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The Info List - Base J


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β-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYLOXYMETHYLURACIL or BASE J is a hypermodified nucleobase found in the DNA
DNA
of kinetoplastids including the human pathogenic trypanosomes . It was discovered in 1993, in the trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
Trypanosoma brucei
and was the first hypermodified nucleobase found in eukaryotic DNA; it has since been found in other kinetoplastids, including Leishmania
Leishmania
. Within these organism Base J acts as a RNA polymerase II
RNA polymerase II
transcription terminator, with its removal in knockout cells being accompanied by a massive read-through at RNA polymerase II termination sites, which ultimately proves lethal to the cell.

Base J
Base J
is formed by the initial hydroxylation of thymidine and the subsequent glycosylation by an as yet unidentified glycosyltransferase . The biosynthesis of base J. A: thymidine hydroxylase; B: beta-glucosyltranferase; 1: dT (desoxy thymidine); 2: HOCH3dU; 3: dJ

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Borst, Piet; Sabatini, Robert (October 2008). "Base J: Discovery, Biosynthesis, and Possible Functions". Annual Review of Microbiology. 62 (1): 235–251. doi :10.1146/annurev.micro.62.081307.162750 . PMID 18729733 . * ^ van Luenen, Henri G.A.M.; Farris, Carol; Jan, Sabrina; Genest, Paul-Andre; Tripathi, Pankaj; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Nieuwland, Marja; Haydock, Andrew; Ramasamy, Gowthaman; Vainio, Saara; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Perrakis, Anastassis; Pagie, Ludo; van Steensel, Bas; Myler, Peter J.; Borst, Piet (August 2012). "Glucosylated Hydroxymethyluracil, DNA
DNA
Base J, Prevents Transcriptional Readthrough in Leishmania" . Cell. 150 (5): 909–921. doi :10.1016/j.cell.2012.07.030 . PMC 3684241  . PMID 22939620 . * ^ Hazelbaker, Dane Z.; Buratowski, Stephen (November 2012). "Transcription: Base J
Base J
Blocks the Way" . Current Biology. 22 (22): R960–R962. doi :10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.010 . PMC 3648658  . PMID 23