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Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(Russian: Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau[7] (Polish: Piława; Lithuanian: Piliava), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk
Strait of Baltiysk
separating the Vistula Lagoon
Vistula Lagoon
from the Gdańsk Bay. Baltiysk
Baltiysk
is the westernmost town of Russia. Population: 32,697 (2010 Census);[3] 33,252 (2002 Census);[8] 27,070 (1989 Census).[9] Baltiysk
Baltiysk
is the westernmost town in Russia, and is a major base of the Russian Navy's Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
and a ferry port on the route to St. Petersburg.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Old Prussian village 1.2 Prussian town 1.3 World War II 1.4 Modern Baltiysk

2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Climate 4 Landmarks 5 Notable people 6 International relations

6.1 Twin towns and sister cities

7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Sources

8 External links

History[edit] Old Prussian village[edit] Baltiysk
Baltiysk
was originally the site of an Old Prussian fishing village that formed on the coast of the Vistula Spit
Vistula Spit
at some point in the 13th century. The village was named as "Pile" or "Pil" in several documents, possibly taking its name from pils the Old Prussian language word for fort.[citation needed] It was eventually conquered by the Teutonic Knights, with the name evolving into the German form of Pillau. In 1497, a storm surge dug a new gat in front of the village, and another large storm created the navigable Strait of Baltiysk
Baltiysk
through the gat on September 10, 1510. This fostered the growth of Pillau into an important port of the Duchy of Prussia, and a blockhouse was constructed in 1537, followed by a system of storehouses in 1543, and the earliest fortifications in 1550. During the Thirty Years' War, the harbor was occupied by Sweden
Sweden
in the aftermath of their victory over the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and King Gustavus Adolphus landed there with his reinforcements in May 1626. After the ceasefire of Altmark
Altmark
in 1629, the Swedes retained Pillau and set out upgrading its fortifications, constructing a star fort which remains one of the town's landmarks. In 1635, the citizens of Pillau paid the ransom of 10,000 thalers, whereupon Swedish forces handed over the settlement to the Elector of Brandenburg. Prussian town[edit]

Lighthouse

By the end of the 17th century, Pillau had expanded considerably, and a lighthouse and a stone church were built. Peter the Great, the Tsar of Russia, visited Pillau on three occasions, the first being in 1697 in connection with his Grand Embassy to Western Europe. A statue of the Peter the Great
Peter the Great
currently stands next to the lighthouse. After Pillau was granted town privileges in 1725, the Baroque-style town hall was constructed and inaugurated in May 1745, but was destroyed at the end of World War II. Russian forces occupied the town during the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
and built a small Orthodox church there, with the event commemorated by the equestrian statue of Empress Elizabeth, unveiled in 2004. In June 1807, Pillau was stormed by Napoleon's Grande Armée
Grande Armée
during the Napoleonic Wars, although no outstanding events took place during the rest of the 19th century. Records of a Scottish "colony" established in Pillau in 1815 appeared in an 1890 publication, although their authenticity is questionable. The lighthouse was built up to a height of 31.38 meters (103.0 ft) and the entire fortress was updated and rebuilt by the Prussians in 1871. The importance of Pillau declined from November 15, 1901, when a shipping canal was opened linking the Vistula Lagoon
Vistula Lagoon
near Zimmerbude (now Svetly) to Königsberg. Pillau's economy was heavily based on large shipping vessels being forced to dock in the town due to the shallow depth of the lagoon near Königsberg, the capital and the largest city of East Prussia, and the goods would then be transported from Pillau to Königsberg
Königsberg
by other means. Constructed at a huge cost of thirteen million marks, the canal allowed vessels of a 21 feet (6.4 m) draught to moor alongside the city or to sail directly to Königsberg
Königsberg
without stopping at Pillau, causing a serious decline to the town's economy. World War II[edit]

Evacuation of German civilians from Pillau, January 26, 1945, fleeing from the Red Army

During World War II, Pillau had a U-boat
U-boat
training facility, and on April 16, 1945, the German submarine U-78 was sunk by Red Army artillery fire while she was docked near the electricity supply pier in Pillau port, and was the only U-boat
U-boat
to be ever sunk by land-based forces in World War II. As the Red Army
Red Army
entered East Prussia, more than 450,000 refugees were ferried from Pillau to central and western Germany, with the town eventually being captured by Soviets on April 25, 1945. Modern Baltiysk[edit]

Old church

After the war, Pillau was included in the northern part of East Prussia passed to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
that became Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, and the German inhabitants were expelled. During the Russification campaign, the town's name was changed to Baltiysk
Baltiysk
in 1946.[5] In 1952, the Soviet authorities inaugurated a naval base for the Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
of the Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
at Baltiysk, and as a result it became a closed town with access was forbidden to foreigners or those without a permit. During the Cold War
Cold War
it was served by the Baltiysk
Baltiysk
Air Base. The town, along with Kaliningrad, remains one of only two year-round ice-free ports along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coastline available to Russia. Administrative and municipal status[edit] Within the framework of administrative divisions, Baltiysk
Baltiysk
serves as the administrative center of Baltiysky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated within Baltiysky District as the town of district significance of Baltiysk.[1] As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Baltiysk
Baltiysk
is incorporated within Baltiysky Municipal District as Baltiyskoye Urban Settlement.[2] Climate[edit] Baltiysk
Baltiysk
has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb).[10] Winters are cold to mild, while summers are warm. In July and August, the warmest season, high temperatures average 21 °C (70 °F) and low temperatures average 15 °C (59 °F). In January and February, the coldest season, high temperatures average 3 °C (37 °F) with low temperatures averaging −2 °C (28 °F).

Climate data for Baltiysk

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.5 (58.1) 17.1 (62.8) 14.9 (58.8) 25.0 (77) 27.1 (80.8) 29.4 (84.9) 31.7 (89.1) 31.3 (88.3) 26.7 (80.1) 22.6 (72.7) 17.1 (62.8) 17.0 (62.6) 31.7 (89.1)

Average high °C (°F) 2.5 (36.5) 2.5 (36.5) 4.6 (40.3) 9.7 (49.5) 14.9 (58.8) 17.8 (64) 20.6 (69.1) 21.0 (69.8) 16.8 (62.2) 12.4 (54.3) 6.4 (43.5) 3.5 (38.3) 11.1 (52)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 0.4 (32.7) 2.5 (36.5) 7.0 (44.6) 11.7 (53.1) 15.0 (59) 17.9 (64.2) 18.4 (65.1) 14.4 (57.9) 10.1 (50.2) 4.6 (40.3) 1.4 (34.5) 8.7 (47.7)

Average low °C (°F) −1.8 (28.8) −1.6 (29.1) 0.3 (32.5) 4.0 (39.2) 8.2 (46.8) 11.8 (53.2) 14.8 (58.6) 15.6 (60.1) 12.1 (53.8) 8.1 (46.6) 2.9 (37.2) −0.4 (31.3) 6.2 (43.2)

Record low °C (°F) −20.8 (−5.4) −17.6 (0.3) −12.9 (8.8) −4.0 (24.8) −0.2 (31.6) 1.4 (34.5) 7.8 (46) 8.1 (46.6) 4.3 (39.7) −1.4 (29.5) −8.8 (16.2) −14.8 (5.4) −20.8 (−5.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 65 (2.56) 54 (2.13) 50 (1.97) 41 (1.61) 53 (2.09) 71 (2.8) 78 (3.07) 69 (2.72) 73 (2.87) 62 (2.44) 66 (2.6) 73 (2.87) 752 (29.61)

Source: Kaliningrad-meteo.ru[11]

Landmarks[edit] Historical buildings in and around the town include the pentagonal Pillau Citadel, founded by the Swedes in 1626, completed by the Prussians in 1670, renovated in 1870, and currently holding a naval museum; the ruins of the 13th-century Lochstadt Castle; a maze of 19th-century naval fortifications; the Naval Cathedral of St. George (1866); the 32-meter (105 ft) Expressionist observation tower (1932); the Gothic Revival building of the Baltic Fleet Museum (1903); and an elegant lighthouse, dating from 1813-1816. A stone cross, erected in 1830 to commemorate the supposed spot of St. Adalbert of Prague's martyrdom, was destroyed by the Soviets and restored a millennium after the event, in 1997. Notable people[edit]

Karl Heinrich Barth
Karl Heinrich Barth
(1847–1922), German pianist Otto Dempwolff
Otto Dempwolff
(1871–1938), German linguist and anthropologist Fritz Gajewski
Fritz Gajewski
(1885-1965) a German businessman with IG Farben Renate Garisch-Culmberger
Renate Garisch-Culmberger
(born 1939), East German athlete Manfred Schaefer (born 1943) a former association football defender Grigoriy Korchmar (born 1947) a Russian composer and pianist.

International relations[edit]

Landsat satellite photo taken circa 2000

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Baltiysk
Baltiysk
is twinned with:

Gdynia, Poland Elbląg, Poland[12][13] Nysa, Poland Karlskrona, Sweden

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #640 ^ a b c d e Law #274 ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 36. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.  ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian) ^ Kaemmerer, Margarete (2004). Ortsnamenverzeichnis der Ortschaften jenseits von Oder u. Neiße (in German). p. 125. ISBN 3-7921-0368-0.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Weatherbase Climate Summary ^ "Kaliningrad-meteo.ru". Retrieved April 17, 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ " Elbląg
Elbląg
- Podstrony / Miasta partnerskie". Elbląski Dziennik Internetowy (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ " Elbląg
Elbląg
- Miasta partnerskie". Elbląg.net (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

Sources[edit]

Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
#640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №274 от 3 июля 2008 г «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования "Балтийский городской округ"», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №124, 11 июля 2008 г. ( Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Duma. Law #274 of July 3, 2008 On the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Baltiysky Urban Okrug", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Baedeker, Karl, Northern Germany, 14th revised (English-language) edition, Leipzig, London, and New York, 1904.

External links[edit]

Official website of Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(in Russian) Information site of Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(in Russian) Unofficial website of Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(in Russian) Unofficial website of the city and port of Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(in Russian) Winter trip to Baltiysk

v t e

Administrative divisions of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (former German names are given in parentheses and italicized)

Administrative center: Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg)

Cities and towns

Bagrationovsk
Bagrationovsk
(Preußisch Eylau) Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(Pillau) Chernyakhovsk
Chernyakhovsk
(Insterburg) Guryevsk (Neuhausen) Gusev (Gumbinnen) Gvardeysk
Gvardeysk
(Tapiau) Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) Krasnoznamensk (Lasdehnen) Ladushkin
Ladushkin
(Ludwigsort) Mamonovo
Mamonovo
(Heiligenbeil) Neman (Ragnit) Nesterov
Nesterov
(Stallupönen) Ozyorsk (Darkehmen) Pionersky (Neukuhren) Polessk
Polessk
(Labiau) Pravdinsk
Pravdinsk
(Friedland in Ostpreußen) Primorsk (Fischhausen) Slavsk
Slavsk
(Heinrichswalde) Sovetsk (Tilsit) Svetlogorsk (Rauschen) Svetly (Zimmerbude) Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
(Cranz)

Urban-type settlements of oblast significance

Yantarny (Palmnicken)

Districts

Bagrationovsky Baltiysky Chernyakhovsky Guryevsky Gusevsky Gvardeysky Krasnoznamensky Nemansky Nesterovsky Ozyorsky Polessky Pravdinsky Slavsky Svetlogorsky Zelenogradsky

v t e

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
of Russian navy

Commander
Commander
of fleet

Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
V. P. Kravchuk

Divisions

Leningrad Naval Base Baltiysk
Baltiysk
Naval base Separate Guards brigade of marines of the Baltic fleet 127 separate sea engineering battalion Strazh Balticy (newspaper)

Navy bases in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast

Fleet command: Kaliningrad Marine base: Baltiysk Air bases: Chernyakhovsk Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Chkalovsk Donskoye Khrabrovo

Navy base in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Oblast

Saint Petersburg Kronstadt Vysotsk

Former naval bases

Finland: Hanko Porkkala Suomenlinna Estonia: Paldiski Latvia: Liepāja

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
page at the official Ministry of Defence website

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 243193

.