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Baby Boomers (also known as Boomers) are the demographic cohort following the Silent Generation. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use starting birth years ranging from the early-to-mid 1940s and ending birth years ranging from 1960 to 1964. The term "baby boomer" is also used in a cultural context, so it is difficult to achieve broad consensus of a precise date definition. Different people, organizations, and scholars have varying opinions on who is a baby boomer, both technically and culturally. Ascribing universal attributes to such a generation is difficult, and some believe it is inherently impossible, but many have attempted to determine their cultural similarities and historical impact, and the term has thus gained widespread popular usage. Baby boomers
Baby boomers
are associated with a rejection or redefinition of traditional values. Many commentators, however, have disputed the extent of that rejection, noting the widespread continuity of values with older and younger generations. In Europe
Europe
and North America, boomers are widely associated with privilege, as many grew up in a time of widespread government subsidies in post-war housing and education, and increasing affluence.[1] As a group, baby boomers were the wealthiest, most active, and most physically fit generation up to the era in which they arrived, and were amongst the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time.[2] They were also the generation that received peak levels of income; they could therefore reap the benefits of abundant levels of food, apparel, retirement programs, and sometimes even "midlife crisis" products. The increased consumerism for this generation has been regularly criticized as excessive.[3] One feature of the boomers was that they have tended to think of themselves as a special generation, very different from those that had come before. In the 1960s, as the relatively large numbers of young people became teenagers and young adults, they, and those around them, created a very specific rhetoric around their cohort, and the changes they were bringing about.[4] This rhetoric had an important impact in the self perceptions of the boomers, as well as their tendency to define the world in terms of generations, which was a relatively new phenomenon. The baby boom has been described variously as a "shockwave"[1] and as "the pig in the python."[2] The term " Generation
Generation
Jones" is sometimes used to describe those born roughly between 1954 and 1964. The term is typically used to refer to the later years of the Baby boomer cohort and the early years of Generation
Generation
X.[5][6]

Contents

1 Definition 2 Characteristics

2.1 Size and economic impact 2.2 Cultural identity

3 Healthcare 4 Aging and end-of-life issues 5 Impact on history and culture 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

Definition[edit]

United States
United States
birth rate (births per 1,000 population). The segment for the years 1946 to 1964 is highlighted in red, with birth rates peaking in 1949 and dropping steadily around 1958 reaching pre-war depression era levels in 1963.[7] The drop in 1970 was due to excluding births to nonresidents of the United States.

The phrase baby boom refers to a noticeable increase in the birth rate. The post-war population increase was described as a "boom" by various newspaper reporters, including Sylvia F. Porter in a column for the May 4, 1951, edition of the New York Post, based on the increase in the population of the U.S. of 2,357,000 in 1950.[8] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first recorded use of "baby boomer" is in 1970 in The Washington Post.[9] Various authors have delimited the baby boom period differently. Landon Jones, in his book Great Expectations: America and the Baby Boom Generation
Generation
(1980), defined the span of the baby-boom generation as extending from 1943 through 1960, when annual births increased over 4,000,000. Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, well known for their generational theory, define the social generation of Boomers as that cohort born from 1943 to 1960, who were too young to have any personal memory of World War II, but old enough to remember the postwar American High.[10] In the U.S., the generation can be segmented into two broadly defined cohorts: The Leading-Edge Baby Boomers are individuals born between 1946 and 1955, those who came of age during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
era. This group represents slightly more than half of the generation, or roughly 38,002,000 people of all races. The other half of the generation was born between 1956 and 1964. Called Late Boomers, or Trailing-Edge Boomers, this second cohort includes about 37,818,000 individuals, according to Live Births by Age and Mother and Race, 1933–98, published by the Center for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics.[11] An ongoing battle for "generational ownership" has motivated a handful of marketing mavens and cultural commentators to coin and/or promote their own terms for sub‑segments of the baby-boomer generation. These monikers include, but are not limited to, "golden boomers", "generation Jones", "alpha boomers", "hippies", "yippies", "yuppies", "zoomers", and "cuspers." In Ontario, Canada, one attempt to define the boom came from David Foot, author of Boom, Bust and Echo: Profiting from the Demographic Shift in the 21st century (1997). He defines a Canadian boomer as someone born from 1947 to 1966, the years that more than 400,000 babies were born. However, he acknowledges that is a demographic definition, and that culturally it may not be as clear-cut.[12] Doug Owram argues that the Canadian boom took place from 1942 to 1960, but that culturally boomers everywhere were born between the late war years and about 1955 or 1956. He notes that those born in the years before the actual boom were often the most influential people among boomers; for example, musicians such as The Beatles, Bob Dylan, and The Rolling Stones, as well as writers like Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac
and Allen Ginsberg, who were either slightly or vastly older than the boomer generation. Those born in the 1960s might feel disconnected from the cultural identifiers of the earlier boomers.[13] Bernard Salt places the Australian baby boom between 1943 and 1960,[14][15] while the Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics
defines the boom as 1946 to 1964.[16] Characteristics[edit] Size and economic impact[edit] 76 million American children were born between 1946 and 1964, representing a cohort that is significant on account of its size alone. In 2004, the British baby boomers held 80% of the UK's wealth and bought 80% of all top of the range cars, 80% of cruises and 50% of skincare products.[17] In addition to the size of the group, Steve Gillon has suggested that one thing that sets the baby boomers apart from other generational groups is the fact that "almost from the time they were conceived, Boomers were dissected, analyzed, and pitched to by modern marketers, who reinforced a sense of generational distinctiveness."[18] This is supported by the articles of the late 1940s identifying the increasing number of babies as an economic boom, such as a 1948 Newsweek
Newsweek
article whose title proclaimed "Babies Mean Business",[19] or a 1948 Time magazine article called "Baby Boom."[20] The age wave theory suggests an economic slowdown when the boomers started retiring during 2007–2009.[21] Projections for the aging U.S. workforce suggest that by 2020, 25% of employees will be at least 55 years old.[22] The Baby Boomers came into being the largest voting demographic in the early 1980s, a period which ushered in a long running trend of rapidly increasing income inequality. From 1979-2007, those receiving the highest 1 percentile of incomes saw their already large incomes increase by 278% while those in the middle at the 40th-60th percentiles saw a 35% increase. Since 1980, after the vast majority of Baby Boomer college goers graduated, the cost of college has been increased by over 600% (inflation adjusted).[23] A survey found that nearly a third of baby boomer multimillionaires polled in the United States
United States
would prefer to pass on their inheritance to charities rather than pass it down to their children. Fifty-seven percent of these boomers believed it was important for each generation to earn their own money; fifty four percent believed it was more important to invest in their children while they were growing up.[24] Cultural identity[edit] Boomers grew up at a time of dramatic social change. In the United States, that change marked the generation with a strong cultural cleavage, between the proponents of change and the more conservative individuals. Some analysts believe this cleavage played out politically since the time of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
to the mid‑2000s, to some extent defining the political landscape and division in the country.[25][26] Starting in the 1980s, the boomers became more conservative, many of them regretting the cultural changes they brought in their youth.[27] In 1993, Time magazine reported on the religious affiliations of baby boomers. Citing Wade Clark Roof, a sociologist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, the articles stated that about 42% of baby boomers were dropouts from formal religion, 33% had never strayed from church, and 25% of boomers were returning to religious practice. The boomers returning to religion were "usually less tied to tradition and less dependable as church members than the loyalists. They are also more liberal, which deepens rifts over issues like abortion and homosexuality."[28] The early and mid-boomers were coming of age at the same time across the world, so that they experienced events like Beatlemania
Beatlemania
and Woodstock, organizing against the Vietnam War, or fighting and dying in the same war. Boomers in Italy
Italy
were dressing in mod clothes and "buying the world a Coke." Boomers in India
India
were seeking new philosophical discoveries.[citation needed] Some American boomers in Canada
Canada
had found a new home after escaping the draft. Canadian Boomers were organizing support for Pierre Trudeau. It is precisely because of these experiences that many believe those born in the second half of the birth boom belong to another generation, as events that defined their coming of age have little in common with leading or core boomers.[original research?] Politically, early Boomers in the United States tend to be Democrats, while later boomers tend to be Republicans.[29] The baby boomers found that their music, most notably rock and roll, was another expression of their generational identity. Transistor radios were personal devices that allowed teenagers to listen to The Beatles, the Motown
Motown
Sound, and other new musical directions and artists.[citation needed] In the west, baby boomers comprised the first generation to grow up with the television; some popular Boomer-era shows included Howdy Doody, The Mickey Mouse Club, Captain Video, The Soupy Sales Show, The Brady Bunch, Gilligan's Island, The Twilight Zone, Batman, Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, Star Trek, The Ed Sullivan Show, All in the Family and Happy Days.[citation needed] In the 1985 study of U.S. generational cohorts by Schuman and Scott, a broad sample of adults was asked, "What world events over the past 50 years were especially important to them?"[30] For the baby boomers the results were:

Baby Boomer cohort number one (born 1946–55), the cohort who epitomized the cultural change of the sixties

Memorable events: the Cold War
Cold War
(and associated Red Scare), the Cuban Missile Crisis, assassinations of JFK, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr., political unrest, walk on the moon, risk of the draft into the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
or actual military service during the Vietnam War, anti-war protests, social experimentation, sexual freedom, drug experimentation, the Civil Rights Movement, environmental movement, women's movement, protests and riots, and Woodstock. Key characteristics: experimental, individualism, free spirited, social cause oriented.

Baby Boomer cohort number two (born 1956–64)

Memorable events: the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
and the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr., for those born in the first couple of years of this generation, the Vietnam War, walk on the moon, Watergate and Nixon's resignation, lowered drinking age to 18 in many states 1970–1976 (followed by raising back to 21 in the mid-1980s as a result of congressional lobbying by Mothers Against Drunk Driving
Mothers Against Drunk Driving
(MADD)), the oil embargo, raging inflation, gasoline shortages, economic recession and lack of viable career opportunities upon graduation from high school or college, Jimmy Carter's reimposition of registration for the draft, the Iran hostage crisis, Ronald Reagan, Live Aid Key characteristics: less optimistic, distrust of government, and general cynicism.[citation needed]

Some debate exists regarding the generational identity of those born from 1961 to 1964, as some demographers and researchers consider these individuals to be part of the younger demographic cohort, Generation X.[31][32][33][34] Healthcare[edit] The density of Baby Boomers can put a strain on Medicare. According to the American Medical Student Association, the population of individuals over the age of 65 will increase by 73 percent between 2010 and 2030, meaning one in five Americans will be a senior citizen.[35] Aging and end-of-life issues[edit] See also: Aging in the American workforce As of 1998[update], it was reported that, as a generation, boomers had tended to avoid discussions and long-term planning for their demise.[36] However, beginning at least as early as that year, there has been a growing dialogue on how to manage aging and end-of-life issues as the generation ages.[37] In particular, a number of commentators have argued that Baby Boomers are in a state of denial regarding their own aging and death and are leaving an undue economic burden on their children for their retirement and care. According to the 2011 Associated Press and LifeGoesStrong.com surveys:

60% lost value in investments because of the economic crisis 42% are delaying retirement 25% claim they will never retire (currently still working)[38][39]

In 2013, the early baby boomers (depending on birth years used) reached a common retirement age in the United States: 67 years. Impact on history and culture[edit]

Three American Presidents were born in 1946: Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(42nd), George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(43rd) and Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(45th).

An indication of the importance put on the impact of the boomer was the selection by TIME magazine of the Baby Boom Generation
Generation
as its 1966 "Man of the Year." As Claire Raines points out in Beyond Generation X, "never before in history had youth been so idealized as they were at this moment." When Generation X came along it had much to live up to in according to Raines.[40] Boomers are often associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, the civil rights movement, and the "second-wave" feminist cause of the 1970s. Conversely, many trended in moderate to conservative directions opposite to the counterculture, especially those making professional careers in the military (officer and enlisted), law enforcement, business, blue collar trades, and Republican Party politics. They are also associated with the spending trends and narcissism of the "Me" generation. People often take it for granted that each succeeding generation will be "better off" than the one before it. When Generation
Generation
X came along just after the boomers, they would be the first generation to enjoy a lesser quality of life than the generation preceding it.[41][42][43][44] Baby boomers
Baby boomers
continue to have a big effect on politics, as the United States presidential election, 2016 came down to two controversial candidates in Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
and Donald Trump, both boomers, with a majority of Trump's support coming from the Baby Boomer generation.[45][46] Three American presidents were born in 1946: Bill Clinton, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Donald Trump. Within the UK, numerous Baby Boomers have served as major party leaders, including four prime ministers (John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
and Theresa May), and four leaders of the opposition (Neil Kinnock, Tony Blair, Iain Duncan Smith
Iain Duncan Smith
and Jeremy Corbyn). See also[edit]

Baby boom Me generation Generation
Generation
Jones List of generations Demographics of the United States

General:

Population boom Strauss-Howe generational theory Generation
Generation
gap Transgenerational design Nano gap

Notes[edit]

^ a b Owram, Doug (1997), Born at the Right Time, Toronto: Univ Of Toronto Press, p. x, ISBN 0-8020-8086-3  ^ a b Jones, Landon (1980), Great Expectations: America and the Baby Boom Generation, New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan  ^ Pinker, Steven (2011). The Better Angels Of Our Nature. P.524: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-141-03464-5.  ^ Owram, Doug (1997), Born at the Right Time, Toronto: Univ Of Toronto Press, p. xi, ISBN 0-8020-8086-3  ^ FNP Interactive - http://www.fnpInteractive.com (December 19, 2008). "The Frederick News-Post Online – Frederick County Maryland Daily Newspaper". Fredericknewspost.com. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-02. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Noveck, Jocelyn (2009-01-11), "In Obama, many see an end to the baby boomer era".[1]. ^ CDC Bottom of this page https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsus.htm "Vital Statistics of the United States, 2003, Volume I, Natality", Table 1-1 "Live births, birth rates, and fertility rates, by race: United States, 1909–2003." ^ Reader's Digest August 1951 pg. 5 ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "baby, n. and adj." ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1991). Generations: The History of Americas Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow. pp. 299–316. ISBN 0-688-11912-3.  ^ Green, Brent (2006). Marketing
Marketing
to Leading-Edge Baby Boomers: Perceptions, Principles, Practices, Predictions. New York: Paramount Market Publishing. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0976697351.  ^ Canada
Canada
(June 24, 2006). "By definition: Boom, bust, X and why". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2010.  ^ Owram, Doug (1997), Born at the Right Time, Toronto: University Of Toronto Press, p. xiv, ISBN 0-8020-8086-3  ^ Salt, Bernard (2004), The Big Shift, South Yarra, Vic.: Hardie Grant Books, ISBN 978-1-74066-188-1  ^ [2] Archived March 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - About this Release". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-10-12.  ^ Walker, Duncan (Sept 16, 2004) "Live Fast, Die Old", BBC News site. Retrieved 2007-01-26. ^ Gillon, Steve (2004) Boomer Nation: The Largest and Richest Generation
Generation
Ever, and How It Changed America, Free Press, "Introduction", ISBN 0-7432-2947-9 ^ "Population: Babies Mean Business", Newsweek, August 9, 1948. Retrieved 2007-01-26. Archived January 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Baby Boom", Time, February 9, 1948. Retrieved 2007-01-26. ^ Economy faces bigger bust without Boomers, Reuters, Jan 31, 2008 ^ Chosewood, L. Casey (July 19, 2012). "Safer and Healthier at Any Age: Strategies for an Aging Workforce". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2012-07-31.  ^ Planes, Alex (June 29, 2013). "How the Baby Boomers Destroyed America's Future". The Motley Fool. The Motley Fool. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ Half of Baby Boomers to Leave Inheritance
Inheritance
to Kids ^ Sullivan, Andrew (November 6, 2007). "Goodbye to all of that". Theatlantic.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ Broder, John M. (January 21, 2007). "Shushing the Baby Boomers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010.  ^ Bowman, Karlyn (2011-09-12). "As the boomers turn". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-04-13.  ^ Ostling, Richard N., "The Church Search", April 5, 1993 Time article retrieved 2007-01-27 ^ "The Whys and Hows of Generations Research". Pew Center. September 3, 2015 ^ Schuman, H. and Scott, J. (1989), Generations and collective memories, American Sociological Review, vol. 54 (3), 1989, pp. 359–81. ^ Howe, Neil (27 August 2014). " Generation
Generation
X: Once Xtreme, Now Exhausted". Forbes. Retrieved 6 August 2016.  ^ Miller, Jon (Fall 2011). "The Generation
Generation
X Report: Active, Balanced, and Happy" (PDF). Longitudinal Study of American Youth – University Of Michigan. p. 1. Retrieved 2013-05-29.  ^ "National Geographic Channel's Six-Part Limited Series "Generation X," Narrated by Christian Slater, Premieres Sunday, Feb. 14, at 10/9c". Multichannel News. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ " Generation
Generation
X Employees Struggle the Most Financially, Most Likely to Dip into Retirement Savings, According to PwC Study". PrincewaterhouseCoopers. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ "How baby boomers will affect the health care industry in the U.S. Carrington.edu". carrington.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-08.  ^ Baby boomers
Baby boomers
lag in preparing funerals, estates, etc. The Business Journal of Milwaukee – December 18, 1998 by Robert Mullins. Retrieved 2007-06-18. ^ Article in the New York Times, March 30, 1998 Archived July 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Retirement? For More Baby Boomers, The Answer Is No". ThirdAge Staff. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011.  ^ "Redefining Retirement: A Much Longer Lifespan means more to Consider". Living Better at 50. Retrieved August 17, 2011.  ^ Raines, Claire (1997). Beyond Generation X. Crisp Publications. ISBN 978-1560524496.  ^ Isabel Sawhill, Ph.D; John E. Morton (2007). "Economic Mobility: Is the American Dream Alive and Well?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 29, 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.  ^ Steuerle, Eugene; Signe-Mary McKernan; Caroline Ratcliffe; Sisi Zhang (2013). "Lost Generations? Wealth Building Among Young Americans" (PDF). Urban Institute. Retrieved 22 March 2013.  ^ Economic Mobility Project ^ Ellis, David (2007-05-25). "Making less than dad did". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-03.  ^ Beutler, Brian (2016-09-20). "Don't Blame Millennials
Millennials
for This Scarily Close Election. Blame Baby Boomers". New Republic. Retrieved 2016-09-27.  ^ Metcalf, Stephen (1 May 2016). "Donald Trump, Baby Boomer". Slate. Retrieved 28 January 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Betts, David (2013). Breaking The Gaze. Kindle. ISBN 1494300079.  Cheung, Edward (2007). Baby Boomers, Generation X and Social Cycles, Volume 1: North American Long-waves. Longwave Press. ISBN 9781896330068.  Gibney, Bruce (2017). A Generation
Generation
of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America. Hachette Books. ISBN 978-0316395786.  Green, Brent (2006). Marketing
Marketing
to Leading-Edge Baby Boomers: Perceptions, Principles, Practices, and Predictions. Ithaca, NY: Paramount Market Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0976697350.  Green, Brent (2010). Generation
Generation
Reinvention: How Boomers Today Are Changing Business, Marketing, Aging and the Future. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4502-5533-2.  Willett, David (2011). The Pinch: How the Baby Boomers Took Their Children's Future - and Why They Should Give It Back. Atlantic Books. ISBN 9781848872325.  Foot, David K. (1996). Boom Bust & Echo--How to Profit From the Coming Demographic Shift. Toronto, Canada: Macfarlane, Walter & Ross. ISBN 0-921912-97-8. 

External links[edit]

Booming: Living Through the Middle Ages - a New York Times
New York Times
series about baby boomers Baby Boomers at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Baby boomers
Baby boomers
of New Zealand and Australia Boomer Revolution, official site

v t e

Social generations of Western society

Lost Generation Interbellum Generation G.I. Generation Silent Generation Baby boomers Generation
Generation
X Millennials
Millennials
( Generation
Generation
Y) Generation
Generation
Z

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation
Generation
Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers

.