The Info List - Bangladeshi

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(Bengali: বাংলাদেশী[24] [ˈbaŋlad̪eʃi]) are the citizens of Bangladesh. The country is named after the historical region of Bengal, of which it constitutes the largest and easternmost part. Bangladeshi citizenship was formed in 1971, when the permanent residents of the former East Pakistan
East Pakistan
were transformed into citizens of a new republic.[25] Bangladesh
is the world's eighth most populous nation. Vast majority of Bangladeshis
are ethnolingustically Indo-Aryan people
Indo-Aryan people
who speak Bengali–Assamese languages native to the region and follow the Islamic religion, by far the largest of them being Bengalis. The population of Bangladesh
is concentrated in the fertile Bengal
delta, which has been the center of urban and agrarian civilizations for millennia. The country's highlands, including the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
and the Sylhet Division, are home to various tribal minorities. Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
are the predominant ethnoreligious group of Bangladesh with a population of 146 million, which makes up majority of the country's population. Chittagonian people, Rangpuri people and Sylhetis form the majority in Chittagong, Rangpur and Sylhet
regions respectively. The minority Bengali Hindu
Bengali Hindu
population in Bangladesh
is 15,726,800 which makes up 9.6% of the total country population. Non Bengali-Assamese Muslims make up the largest immigrant community; while the Tibeto-Burman
Chakmas, who speak the Indo-Aryan Chakma language, are the largest indigenous ethnic group after Indo-Aryan Bengali-Assamese peoples.[26] The Austroasiatic
are the largest aboriginal community. The Bangladeshi diaspora
Bangladeshi diaspora
is concentrated in the Middle East, North America and the United Kingdom. Several hundred thousand Non-Resident Bangladeshis
(NRBs) have dual citizenship in Commonwealth countries like the UK and Canada.


1 Terminology 2 Demographics

2.1 Bengalis 2.2 Other Bengali-Assamese Peoples 2.3 Non-Bengali Muslims 2.4 Tribes of the Chittagong
Hill Tracts 2.5 Tribes of North and Northeast Bangladesh 2.6 Tribes of Southern Bangladesh

3 Rural society 4 Urban society 5 Identity 6 Culture

6.1 Languages 6.2 Surnames

7 See also 8 References


in Asia

receive or have received several names:

Bangladeshis, the most widely used term to refer to the citizens of Bangladesh. The etymology of Bangladesh
(Country of Bengal) can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh
Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam
and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term.[27][28] Bangalees, an exonym for Bengalis. Between 1972 and 1978, the Constitution of Bangladesh
referred all citizens of Bangladesh
as Bangalees. This was an inaccuracy, as 2% of the population are indigenous and immigrant non-Bengalis. Under President Ziaur Rahman, the constitutional term was changed to Bangladeshi as part of efforts to promote Bangladeshi nationalism.[29] East Bengalis, a term used in reference to Bangladesh
being a political unit based on the partition of Bengal. The territory was known as East Bengal
twice in the 20th century. The first was as Eastern Bengal
and Assam
in the British Raj
British Raj
between 1906 and 1912. The second was as the Dominion of Pakistan's province of East Bengal between 1947 and 1955. Bangals, a term used informally in neighboring India
to refer to Bangladeshis. Bangal
is also the Hindustani term for Bengal. In West Bengal, the term is widely used among upper class subgroups to differentiate families from Bangladesh. The opposite of Bangal
in this social setting is Ghoti, a term used to refer to people from West Bengal.

Demographics[edit] Bengalis[edit]

Bangladeshi artists performing in a dance show.

Approximately 98% of the Bangladeshi population are Bengalis. Most are native to East Bengal. The Bengali people have hybrid multiracial origins, including Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman
and Austroasiatic
ancestry.[30] East Bengal
was a prosperous melting pot for centuries. It witnessed a synthesis of Islamic, North Indian and indigenous Bengali cultures. Today, Bengalis
enjoy strong cultural homogeneity with a common standardized language and a variety of dialects. 90% of the population are Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
(146 million). This makes Bangladesh
the world's third largest Muslim
majority country after Indonesia
and Pakistan. Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
also make up the world's second largest Muslim
ethnic group after Arab Muslims. Most Bangladeshi Muslims are member of the Sunni
branch of Islam. There are significant minorities of the Shia
and Ahmadiya
branches. Bengali Hindus are the largest minority of Bangladesh, with a population between 10-12 million. Bangladesh
has the third largest Hindu population in the world after India
and Nepal. There are an estimated 400,000 Bengali Christians
Bengali Christians
and 500,000 Bengali Buddhists. The Bengali population is concentrated in Bengal
delta, the coastal areas of Chittagong
Division and the river valleys of Sylhet
Division. Other Bengali-Assamese Peoples[edit] Other than Bengali Muslims, Chittagonian people, Rangpuri people and Sylhetis form the majority populations in Chittagong, Rangpur and Sylhet
regions respectively. Non-Bengali Muslims[edit] An estimated 3 million Bangladeshi citizens are non-Bengali Muslim immigrants from different parts of South Asia. They include affluent sections of the country's merchant and business class, particularly Nizari Ismailism
Nizari Ismailism
adherents.[31] They also include former Stranded Pakistanis and their descendants. Bangladesh's non- Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
are usually fluent in both Bengali and Hindustani. Tribes of the Chittagong
Hill Tracts[edit] In southeastern Bangladesh, the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
frontier has a district history. It was an exclusive zone for Tibeto-Burman
tribes in Bengal
during the British Raj. Today, the area makes up 10% of Bangladesh's territory. It is home to several indigenous ethnic groups in the three hill districts of Rangamati, Bandarban
and Khagrachari. The three largest communities in the region have a Raja
as their tribal chief who is recognized by the Government of Bangladesh.

The Chakma people
Chakma people
are the largest tribe of the Chittagong
Hill Tracts and the second largest indigenous ethnic group of Bangladesh
after Bengalis. A Tibeto-Burman
community, they have been greatly influenced by Bengali culture, including in their native Chakma language, a branch of the Bengali-Assamese languages. Most Chakmas are concentrated in Rangamati
District. The community is headed by the Chakma Raja. The majority of Chakmas are Therevada Buddhists, with a minority being Hindu.[32] The Marma people
Marma people
are second largest community in the Chittagong
Hill Tracts. They have a Raja
and are concentrated in the districts of Bandarban
and Khagrachari. The Marmas are originally Arakanese people who moved to the territory in the 17th century in order to escape Burmese persecution.[33] The Mro people
Mro people
are the third largest community in the region and have a Raja. Buddhism, Christianity
and animist beliefs are among the chief faiths of the Mros. Their population is concentrated in Bandarban District.[34] Mros are originally related to the Chin people
Chin people
of Myanmar.[35] The Tanchangya people
Tanchangya people
are among the oldest native indigenous tribes of the region. They speak the Indo-Aryan Tanchangya language and adhere to Therevada Buddhism.[36][37] The Bawm people
Bawm people
are a Tibeto-Burman
community. They are among the oldest inhabitants of the region.[38][39] The Tripuri people
Tripuri people
inhabit much of Khagrachari
District. Their population is divided between Bangladesh
and their larger indigenous homeland in the Indian state of Tripura.[40][41] The Khumi people
Khumi people
are one of the poorest and smallest tribes of the region.[42][43] They originate from Arakan.[44] The Kuki people
Kuki people
are the Bangladeshi counterparts of Chins in northern Myanmar and Mizos
in northeast India.[45]

Tribes of North and Northeast Bangladesh[edit] There are several Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman
and Indo-Aryan tribes which inhabit parts of northern and northeastern Bangladesh.

The Santhal people
Santhal people
are the largest aboriginal community of the country. They speak the Austroasiatic
Santhali language. Their culture is noted for martial dance traditions. Their population is most concentrated in Rajshahi Division
Rajshahi Division
and Rangpur Division. The Santhals have been the focal point of land rights controversies as the Bangladeshi government seeks to develop open pit coal mining in the their tribal hinterlands.[46][47] The Garo people
Garo people
inhabit the Haluaghat Upazila
Haluaghat Upazila
of Mymensingh
District. They have high literacy rates and are adherents of Christianity.[48][49] The Bisnupriya Manipuri people
Bisnupriya Manipuri people
are the second largest ethnic group in Sylhet
Division. They are adherents of Hinduism
and the speak the Indo-Aryan Bishnupriya Manipuri language. Their classical Manipuri dance tradition is a key part of Bangladesh's national culture.[50][51] A negligible small minority of Marwari people
Marwari people
live in various cities and towns of the country such as Dinajpur, Kushtia and Narayanganj. Although many of them have been assimilated into the larger Hindu Bengali demographics, they still use the marwari surnames such as Agarwal, Singhania etc. They are among the affluent sections of the country's merchant and business class.

Tribes of Southern Bangladesh[edit]

An Arakanese Rakhine community has resided in Barisal Division
Barisal Division
for three centuries. They arrived by the sea after escaping Burmese conquests in the 17th century.[52][53]

Rural society[edit] The basic social unit in a village is the family (poribar or gushti), generally consisting of a complete or incomplete patrilineally extended household (chula) and residing in a homestead (bari). The individual nuclear family often is submerged in the larger unit and might be known as the house (ghor). Above the bari level, patrilineal kin ties are linked into sequentially larger groups based on real, fictional, or assumed relationships.[54] A significant unit larger than that of close kin is the voluntary religious and mutual benefit association known as "the society" (shomaj or milat). Among the functions of a shomaj might be the maintenance of a Mosque and support of a mullah. An informal council of shomaj elders (matabdars or shordars) settles village disputes. Factional competition between the motobdars is a major dynamic of social and political interaction.[54] Groups of homes in a village are called Paras, and each para has its own name. Several paras constitute a mauza, the basic revenue and census survey unit. The traditional character of rural villages was changing in the latter half of the 20th century with the addition of brick structures of one or more stories scattered among the more common thatched bamboo huts.[54] Although farming has traditionally ranked among the most desirable occupations, villagers in the 1980s began to encourage their children to leave the increasingly overcrowded countryside to seek more secure employment in the towns. Traditional sources of prestige, such as landholding, distinguished lineage, and religious piety were beginning to be replaced by modern education, higher income, and steadier work. These changes, however, did not prevent rural poverty from increasing greatly. Urban society[edit]

View of downtown Dhaka, the largest city in Bangladesh
and one of the world's most populated cities

In 2015, 34% of Bangladeshis
lived in cities.[55] Dhaka
is the largest city in Bangladesh
and one of the world's most populous megacities. Other important cities include Chittagong, Sylhet, Khulna, Rajshahi, Jessore, Barisal, Comilla, Narayanganj
and Mymensingh. Most urban centers are rural administrative towns. Urban centers grew in number and population during the 1980s as a result of an administrative decentralization program that featured the creation of upazilas.[56] Identity[edit] Bangladesh
is noted for cultural pluralism within a Bengali Muslim majority. Traditional Bengali secularism has been an important contributor to the nation's society and ethos. The Bengali language
Bengali language
is a fundamental element of Bangladeshi identity. It is a secular language which evolved between the 7th and 10th centuries, with an indigenous alphabet, and unites people of different faiths and regions. The Bengali Language Movement
Bengali Language Movement
sowed the seeds of East Pakistani nationalism, ultimately culminating in the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Since independence, the relationship between religion and the state has been controversial. Between 1972 and 1975, Bangladesh
experienced socialism under a secular parliamentary system. Military
coups ushered a sixteen-year presidential regime, which restored the free market and promoted moderate Islamism. In 1988, Islam
was made the state religion. In 2010, the Bangladesh
Supreme Court reaffirmed the principle of separation of mosque and state in the constitution, although Islam
remains the state religion.[57] The government generally respects freedom of religion and ensures protection for minorities.[58] Another debate on national identity concerns attitudes towards the Chittagong
Hill Tracts. A low-level insurgency took place in the region to demand constitutional autonomy against Bengali settlements. Despite a peace treaty in 1997, the Bangladeshi government is yet to implement many of its commitments to protect adivasi land rights. However, the deletion in 1977 of Bangalee as the nationality term for the country's citizens, in order to be inclusive of non-Bengali minorities, also reflects attempts to build a more cosmopolitan Bangladeshi society. Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Bangladesh Bangladeshi culture is a mainly a synthesis of indigenous Bengali and Islamic cultures. Festivals on the both the secular Bengali calendar and the Islamic calendar are widely celebrated. The tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
often follow the Burmese calendar, which reflect the country's links with Southeast Asia. Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Bangladesh

The word written in the Bengali script

The official language of Bangladesh
is Bengali, which is shared with the neighboring Indian states of West Bengal, Assam
and Tripura. Bengali dialects
Bengali dialects
vary between different regions of Bangladesh. The oldest literary inscription in Bangladesh
dates back to the 3rd century BCE. It was found at Mahasthangarh
and is written in the Brahmi script. The language is Magadhi Prakrit.[59] The Bengali language developed from Magadhi Prakrit, and its written from Apabhramsa, between the 7th and 10th centuries. It once formed a single eastern Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
with Assamese and Odia, but later became distinct. It became an official language of the Sultanate of Bengal, where it was spoken as the main vernacular language. It absorbed vocubulary from Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit. Bengali is the 10th most spoken language in the world. The language was modernized during the Bengali renaissance
Bengali renaissance
in the 19th century. It has influenced other languages in the region, including Chakma, Rohingya, Assamese, Odia and Nepali. The indigenous Bengali alphabets descended from Brahmi serves as the Bengali script. The Bengali Language Movement
Bengali Language Movement
in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
was a key catalyst of forming Bangladeshi identity. It is commemorated by UNESCO
as International Mother Language Day, as part of worldwide efforts to preserve linguistic heritage. Bangladesh
is also home to number of minority indigenous languages, including Santhali, Garo, Marma, Chakma and Bisnupriya Manipuri. Surnames[edit] Main article: Bangladeshi name Bangladeshis
Muslims typically but not exclusively carry surnames that have Arabic
and Persian origins. Bangladeshi Hindus have Sanskritized Bengali surnames. Many Bangladeshi Christians have Portuguese surnames. Buddhists have a mixture of Bengali and Tibeto-Burman surnames. See also[edit]

List of Bangladeshis Bangladeshi diaspora Demographics of Bangladesh


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