ) and Jose P. Laurel Highway (N4) forms the highway backbone of the province, and a network of secondary and tertiary national roads links most of the municipalities. The provincial government maintains a network of provincial roads to supplement the national roads and connect municipalities and barangays not connected directly to the main highway network.

The Cavite-Tagaytay- Batangas
Batangas
(CTBEx) is a proposed expressway from the municipality of Silang, Cavite
Cavite
up to the town of Nasugbu . CTBEx connects with the proposed Cavite-Laguna Expressway (CALAx) which will be connecting with CAVITEx in Kawit, Cavite
Cavite
and SLEx Mamplasan Interchange in Biñan, Laguna serves as a future alternate route for tourists coming from Metro Manila going to the beaches and resorts at the towns of Nasugbu , Lian and Calatagan in the western part of the province.

WATER TRANSPORT

Batangas
Batangas
Port, the starting point of the western leg of the Strong Republic Nautical Highway
Strong Republic Nautical Highway
and also a principal port

Being an entry point to the rest of the archipelago, Batangas
Batangas
has roll-on/roll-off (RoRo) ferry connections with Mindoro and Visayas. The western portion of the Strong Republic Nautical Highway
Strong Republic Nautical Highway
starts at the Batangas
Batangas
Port , and connects with Calapan
Calapan
, Oriental Mindoro . The Batangas International Port serves as another principal port, along with the Manila
Manila
International Port for inter-island and international cargo shipping, as well as inter-island passenger shipping.

GOVERNMENT

The Provincial Capitol of Batangas
Batangas

Together with the provinces in the island of Panay , Ilocos Sur and Pampanga
Pampanga
, Batangas
Batangas
was one of the earliest provinces established by the Spaniards who settled in the country. It was headed by Martin de Goiti and since then it became one of the most important regions of the Philippines. Batangas
Batangas
first came to be known as Bonbon. It was named after the mystical Taal Lake , which was also originally called Bonbon. Some of the earliest settlements in Batangas
Batangas
were established in the vicinity of Taal Lake . In 1534, Batangas
Batangas
became the first practically organized province in Luzon
Luzon
. Balayan was the capital of the province for 135 years from 1597-1732. In 1732, it was moved to Taal , then the flourishing and most progressive town in the province, it wasn't until 1754 that the capital was destroyed by the Great Taal Eruption of 1754. It was in 1889 that the capital was moved to the present, Batangas City
Batangas City
.

Batangas
Batangas
is also known in the Philippine history as the "Cradle of Noble Heroes", giving homage not only to the heroes it produced but the statesmen that came to lead the country. Among the Batangas politicians are Teodoro M. Kalaw, Apolinario Mabini , Jose Laurel , Felipe Agoncillo and Don Apolinario Apacible

CURRENT OFFICIALS

* GOVERNOR: Hermilando I. Mandanas * VICE GOVERNOR: Sofronio Leonardo C. Ona, Jr. * BOARD MEMBERS :

REPRESENTATION NAME NAME

FIRST DISTRICT Carlo Roman G. Rosales Ramon C. Bausas

SECOND DISTRICT Wilson Leonardo T. Rivera Arlina B. Magboo

THIRD DISTRICT Alfredo C. Corona Divina G. Balba

FOURTH DISTRICT Jonas Patrick M. Gozos Jesus H. De Veyra

FIFTH DISTRICT (BATANGAS CITY) Ma. Claudette U. Ambida Arthur G. Blanco

SIXTH DISTRICT (LIPA CITY) Rowena S. Africa Lydio A. Lopez, Jr.

PHILIPPINE COUNCILORS LEAGUE PRESIDENT Mildred B. Sanchez

LIGA NG MGA BARANGAY PRESIDENT Wilfredo M. Maliksi

* ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES

* 1ST DISTRICT: Elenita Milagros R. Ermita-Buhain * 2ND DISTRICT: Raneo E. Abu * 3RD DISTRICT: Ma. Theresa V. Collantes * 4TH DISTRICT: Lianda B. Bolilia * 5TH DISTRICT (LONE DISTRICT OF BATANGAS CITY): Mario Vittorio A. Mariño * 6TH DISTRICT (LONE DISTRICT OF LIPA CITY): Ma. Rosa Vilma T. Santos-Recto

LIST OF FORMER GOVERNORS

Main article: Governor
Governor
of Batangas
Batangas

CULTURE

WAY OF LIFE

Maria Kalaw Katigbak , a Filipino historian , was quoted to call the Batangueños the Hybrid-Tagalogs . One particular custom in the Batangas
Batangas
culture is the so-called Matanda sa Dugo (lit. older by blood) practice wherein one expresses respect not because of age but because of consanguinity . During the early times, the custom of having very large families were very common. Thus, a particular person's uncle could be of the same age, or even younger than himself. Because of the custom, the older person would still address the younger one with an honorary title such as tiyo/tio or simply kuya if they can no longer establish the actual relationship or add the honorific ho / po in their sentences when addressing the younger instead of the other way around. This often draws confusion from the other provinces who are not accustomed to such practices. This practice exists until today.

Batangueños are very "regionalistic". When one learns that another in the room is also from Batangas, the two would be together until the end of the event. In workplace settings, a Batangueno may also express preference for another Batangueno as long as the workplace regulations allow. Thus, the running joke on the Batangas
Batangas
Mafia
Mafia
.

They also tend to live in a large extended family. It has been observed that a piece of land remains undivided until the family connection becomes too difficult to establish actual blood relations. Marriages between relatives of the fifth generation is still restrained in the Batangan culture even if Philippine laws allow it.

Batangueños have been known for their religious practices, where devotees of the Catholic religion perform rituals such as dances (subli) and chants (luwa/lua) to express their faith. One of these is the ritual called Pasión/ Pasyon based on the passion of Jesus Christ in which religious chants are recited during the Lenten season. In May, the people of Bauan
Bauan
and Alitagtag celebrate the feast day of the Mahal na Poon ng Sta. Cruz (lit. Lord of the Holy Cross), a ritual dance called the Subli is made to honor the Poon. In the town of Taal, they celebrate the feast day of Our Lady of Caysasay
Our Lady of Caysasay
and San Martin de Tours a two-day celebration where a procession begins from the shrine of the Virgin going towards the Pansipit River from which the fluvial procession and another procession towards the Basilica are made in honor of the Virgin Mary. Fiestas in other towns usually start in the month of May and last up to the first day of June, usually the plaza near the church becomes the center of activities.

MYTHOLOGY AND LITERATURE

Scholars also identified that the ancient Batangueños, like the rest of the Tagalog tribe, worship the Supreme Creator, known as Bathala . Lesser gods like Mayari , the goddess of the moon and her brother Apolake, god of the sun, were also present.

For literature, Padre Vicente Garcia came to be known when he wrote an essay to defend José Rizal
Rizal
's Noli Me Tangere .

In 2004, the province of Batangas
Batangas
gave Domingo Landicho (familiarly called Inggo by Batangueños) who was born in the province the Dangal ng Batangas
Batangas
(Pride of Batangas) Award for being the "Peoples' Poet".

MUSIC

For more details on this topic, see Filipino Traditional Music .

Musicologists identified Batangas
Batangas
as the origin of the kumintang, an ancient war song, which later evolved to become the signature of Filipino love songs the kundiman. From the ancient kumintang, another vocal music emerged, identified as the awit. The huluna, a psalm-like lullaby, is also famous in some towns, especially Bauan.

During the Lenten Season , the Christian passion-narrative, called Pasyon by the natives, is expected in every corners of the province. In fact according to scholars, the very first printed version of the pasyon was authored by a layman from Rosario named Gaspar Aquino de Belen . Although de Belen's version was printed in 1702, it is still debated whether there were earlier versions.

Debates may also be done while singing. Batangueños are known for the duplo (a sung debate where each lines of the verse must be octosyllabic) and the karagatan (a sung debate where each lines of the verse must be dodecasyllabic.) The latter, whose literal meaning is "ocean", got its name from the opening lines. Always, the karagatan is opened by saying some verses that alludes the depth of the sea and comparing it to the difficulty of joining the debate. And as mentioned above, the debate must be sung.

Batangas
Batangas
is also the origin of the Balitao. Aside from being a form of vocal music, the Balitao is also a form of dance music. The Balitao, together with the Subli is the most famous form of dance native to Batangas.

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

Basilica de San Martin in Taal

As shown in its ancient churches, Batangas
Batangas
is home to some of the best preserved colonial architectures in the country, especially evident in the municipality of Taal.

Though not as popular as the carving industry of Laguna, Batangas
Batangas
is still known for the sculptures engraved in furniture. Often, altar tables coming from Batangas
Batangas
were called the "friars' choice" because of their delicate beauty.

According to Milagros Covarubias-Jamir, another Filipino scholar, the furniture that came from Batangas
Batangas
during the colonial times was comparable to the beautiful furniture from China. The build of the furniture was so exquisite, nails of glues were never used. Still, the Batangueños knew how to maximize the use of hardwoods. As a result, furniture made about a hundred years ago are still found in many old churches and houses even today.

MUSEUMS

* MUSEO NG KATIPUNAN: Barangay
Barangay
Bulaklakan, Lipa * APOLINARIO MABINI SHRINE: Marcela Agoncillo Historical Landmark, Barangay
Barangay
Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas * MIGUEL MALVAR HOSPITAL: Leon Apacible Historical Landmark, Sto. Tomas, Batangas * MUSEO NG BATANGAS AT AKLATANG PANLALAWIGAN: includes the Dr. Jose P. Laurel Library, Tanauan, Batangas

FLORA AND FAUNA

The malabayabas, or Philippine Teak , is endemic to Batangas. The province is also home to the kabag ( Haplonycteris fischeri ), one of the world's smallest fruit bats . In the municipality of Nasugbu , wild deer still inhabit the remote areas of barangay Looc, Papaya, Bulihan, and Dayap.

In the second half of 2006, scientists from the United States discovered that the Sulu
Sulu
- Sulawesi
Sulawesi
Triangle has its centre at the Isla Verde Passage , a part of the province. According to the study made by the American Marine Biologist Dr. Kent Carpentier, Batangas' seas host more than half of the world's species of coral. It is also home to dolphins and once in a while, the passage of the world's biggest fish: the whale shark or the butanding, as the locals call it may be observed. The municipality of San Juan has a resident marine turtle or pawikan. Pawikans like the Olive Ridley sea turtle, leather back sea turtle, and green sea turtle can be seen in Nasugbu up to the present. Back to contents

NOTABLE PEOPLE FROM BATANGAS

* Apolinario Mabini — Filipino revolutionary * Miguel Malvar — Filipino general who served during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
* Felipe Agoncillo — the Filipino lawyer representative to the negotiations in Paris that led to the Treaty of Paris (1898)
Treaty of Paris (1898)
* Marcela Agoncillo — the principal seamstress of the first and official flag of the Philippines * Ananias Diokno — Filipino general in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War * José P. Laurel — president of the Second Philippine Republic
Second Philippine Republic
, a Japanese puppet state during World War II * Loren Legarda — Filipino environmentalist, journalist and politician * Salvador Laurel — Vice-President of the Philippines
Philippines
from 1986 to 1992 under Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
* Teodoro Agoncillo — Filipino historian * Maria Orosa — Filipino food technologist, pharmaceutical chemist * Fernando Suarez — Filipino Catholic priest who performs faith healing * Rene Santa Cruz - Filipino radio announcer, currently anchoring his Big Time Balita radio program over DZBB 594 kHz * Ogie Alcasid — Filipino singer-songwriter, television presenter, comedian, parodist , and actor * Zanjoe Marudo — Filipino actor and model * Jason Gainza — Filipino, actor, impersonator

* Dennis Datu - Filipino field reporter of ABS-CBN * Alyssa Valdez - is a Filipino volleyball player. She was a member of the collegiate varsity volleyball team of Ateneo de Manila University in both indoor and beach volleyball. * Kim Fajardo - is a Filipino volleyball athlete. She is a former team captain of the De La Salle University women's volleyball team.

REFERENCES

* ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013. * ^ A B C D Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA . Retrieved 20 June 2016. * ^ tribhanga * ^ Batangas
Batangas
Airport in Brgy. Alaingilan destroyed after Japanese air raids * ^ Lt. César Basa\'s actions at the Japanese Air Raids in the Batangas
Batangas
Airfield * ^ Christine Sherman, M.J. Thurman, War Crimes, Japan's World War II, p.136 * ^ "Landing Craft Infantry LCI". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ Flanagan, Jr., Lt. Gen. E. M. (1989). The Angels: A History of the 11th Airborne Division. San Francisco: Presidio Press. p. 480. ISBN 0891413588 . * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ "HyperWar: US Army in WWII: Triumph in the Philippines
Philippines
". * ^ A B "Province: Batangas". PSGC Interactive. Quezon
Quezon
City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority . Retrieved 8 January 2016. * ^ A B Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO . Retrieved 29 June 2016. * ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO . Retrieved 29 June 2016. * ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, President Arroyo inaugurates Batangas
Batangas
port project * ^ "Our Power Plants". First Gen. Retrieved April 10, 2017. * ^ Rivera, Danessa (April 29, 2016). "Semirara Mining, Meralco seal partnership for Calaca plant expansion". The Philippine Star . Philstar. Retrieved April 10, 2017. * ^ " Batangas
Batangas
priests lead fight vs. coal-fired power plant". Inquirer.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer
Philippine Daily Inquirer
. Retrieved January 6, 2017. * ^ Figures tabulated from 2015 road data for Region IV-A by Department of Public Works and Highways

EXTERNAL LINKS

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* Media related to Batangas
Batangas
at Wikimedia Commons * Batangas
Batangas
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Geographic data related to Batangas
Batangas
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap
* Official Website of the Provincial Government of Batangas

‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Cavite
Cavite
/ Laguna

South China Sea
South China Sea

Quezon
Quezon

BATANGAS

Isla Verde Passage Occidental Mindoro Isla Verde Passage Oriental Mindoro Tayabas Bay Marinduque

* v * t * e

Province of Batangas
Batangas

BATANGAS (capital)