EID AL-ADHA (Arabic : عيد الأضحى, translit. ʿīd
al-aḍḥā, lit. 'Feast of the Sacrifice', ), also called the
"SACRIFICE FEAST", is the second of two
Muslim holidays celebrated
worldwide each year, and considered the holier of the two. It honors
the willingness of Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son, as an act
of obedience to God 's command. Before Abraham sacrificed his son, God
provided a male goat to sacrifice instead. In commemoration of this,
an animal is sacrificed and divided into three parts: one third of the
share is given to the poor and needy; another third is given to
relatives, friends and neighbors; and the remaining third is retained
by the family.
In the Islamic lunar calendar ,
Eid al-Adha falls on the 10th day of
Dhu al-Hijjah . In the international (Gregorian) calendar , the dates
vary from year to year drifting approximately 11 days earlier each
Eid al-Adha is the latter of the two Eid holidays, the former being
Eid al-Fitr . The word "Eid" appears once in Al-Ma\'ida , the fifth
sura of the Quran, with the meaning "solemn festival".
Like Eid al-Fitr,
Eid al-Adha begins with a prayer of two rakats
followed by a sermon (khutbah ).
Eid al-Adha celebrations start after
the descent of the Hujjaj, the pilgrims performing the
Hajj , from
Mount Arafat , a hill east of
Mecca . Eid sacrifice may take place
until sunset on the 13th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. The days of Eid have
been singled out in the
Hadith as "days of remembrance" and considered
the holiest days in the Islamic Calendar . The takbir (days) of
Tashriq are from the
Maghrib prayer of the 29th of Dhul-Qadah up to
Maghrib prayer of the 13th of
Dhu al-Hijjah (thirteen days and
* 1 Other names
* 2 Origin
* 3.1 Who must attend
* 3.2 When is it performed
* 3.3 The
Sunnah of preparation
* 3.4 Rites of the
* 3.5 The l-hamdu (praise with lip) and other rites
* 4 Traditions and practices
Eid al-Adha in the
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Eid al-Adha celebrations start at the same time as the annual
The Arabic term "sacrifice feast ", ʿīd al-aḍḥā / ʿīd
ul-aḍḥā is borrowed into
Indo-Aryan languages such as
Hindi , Assamese, Bengali , Gujarati , and
Austronesian languages such
as Malay and Indonesian (the last often spelling it as Aidil Adha or
Idul Adha). Another Arabic word for "sacrifice" is
Qurbani (Arabic :
قربان.) The Semitic root Q-R-B (Hebrew: ק-ר-ב) means
"to be close to someone/something"; other words from the root include
qarov, "close", and qerovim, "relatives." The senses of root meaning
"to offer" suggest that the act of offering brings one closer to the
receiver of the offering (here, God). The same stem is found in Hebrew
and for example in the Akkadian language noun aqribtu "act of
Eid al-Kabir, an Arabic term meaning "the Greater Eid" (the "Lesser
Eid" being Eid al-Fitr), is used in Yemen, Syria, and North Africa
(Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt). The term was borrowed
directly into French as Aïd el-Kebir. Translations of "Big Eid" or
"Greater Eid" are used in Pashto (لوی اختر Loy Axtar), Kashmiri
Hindi (Baṛī Īd), Bengali (বড় ঈদ
Boro Id), Tamil (Peru Nāl, "Great Day") and
Malayalam (Bali Perunnal,
"Great Day of Sacrifice"). Albanian , however, uses Bajram(i) i vogël
or "the Lesser Eid" (as opposed to Bajram i Madh, the "Greater Eid",
for Eid al-Fitr) as an alternative reference to Eid al-Adha.
The festival is also called "Bakr-Eid" in
(بقر عید, baqr `īd), stemming from the Arabic word al-Baqara
meaning "The Cow", although some have attributed it to the
Hindi word bakrī, meaning "goat", because of the tradition of
sacrificing a goat in South Asia on this festival. This term is also
borrowed into other Indian languages, such as Tamil Bakr `Īd Peru
Uzbekistan it is called Qurbon Hayiti (Kurban Eid).
Bangladesh this Eid is called ঈদুল আজহা(idul azha)
It is also known as Id ul Baqarah in Egypt,
Saudi Arabia and in the
Middle East, as Eid è Qurbon in Iran, Kurban Bayramı ("the Holiday
of Sacrifice") in Turkey, Baqarah Eid in Pakistan,
Trinidad, Eid el-Kebir in Morocco, Tfaska Tamoqqart in the Berber
language of Jerba , Iduladha or Qurban in Singapore, Malaysia,
Indonesia and the Philippines,
Qurbani Eid in Bangladesh, Bakri Idh
("Goat Eid") in parts of
Pakistan and India and Tabaski or Tobaski in
Senegal and West Africa (most probably borrowed from the Serer
language — an ancient Serer religious festival ), Babbar Sallah
Hausa language and ciida gawraca in Somali .
Eid al-Adha has had
other names outside the
Muslim world. The name is often simply
translated into the local language, such as English Feast of the
Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea
Sacrificiului, and Hungarian Áldozati ünnep. In Spanish it is known
as Fiesta del Cordero or Fiesta del Borrego (both meaning "festival
of the lamb").
Abraham, about to sacrifice his son
According to Islamic tradition , the valley of
Mecca (in present-day
Saudi Arabia ) was a dry, rocky, and uninhabited place. God instructed
Abraham to bring
Hagar (Hājar ), his Arabian (Adnan) wife, and
Ishmael to Arabia from the land of
As Abraham was preparing for his return journey back to Canaan, Hagar
asked him, "Did God order you to leave us here? Or are you leaving us
here to die?" Abraham did not even look back. He just nodded, afraid
that he would be too sad and that he would disobey God.
"Then God will not waste us; you can go". Though Abraham had left a
large quantity of food and water with
Hagar and Ishmael, the supplies
quickly ran out, and within a few days the two began to feel the pangs
of hunger and dehydration.
Hagar ran up and down between two hills,
Safa and Marwa , seven
times, in her desperate quest for water. Exhausted, she finally
collapsed beside her baby Ishmael and prayed to God for deliverance.
Miraculously, a spring of water gushed forth from the earth at the
feet of baby Ishmael. Other accounts have the angel Jibra'il, striking
the earth and causing the spring to flow in abundance. With this
secure water supply, known as the
Zamzam Well , they were not only
able to provide for their own needs, but were also able to trade water
with passing nomads for food and supplies.
Years later, Abraham was instructed by God to return from
build a place of worship adjacent to Hagar's well (the Zamzam Well).
Abraham and Ishmael constructed a stone and mortar structure – known
Kaaba – which was to be the gathering place for all who
wished to strengthen their faith in God. As the years passed, Ishmael
was blessed with nubuwwah (prophethood) and gave the nomads of the
desert his message of submission to God. After many centuries, Mecca
became a thriving desert city and a major center for trade, thanks to
its reliable water source, the Zamzam Well.
One of the main trials of Abraham's life was to face the command of
God to sacrifice his dearest possession, his son. The son is not named
in the Quran, but Muslims believe it to be Ishmael , though it is
Isaac in the
Bible . Upon hearing this command, Abraham
prepared to submit to will of God . During this preparation, Shaitan
(the Devil) tempted Abraham and his family by trying to dissuade them
from carrying out God's commandment, and Abraham drove Satan away by
throwing pebbles at him. In commemoration of their rejection of Satan,
stones are thrown at symbolic pillars during the Stoning of the Devil
When Abraham attempted to cut his throat, he was astonished to see
that his son was unharmed and instead, he found a ram which was
slaughtered. Abraham had passed the test by his willingness to carry
out God's command.
This story is known as the
Akedah in Judaism (Binding of Isaac) and
originates in the Tora , the first book of Moses (Genesis , Ch. 22).
Quran refers to the
Akedah as follows:
100 "O my Lord! Grant me a righteous (son)!"
101 So We gave him the good news of a boy ready to suffer and
102 Then, when (the son) reached (the age of) (serious) work with
him, he said: "O my son! I see in vision that I offer thee in
sacrifice: Now see what is thy view!" (The son) said: "O my father! Do
as thou art commanded: thou will find me, if Allah so wills one
practising Patience and Constancy!"
103 So when they had both submitted their wills (to Allah), and he
had laid him prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice),
104 We called out to him "O Abraham!
105 "Thou hast already fulfilled the vision!" – thus indeed do We
reward those who do right.
106 For this was obviously a trial–
107 And We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice:
108 And We left (this blessing) for him among generations (to come)
in later times:
109 "Peace and salutation to Abraham!"
110 Thus indeed do We reward those who do right.
111 For he was one of our believing Servants.
112 And We gave him the good news of
Isaac – a prophet – one of
the Righteous. — Quran, sura 37 (
As-Saaffat ), ayat 100–112
Abraham had shown that his love for God superseded all others: that
he would lay down his own life or the lives of those dearest to him in
submission to God 's command. Muslims commemorate this ultimate act of
sacrifice every year during Eid al-Adha. While Abraham was prepared to
make an ultimate sacrifice, God ultimately prevents the sacrifice,
additionally signifying that one should never sacrifice a human life,
especially not in the name of God.
Eid prayers Eid prayer in
Devotees offer the
Eid al-Adha prayers at the mosque.
WHO MUST ATTEND
According to some fiqh (traditional Islamic law) (although there is
* Men should go to mosque—or an
Eidgah (a field where eid prayer
held)—to perform eid prayer;
Salat al-Eid is
Wajib according to
Sunnah al-Mu\'kkadah according to
Maliki and Shafi\'i
jurisprudence. Women are also highly encouraged to attend, although it
is not compulsory. Menstruating women do not participate in the formal
prayer, but should be present to witness the goodness and the
gathering of the Muslims.
* Residents, which excludes travellers.
* Those in good health.
* Shiite version:
Eid prayers are Mustahab (recommended) according
Ali al-Sistani . However, they are wajib (obligatory)
only in the time when the
WHEN IS IT PERFORMED
Eid al-Adha prayer is performed any time after the sun completely
rises up to just before the entering of Zuhr time, on the 10th of Dhu
al-Hijjah. In the event of a force majeure (e.g. natural disaster),
the prayer may be delayed to the 11th of
Dhu al-Hijjah and then to the
12th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
THE SUNNAH OF PREPARATION
In keeping with the sunnah of
Muhammad , Muslims are encouraged to
prepare themselves for the occasion of Eid. Below is a list of things
Muslims are recommended to do in preparation for the Eid al-Adha
* Make wudu (ablution) and offer
Salat al-Fajr (the pre-sunrise
* Prepare for personal cleanliness—take care of details of
* Dress up, putting on new or best clothes available.
RITES OF THE EID PRAYERS
The scholars differed concerning the ruling on
Eid prayers . There
are three scholarly points of view:
* That Eid prayer is
Fard Kifaya (communal obligation). This is the
Abu Hanifa .
* That it is Sunna Mu’akkada (recommended). This is the view of
Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas and
* That it is
Wajib on all
Muslim men (a duty for each
Muslim and is
obligatory for men); those who do not do it without an excuse are
considered sinners. This is the view of
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal , and was
also narrated from Abu Hanifa.
Eid prayers must be offered in congregation. Participation of women
in the prayer congregation varies from community to community. It
consists of two rakats (units) with seven takbirs in the first Raka'ah
and five Takbirs in the second Raka'ah. For Sunni Muslims , Salat
al-Eid differs from the five daily canonical prayers in that no adhan
(call to prayer) or iqama (call) is pronounced for the two Eid
prayers. The salat (prayer) is then followed by the khutbah, or
sermon, by the
At the conclusion of the prayers and sermon, Muslims embrace and
exchange greetings with one other (
Eid Mubarak ), give gifts and visit
one another. Many Muslims also take this opportunity to invite their
Muslim friends, neighbours, co-workers and classmates to their Eid
festivities to better acquaint them about Islam and
THE L-HAMDU (PRAISE WITH LIP) AND OTHER RITES
The l-hamdu is recited from the dawn of the ninth of
Dhu al-Hijjah to
the thirteenth, and consists of:
Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar
الله أكبر الله أكبر
lā ilāha illā-Allāh
لا إله إلا الله
Wallāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar
والله أكبر الله أكبر
Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest,
There is no god but Allah
Allah is greatest, Allah is greatest
and to Allah goes all praise.
Multiple variations of this recitation exist across the
TRADITIONS AND PRACTICES
Eid cuisine and
Eidi (gift) Cookies of Eid
Men, women, and children are expected to dress in their finest
clothing to perform Eid prayer in a large congregation in an open waqf
("stopping") field called
Eidgah or mosque. Affluent Muslims who can
afford it sacrifice their best halal domestic animals (usually a cow,
but can also be a camel, goat, sheep, or ram depending on the region)
as a symbol of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his only son. The
sacrificed animals, called aḍḥiya (Arabic : أضحية),
known also by the Perso-Arabic term qurbāni, have to meet certain age
and quality standards or else the animal is considered an unacceptable
Pakistan alone nearly ten million animals are
slaughtered on Eid days costing over US$2.0 billion.
The meat from the sacrificed animal is preferred to be divided into
three parts. The family retains one third of the share; another third
is given to relatives, friends, and neighbors; and the remaining third
is given to the poor and needy. Though the division is purely optional
wherein either all the meat may be kept with oneself or may be given
away to poor or needy, the preferred method as per sunnah of Muhammad
is dividing it in three parts.
The regular charitable practices of the
Muslim community are
Eid al-Adha by concerted efforts to see that no
impoverished person is left without an opportunity to partake in the
sacrificial meal during these days.
Hajj is also performed in Saudi
Arabia before Eid ul Adha and millions of Muslims perform Hajj. On the
Hajj lots of Muslims slaughter animals and divide a major
part of the meat for poor people.
During Eid al-Adha, distributing meat amongst the people, chanting
the takbir out loud before the
Eid prayers on the first day and after
prayers throughout the four days of Eid, are considered essential
parts of this important Islamic festival. In some countries, families
that do not own livestock can make a contribution to a charity that
will provide meat to those who are in need.
EID AL-ADHA IN THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR
Eid al-Adha is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar,
the date on the
Gregorian calendar varies from year to year since the
Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the
Gregorian calendar is a
solar calendar . The lunar calendar is approximately eleven days
shorter than the solar calendar. Each year,
Eid al-Adha (like other
Islamic holidays) falls on one of about two to four different
Gregorian dates in different parts of the world, because the boundary
of crescent visibility is different from the
International Date Line
International Date Line .
The following list shows the official dates of
Eid al-Adha for Saudi
Arabia as announced by the Supreme Judicial Council . Future dates are
estimated according to the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia.
However, it should be noted that the Umm al-Qura is just a guide for
planning purposes and not the absolute determinant or fixer of dates.
Confirmations of actual dates by moon sighting are applied on the 29th
day of the lunar month prior to
Dhu al-Hijjah to announce the
specific dates for both
Hajj rituals and the subsequent Eid festival.
The three days after the listed date are also part of the festival.
The time before the listed date the pilgrims visit the Mount Arafat
and descend from it after sunrise of the listed day.
In many countries, the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on
the observation of new moon by local religious authorities, so the
exact day of celebration varies by locality.
24 September 2015
12 September 2016
1 September 2017
23 August 2018 (calculated)
12 August 2019 (calculated)
* Islam portal
* Holidays portal
* Binding of
^A The son is not named in the Quran, but most modern Muslims adhere
to the view that it was Ismail (Ishmael). Sayings attributed to
Muhammad and Islamic commentaries differ on whether Abraham's older
son Ishmael , or his younger son, Ishaq , was asked to be sacrificed
in the vision. A chain of narration from Yunnus b. Abd al-Ala
attributed to Abdallah b. Abbas: "The Prophet in a conversation in
which he said, 'Then we ransomed him with a tremendous victim.' And he
also said, 'He is Isaac.'" The Sunni commentary
Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
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was Ismail, peace be upon him. The Jews claimed that it was Ishaq.'"
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