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Bahram II
Bahram II
(Middle Persian: 𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭‎, Wahrām, Persian: بهرام دوم‎, Bahrām) was the fifth Sasanian King of Persia in 274–293. He was the son of Bahram I
Bahram I
(271–274).[2] Bahram II
Bahram II
is said to have ruled at first tyrannically, and to have greatly disgusted all his principal nobles, who went so far as to form a conspiracy against him, and intended to put him to death. The chief of the Magi, however, interposed, and, having effectually alarmed the king, brought him to acknowledge his wrong and to promise an entire change of conduct. The nobles upon this returned to their allegiance; and Bahram, during the remainder of his reign, is said to have been distinguished for wisdom and moderation, and to have rendered himself popular with every class of his subjects.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Reign 3 Relations with Kartir 4 References 5 Sources 6 External links

Early life[edit] Bahram II
Bahram II
was the oldest son of Bahram I. During his youth, he grew up in Khuzistan, a province inhabited by many Assyrian Christians. He seems to have learned the doctrine of Christianity and some of the Syriac language
Syriac language
of Mesopotamia. During the late reign of his father, Bahram had not reached adulthood yet, and was appointed as the governor of Sistan. When his father died in 276, he succeeded the latter, being aided in the affairs of his empire by his mentor Kartir. Bahram II
Bahram II
was shortly married to Shapurdukhtak, the daughter of Shapur Mishanshah, who was the son of Shapur I,[3] meaning that Bahram II married his own cousin.[4] Reign[edit]

The victory of Bahram II
Bahram II
over Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Carus
Carus
is depicted in the top panel, and the victory over Hormizd I Kushanshah
Hormizd I Kushanshah
is depicted in the bottom panel at Naqsh-e Rustam.[5]

In 282, while Persia was in civil war, the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Carus
Carus
crossed the Euphrates along with his troops and invaded Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
wreaking havoc. Bahram II
Bahram II
was not able to offer any resistance as his troops were occupied fighting against his cousin Hormizd in Sakastan. Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was ravaged and the city of Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
was occupied by the Roman troops. However, as an oracle had predicted earlier, the death of Carus
Carus
cut short his career as well as the Roman advance.[6] Following Carus's death, the Romans retreated, Bahram retook Mesopotamia.[4] In 283 Bahram II
Bahram II
defeated his cousin in Sakastan, and had the latter executed and replaced with his own son Bahram III
Bahram III
as the governor of Sakastan. He later had rock reliefs cut at Bishapur and Naqsh-e Rustam
Naqsh-e Rustam
to commemorate his victory.[7] In 286, however, Diocletian
Diocletian
resumed hostilities with Persia, and marched into Persian territory in aid of the Armenian prince Tiridates who was in rebellion against Persia. Armenia was separated after a couple of battles and Tiridates declared himself independent. Tiridates achieved extraordinary success during this period. He defeated two Persian armies in the open field, drove out the garrisons which held the more important of the fortified towns, and became undisputed master of Armenia. He even crossed the border which separated Armenia from Persia, and gained signal victories on admitted Persian ground. Bahram II
Bahram II
died soon afterwards in an extremely dejected state. He was succeeded by his son Bahram III. Of Bahram II's reign some theological inscriptions exist (F. Stolze and J. C. Andreas, Persepolis (1882), and E. W. West, "Pahlavi Literature" in Grundriss d. iranischen Philologie, ii. pp. 75–129).[8] In November 2011, according to a video by the Iranian state news service, several reliefs near the city of Kerman dating back to the period of Bahram II
Bahram II
were destroyed with hammers by unknown vandals.[9] Relations with Kartir[edit] Bahram II, like his father, treated Kartir
Kartir
with much respect, saw him as a mentor and elevated him to the Wuzurgan rank. [10] References[edit]

^ Bahrām II, A. Sh. Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (August 24, 2011).[1] ^ Gene Ralph Garthwaite, The Persians, (Blackwell Publishing, 2005), 97. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/shapur-i ^ a b Bahrām II, A. Sh. Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ Encyclopedia Iranica [2] ^ Jacob Neusner, A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Vol.2, (Brill, 1968), 3. ^ The Political History of Iran under the Sasanians, R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3, Ed. Ehsan Yarshater, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 129. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bahrām". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 211.  ^ http://www.lenziran.com/2011/12/11/destruction-of-cultural-herirtage-sculpture-of-king-bahram-broken-historic-hill-in-kerman-neglected/ ^ Bahrām II, A. Sh. Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica

Sources[edit]

Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008). Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-645-3.  Shapur Shahbazi, A. (2005). "SASANIAN DYNASTY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  Frye, Richard Nelson (1984). The History of Ancient Iran. C.H.Beck. pp. 1–411. ISBN 9783406093975.  Shahbazi, A. Sh. (1988). "BAHRĀM (2)". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 5. pp. 514–522. 

External links[edit]

'The Civilizations of the Ancient Near East Volume 7' by George Rawlinson William Leadbetter, " Carus
Carus
(282-283 A.D.)", "DIR"

Bahram II Sasanian dynasty

Preceded by Bahram I Great King (Shah) of Persia 274–293 Succeeded by Bahram III

v t e

Rulers of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651)

Ardashir I
Ardashir I
(224–242) Shapur I
Shapur I
(240–270) Hormizd I
Hormizd I
(270–271) Bahram I
Bahram I
(271–274) Bahram II
Bahram II
(274–293) Bahram III
Bahram III
(293) Narseh
Narseh
(293–302) Hormizd II (302–309) Adur Narseh
Narseh
(309) Shapur II
Shapur II
(309–379) Ardashir II
Ardashir II
(379–383) Shapur III
Shapur III
(383–388) Bahram IV
Bahram IV
(388–399) Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I
(399–420) Shapur IV (420) Khosrow the Usurper§ (420) Bahram V
Bahram V
(420–438) Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
(438–457) Hormizd III (457–459) Peroz I
Peroz I
(459–484) Balash
Balash
(484–488) Kavadh I
Kavadh I
(488–496) Jamasp
Jamasp
(496–498) Kavadh I
Kavadh I
(498–531) Khosrow I
Khosrow I
(531–579) Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
(579–590) Khosrow II
Khosrow II
(590) Bahram VI Chobin§ (590–591) Khosrow II
Khosrow II
(591–628) Vistahm§ (591–596) Kavadh II
Kavadh II
(628) Ardashir III
Ardashir III
(628–629) Shahrbaraz§ (629) Khosrow III§ (629) Boran
Boran
(629–630) Shapur-i Shahrvaraz§ (630) Peroz II§ (630) Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht
(630–631) Farrukh Hormizd§ (630–631) Hormizd VI§ (630–631) Khosrow IV§ (631) Farrukhzad Khosrow V§ (631) Boran
Boran
(631–632) Yazdegerd III
Yazdegerd III
(632–651) Peroz III (pretender) Narsieh (pretender)

§ usurpers or rival claimants

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45093

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