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The barbarian kingdoms were Germanic, Hunnic and other kingdoms established all over Europe
Europe
and North Africa
North Africa
during Late Antiquity, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.[citation needed] The term "barbarian" has been commonly used by historians even though the term was not used by the peoples in question and carries considerable value judgement. Other terms used include "Germanic kingdoms", "Romano-Germanic kingdoms",[2] and "post-Roman kingdoms".

Contents

1 Time frames 2 Kingdoms 3 Significance 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Time frames[edit] Historically, the period of the Barbarian
Barbarian
kingdoms spans the years from 409 to 910. It begins in 409 with several Barbarian
Barbarian
kingdoms being established on the Iberian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Suebi, the Alani Kingdom, and territories of Hasdingi and the Vandals.[citation needed] It ends with the partition of the Kingdom of Asturias in 910, a kingdom founded by a Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias on the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
that by the time of its dissolution had a majority speaking Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
and only a scarce population speaking Visigothic and Vandalic varieties of the East Germanic languages.[citation needed] Kingdoms[edit] The most important and most successful of these kingdoms was that of the Franks. Established in the 4th to 5th century, the Frankish kingdom grew to include much of Western Europe, developing into the early medieval Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and ultimately the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the high medieval period and beyond. The Frankish Realm
Frankish Realm
continued until 843, when it was partitioned. Realms resulting from this event included West Francia
Francia
(predecessor of modern France), Middle Francia
Francia
and East Francia
Francia
(predecessor of modern Germany).citation needed Other major kingdoms included those of the Visigoths and Ostrogoths; both were established in the 5th century. The Ostrogothic kingdom was re-conquered by the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
in the 550s, while the Visigothic kingdom survived into the 8th century, but finally fell to the Muslim invasion of Spain. The Kingdom of the Lombards
Kingdom of the Lombards
in Italy was established in the 6th century and conquered by the Franks in 774. The Alemannic Kingdom was established in the 3rd century; it became a duchy subject to the Franks in 496, although this overlordship was at times nominal and Alemannia
Alemannia
remained semi-independent until the 8th century. The Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
existed in Africa and Sicily from 435 until 534. The kingdoms of the Burgundians and of the Suebi were established in the early 5th century, and fell to the Franks and the Visigoths, respectively, in the 6th century. Significance[edit] The Barbarian
Barbarian
kingdoms marked the transition from Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
to the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
in the 6th and 7th centuries, gradually replacing the Roman system of government on the lands of the Western Roman Empire, notably in the two western prefectures of Gaul and Italy.[3] These kingdoms were foederati of the Roman Empire, and even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in AD 476 they continued to at least nominally consider themselves subject to the Eastern Emperor. These historical ties with the empire were weakened in the later 6th century, with the loss of much of the western possessions of the empire under Justin II
Justin II
and the waning power projection by the empire, weakened by its wars with the Persians and the Arab invasion. As a result the "barbarian kingdoms" by the 7th to 8th centuries developed the system of feudalism characteristic of the European Middle Ages. The title of "emperor" was revived in the west by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in AD 800. At the same time, the Carolingian Renaissance developed the notion of Europe
Europe
as a geopolitical entity with a history separate from that of the wider Mediterranean region. See also[edit]

Early Middle Ages Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty History of Europe Migration Period Dark Ages (historiography) Core Europe Germanic Europe Latin Church Germanic Christianity Germanic Heroic Age Romano-Germanic culture Timeline of Germanic kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula

References[edit]

^ Michael Frassetto, The Early Medieval World: From the Fall of Rome to the Time of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
vol. 1 "Coins and Coinage", p. 203. ^ Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean 400-800, Oxford (2005). ^ Kidner et al. (eds.), Making Europe: People, Politics, and Culture vol. 1 (2009), 198–203. J. Herrmann, E.- Zürcher (eds.), History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D., UNESCO (1996), p. 255.

Further reading[edit]

Walter Pohl (ed.), Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity, BRILL (1997). Michael Frassetto, Encyclopedia of Barbarian
Barbarian
Europe: Society in Transformation, ABC-CLIO (2003). Thomas F. X. Noble (ed.), From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms, Routledge (2006) Danuta Shanzer (ed.), Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity, Routledge, (2016). Guy Halsall, Warfare and Society in the Barbarian
Barbarian
West 450-900, Routledge (2008). Robert A. Markus "From Rome to the Barbarian
Barbarian
Kingdoms (330–700)" in: John McManners (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, OUP (2001), Oxford, 62–91. David Rollason, Early Medieval Europe
Europe
300-1050: The Birth of Western Society, Routledge (2014). Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean 400-800, Oxford (2005).

External links[edit]

Mike Markowitz, Ancient Coins: Coinage of the Barbarian
Barbarian
Invaders, CoinWeek (8 September 2014)

v t e

Barbarian
Barbarian
kingdoms established around the Migration Period

Germanic kingdoms

Alamannian Kingdom Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Bavarian Duchy Burgundian Kingdom Frankish Kingdom Frisian Kingdom Gepid Kingdom Odoacer's Kingdom Lombard Kingdom Petty kingdoms of Norway Suevian Kingdom Ostrogothic Kingdom Rugian Kingdom Saxonian Duchy Thuringii
Thuringii
Kingdom Vandal Kingdom Visigothic Kingdom

Hunnic kingdoms

Hunnic Empire

Turkic kingdoms

Great Bulgaria Bulgar Khanate Khazar Khaganate

Iranian kingdoms

Alani Kingdom Avar Khaganate

Celtic kingdoms

Bro Gwened Cantabri Cornouaille Domnonée Hen Ogledd Gaelic Ireland Petty kingdoms of Wales

Slavic kingdoms

Carantian Principa

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