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Avianca
Avianca
S.A. (acronym in Spanish for "Aerovías del Continente Americano S.A.", Airways of the American Continent) is a Colombian airline that has been the national airline and flag carrier of Colombia[3][4] since 5 December 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA.[5][6] It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C.
Bogotá, D.C.
with its main hub at El Dorado International Airport. Avianca
Avianca
also comprises a group of seven Latin American airlines, whose operations are combined to function as one airline using a code sharing system. Avianca
Avianca
is the largest airline in Colombia
Colombia
and second largest in Latin America. Avianca
Avianca
together with its subsidiaries has the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America.[7] It is wholly owned by Synergy Group S.A., a South American holding company established by Germán Efromovich
Germán Efromovich
and specializing in air transport. It is listed on the Colombia
Colombia
Stock Exchange.[8] Avianca
Avianca
is the world's second oldest airline after KLM, and celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2009, when it was announced that it would merge with TACA. It is the oldest airline in the Western Hemisphere.[9] It became an official member of Star Alliance
Star Alliance
on 21 June 2012, after a process that lasted approximately 18 months from the initial announcement[10] of their invitation to join the Alliance.[11]

Contents

1 History

1.1 SCADTA
SCADTA
(1919–1940) 1.2 National Airways of Colombia
Colombia
(1940–1994) 1.3 Merger and alliance (1994–2002) 1.4 Summa Alliance (2002–04) 1.5 American Continent Airways (2004–09) 1.6 Avianca-TACA merger (2009–13)

1.6.1 Star Alliance

1.7 Avianca Holdings
Avianca Holdings
S.A. (2013–present)

2 Headquarters 3 Destinations

3.1 Subsidiaries 3.2 Frequent Flyer Program 3.3 Codeshare agreements

4 LifeMiles 5 Fleet

5.1 Retired

6 Incidents and accidents 7 Certifications 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] SCADTA
SCADTA
(1919–1940)[edit]

SCADTA
SCADTA
Junkers
Junkers
W 34 "Magdalena"; circa 1920s.

The airline traces its history back to 5 December 1919, in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia. Colombians Ernesto Cortissoz (the first President of the Airline), Rafael Palacio, Cristóbal Restrepo, Jacobo Correa and Aristides Noguera and Germans Wilhem Schnurbusch, Werner Kämerer, Stuart Hosie and Albert Tietjen founded the Colombo-German Company, called Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transporte Aéreo or SCADTA. The company accomplished their first flight between Barranquilla
Barranquilla
and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia
Colombia
using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail. The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn. This and another aircraft of the same type were completely mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climate of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a total range of 850 km (528 mi) which could carry up to four passengers and two crewmen. Due to the topographic characteristics of the country and the lack of airports at the time, floats were adapted for two of the Junkers
Junkers
aircraft to make water landings in the rivers near different towns. Using these floats, Helmuth von Krohn was able to perform the first inland flight over Colombia
Colombia
on 20 October 1920, following the course of the Magdalena River; the flight took eight hours and required four emergency landings in the water. Soon after the airline was founded, German scientist and philanthropist Peter von Bauer became interested in the airline and contributed general knowledge, capital and a tenth aircraft for the company, as well as obtaining concessions from the Colombian government to operate the country's airmail transportation division using the airline, which began in 1922. This new contract allowed SCADTA
SCADTA
to thrive in a new frontier of aviation. By the mid-1920s, SCADTA
SCADTA
started its first international routes that initially covered destinations in Venezuela
Venezuela
and the United States. In 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were flying crashed into an area currently known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla, killing them. In the early 1940s, Peter von Bauer sold his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan American World Airways. National Airways of Colombia
Colombia
(1940–1994)[edit]

Avianca
Avianca
Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation at Miami
Miami
International Airport (1965).

Avianca
Avianca
Boeing 720
Boeing 720
at El Dorado International Airport
El Dorado International Airport
(1972).

Avianca
Avianca
Boeing 747
Boeing 747
at Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport
(1993).

On 14 June 1940, in the city of Barranquilla, SCADTA, under ownership by United States
United States
businessmen, merged with Colombian Air Carrier SACO (acronym of Servicio Aéreo Colombiano), forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia
Colombia
S.A. or Avianca. Five Colombians participated in this: Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. Corea, Cristobal Restrepo, and Aristides Noguera, as well as German citizens Albert Teitjen, Werner Kaemerer and Stuart Hosie, while the post of first President of Avianca
Avianca
was filled by Martín del Corral. In 1946, Avianca
Avianca
began flights to Quito, Lima, Panama City, Miami, New York City and Europe, using Douglas DC-4s and C-54 Skymasters. In 1951, Avianca
Avianca
acquired Lockheed 749 Constellations and 1049 Super Constellations. In 1961, Avianca
Avianca
leased two Boeing 707
Boeing 707
aircraft, to operate its international routes and on 2 November 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s. In 1976, Avianca
Avianca
became the first Latin American airline to continuously operate[clarification needed] a Boeing 747. Three years later, it started operations with another 747, this time a 747 Combi, mixing cargo and passenger operations. Merger and alliance (1994–2002)[edit]

Avianca
Avianca
Boeing 767
Boeing 767
(2004)

Avianca
Avianca
Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-200
at El Dorado International Airport
El Dorado International Airport
(2009).

In 1994, Avianca, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol, merged, beginning Avianca's new system of operations. This arrangement allowed for specialized services in cargo ( Avianca
Avianca
Cargo) and postal services, as well as a more modern fleet, made up of Boeing 767–200s, Boeing 767–300s, Boeing 757–200s, McDonnell Douglas MD-83s, Fokker 50s, and Bell helicopters. By 1996, Avianca
Avianca
Postal Services became Deprisa, which provided various mail services. Summa Alliance (2002–04)[edit] After the September 11 attacks, Avianca, the regional carrier SAM Colombia, and its major rival ACES Colombia
Colombia
joined efforts to create Alianza Summa, which began merged operations on 20 May 2002. In November 2003, Alianza Summa was disbanded and ACES Colombia
Colombia
was liquidated altogether and SAM Colombia
Colombia
was acquired to be a regional carrier under Avianca's brand. American Continent Airways (2004–09)[edit] On 10 December 2004, Avianca
Avianca
concluded a major reorganization process, undertaken after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, by obtaining confirmation of its reorganization plan, which was financially backed by the Brazilian consortium, OceanAir/Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, allowing the airline to obtain funds for US$63 million, in the 13 months following withdrawal from bankruptcy. Under this plan, Avianca
Avianca
was bought by Synergy Group, and was consolidated with its subsidiaries OceanAir
OceanAir
and VIP Ecuador. The company's full name was changed from Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia (National Airways of Colombia) to Aerovías del Continente Americano (Airways of the American Continent). In 2009, OceanAir
OceanAir
and VIP were re-branded as Avianca
Avianca
Brazil
Brazil
and Avianca
Avianca
Ecuador, respectively. Avianca-TACA merger (2009–13)[edit] In 2009, it was announced that Avianca
Avianca
would merge with TACA.[12][13] This created AviancaTaca Holdings, which instantly became one of the region's largest airlines, with 129 aircraft and flights to more than 100 destinations. In November 2009, the airline's Chief Executive Fabio Villegas announced that the airline was looking to replace its Fokker 50
Fokker 50
and Fokker 100
Fokker 100
aircraft with newer aircraft of 100 seats or less.[14] On 1 January 2011, the airline decided to retire the Fokker 100
Fokker 100
aircraft in 2011 and replace them with 10 Airbus
Airbus
A318 leased from GECAS. The aircraft were delivered from February to April 2011. Star Alliance[edit]

Avianca
Avianca
Boeing 787-8
Boeing 787-8
Dreamliner (2015)

On 10 November 2010, Star Alliance
Star Alliance
announced that Avianca
Avianca
(and its merger counterpart, TACA) were full members in 2012. Due to Avianca's entry into Star Alliance, it ended its codeshare agreement with Delta Air Lines and began a new codeshare agreement with United Airlines. TACA had been codesharing with United Airlines
United Airlines
since 2006.[15] On 21 June 2012, Avianca
Avianca
and TACA were both officially admitted into Star Alliance. Avianca Holdings
Avianca Holdings
S.A. (2013–present)[edit] TACA and all other AviancaTaca airlines changed their brand to Avianca on 28 May 2013. On 21 March 2013, at the annual general meeting, the shareholders approved the change of corporate name from AviancaTaca Holdings S.A. to Avianca Holdings
Avianca Holdings
S.A.[16] Headquarters[edit]

Avianca
Avianca
headquarters designed by Esguerra Saenz Urdaneta Samper

Avianca's headquarters are on Avenida El Dorado and between Avenida la Esmeralda and Gobernación de Cundinamarca, located in the Ciudad Salitre area of Bogotá. The building is located next to the Gran Estación.[17] Its previous head office was at Avenida El Dorado No. 93-30.[18] Destinations[edit] Main article: Avianca
Avianca
destinations

Countries with destinations of Avianca
Avianca
(including seasonal and future destinations).   Colombia    Avianca
Avianca
Destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Airbus
Airbus
A330 cabin.

Avianca's hubs are in Bogotá at El Dorado International Airport, in San Salvador
San Salvador
at Monseñor Óscar Arnulfo Romero International Airport and in Lima
Lima
at Jorge Chávez International Airport. Its focus cities are Medellín, Cali, Cartagena, Barranquilla, San José and Quito
Quito
as well as Miami, where Avianca
Avianca
is the largest foreign carrier by number of passengers. The airline covers 114 destinations in 27 countries. Subsidiaries[edit]

Avianca's subsidiaries destinations

Company Number of destinations List

Avianca 54 Avianca
Avianca
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Argentina 2 Avianca
Avianca
Argentina
Argentina
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Costa Rica 12 Avianca Costa Rica
Avianca Costa Rica
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Ecuador 15 Avianca Ecuador
Avianca Ecuador
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
El Salvador 27 Avianca El Salvador
Avianca El Salvador
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Peru 32 Avianca Perú
Avianca Perú
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Guatemala 11 Avianca Guatemala
Avianca Guatemala
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Cargo 20 Avianca Cargo
Avianca Cargo
destinations

Avianca
Avianca
Honduras 4 Avianca Honduras
Avianca Honduras
destinations

Frequent Flyer Program[edit] Avianca
Avianca
launched their LifeMiles frequent-flyer program in 2011, replacing AviancaPlus. The levels include Silver, Gold and Diamond, replacing the former Basic, Gold, Platinum, and Platinum Executive levels. This program covers all Avianca Holdings
Avianca Holdings
airlines. Codeshare agreements[edit] Avianca
Avianca
has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[19]

Aeroméxico Air Canada All Nippon Airways Avianca
Avianca
Brazil Avianca
Avianca
El Salvador Copa Airlines Cubana de Aviacion Etihad Airways EVA Air Iberia Lufthansa Silver Airways Singapore Airlines[20][21] TAME Turkish Airlines United Airlines

LifeMiles[edit] The frequent flyer program of Avianca
Avianca
and its subsidiaries is LifeMiles.This program is to reward customer loyalty. The membership is free and you can register online. LifeMiles members earn miles every time they fly with Star Alliance
Star Alliance
members, Avianca
Avianca
subsidiaries or use service in some hotels, retails, car rental and credit card partners. LifeMiles has three Elite Tiers:

Silver ( Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Silver) Gold ( Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Gold) Diamond ( Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Diamond)

Fleet[edit]

Avianca
Avianca
Airbus
Airbus
A330-200, in the post-2013 livery, arrives London Heathrow Airport (2015)

Avianca
Avianca
A330

As of March 2017, the Avianca
Avianca
Holding S.A. fleet consists of the following aircraft:[22]

Avianca
Avianca
Fleet

Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers Notes

C Y Total

Airbus
Airbus
A318-100 10 — 12 88 100

Airbus
Airbus
A319-100 15[23] — 12 108 120

Airbus
Airbus
A319neo — 20[24] TBA

Airbus
Airbus
A320-200 39 — 12 138 150

Airbus
Airbus
A320neo 2 98[24] 12 141 153

Airbus
Airbus
A321-200 5 3 12 182 194

Airbus
Airbus
A321neo 2 15[24] 12 183 195 First A321neo operator in Latin-America and second in America

Airbus
Airbus
A330-200 8[23] — 30 222 252 Planned to be transferred to Avianca
Avianca
Brasil To be replaced by A321neos and Boeing 787-9s.

Airbus
Airbus
A330-300 2 — TBA Taken over from former TransAsia Airways
TransAsia Airways
fleet.

ATR 72-600 10[23] — — 68 68

Boeing 787-8[25] 12[23] — 28 222 250

Boeing 787-9 — 8 TBA Delivery begins mid-2018

Cessna 208 11 — — 12 12

Embraer 190 12 — 8 88 96

Avianca Cargo
Avianca Cargo
Fleets

Airbus
Airbus
A330-200F 5 — Cargo

Total 132 142

Avianca's first Boeing 787-8
Boeing 787-8
Dreamliner was delivered on 17 December 2014 and launched its first service on 16 January 2015 between Bogotá and New York.[26] Erroneously, Avianca Holdings
Avianca Holdings
has been associated with the purchase of ten units of the Airbus
Airbus
A350-900 XWB.[citation needed] However, the purchase was made by Grupo Synergy, owner of Avianca Brasil
Avianca Brasil
and main shareholder of Avianca
Avianca
Holdings. The purchase is destined to Avianca Brasil, which is not a subsidiary of Avianca
Avianca
Holdings.[27][28] Retired[edit]

Avianca
Avianca
former fleet[29][30]

Aircraft Introduced Retired Notes

Fokker 100 2005 2011 replaced by Airbus
Airbus
A318.

McDonnell Douglas MD-11ER 1999 1999

Fokker 50 1993 2014 replaced by ATR 72-600

McDonnell Douglas MD-83 1992 2011

Boeing 757–200 1992 2010 Many aircraft have been converted to freighters and sold to FedEx Express.[31]

Boeing 767-300 1994 2010

Boeing 767–200 1989 2011

Boeing 727–100 1966 1992

Boeing 727–200 1978 1998

Boeing 707–300 1969 1993 One was written off as Avianca
Avianca
Flight 52

Boeing 720 1961 1984

Boeing 747 1976 1995 Initially had 1 -100, 2 -200M and 2 -100F.[32] One -200M written off as Avianca
Avianca
Flight 011

Boeing 737–100 1968 1971 First Latin American airline to operate the 737-100

Hawker Siddeley HS 748 1968 1978

Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation 1958 1968

Lockheed L-749 Constellation 1956 1968

Curtiss C-46 Commando 1950 ?

Douglas C-54 Skymaster 1948 1975

Consolidated PBY Catalina 1946 ?

Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar ? ?

Douglas DC-4 1945 1970

Douglas DC-3 1939 1975

Douglas DC-2/C-39 1944 ?

Boeing 247D 1937 1947

Fokker Super Universal 1931 1934

Ford 5-AT-DS Trimotor 1932 1946

Sikorsky S-38 1929 ?

de Havilland Tiger Moth ? ?

de Havilland Giant Moth ? ?

Junkers
Junkers
W 34 1929 1947

Junkers
Junkers
W 33 1928 1932

Dornier Do J ? ?

Dornier Merkur 1927 ?

Dornier Komet ? ?

Junkers
Junkers
F.13 1920 1939

Incidents and accidents[edit] The airline suffered a few incidents during the 1980s and early 1990s. The deadliest of those incidents was Avianca
Avianca
Flight 203, which was bombed in 1989, following orders from Pablo Escobar
Pablo Escobar
to kill presidential candidate César Gaviria Trujillo. In the aftermath, it was found that Gaviria had not boarded the aircraft. Only one successful bombing has occurred in the airline's history, while most other gang related incidents were related to hijackings or shootings on board. In most hijackings, all passengers and crew members, unaffiliated with the hijacker's cause, were immediately released.

On 22 January 1947, a Douglas C-53B, registered C-108, crashed in the Magdalena river valley, killing all 17 people on board.[33] On 9 August 1954, a Lockheed L-749A Constellation, registered HK-163, crashed three minutes after take off from Lajes Field, Azores, after it flew left into the hills instead of right towards the sea. All 30 on board died.[34] On 9 March 1955, a Douglas C-47A, registered HK-328, crashed at Trujillo, Colombia, killing all eight on board. The wreckage was found a month later, but some of the gold and cargo was missing.[35] On 23 June 1959, a Douglas DC-4, registered HK-135 and operating Flight 667, struck Cerro Baco mountain while en route to Lima, Peru, killing all 14 aboard.[36] On 21 January 1960, a Lockheed L-1049E operating Flight 671 crashed and burned on landing at Montego Bay International Airport in Jamaica, killing 37 aboard.[37] On 22 March 1965, a Douglas C-47-DL, registered HK-109 and operating Flight 676, struck Pan de Azucar at an elevation of 7,200 feet (2,200 m), killing all 29 on board. The cause was the decision of the pilot to fly VFR in conditions that required IFR.[38] On 15 January 1966, Avianca Flight 4
Avianca Flight 4
crashed shortly after takeoff from Cartagena-Crespo Airport. The cause was determined to be maintenance problems, possibly compounded by pilot error. On 22 September 1966, a Douglas DC-4, registered HK-174 and operating Flight 870, crashed while attempting to return to Eldorado Airport due to engine problems, killing both pilots. The cause was traced to a failure in the governor control unit. Improper supervision by the company was a contributing factor, as the pilot was briefed to make a night flight while he was in conversion training for the L-749.[39] On 24 December 1966, a Douglas C-47A, registered HK-161 and operating Flight 729, struck Cerro Las Animas at an elevation of 11,600 feet (3,500 m) while approaching Pasto, killing all 29 on board. A combination of poor CRM, pilot intoxication, deviation from route, and pilot error was cited as the cause.[40] On 21 May 1970, a Douglas DC-3, registered HK-121, was hijacked to Yariguíes Airport, Barrancabermeja
Barrancabermeja
whilst on a flight from El Alcaraván Airport, Yopal
Yopal
to Alberto Lleras Carmargo Airport, Sogamoso. The hijackers had demanded to be taken to Cuba.[41] On 29 July 1972, two Douglas C-53s, registered HK-107 and HK-1341, were involved in a mid-air collision over the Las Palomas Mountains. Both aircraft crashed, killing 21 people on HK-107 and 17 people on HK-1341. Both aircraft were operating domestic scheduled passenger flights from La Vanguardia Airport, Villavicencio
Villavicencio
to El Yopal Airport.[42][43] On 22 August 1973, a Douglas DC-3A, registered HK-111, crashed into a hill near Casanare, Colombia, killing 16 of the 17 people on board. The aircraft was operating a domestic scheduled passenger flight from La Vanguardia Airport, Villavicencio
Villavicencio
to El Alcaraván Airport, Yopal.[44] On 12 August 1974, a Douglas C-47, registered HK-508, flew into Trujillo Mountain, killing all 27 people on board. The aircraft was on a domestic scheduled passenger flight from El Dorado Airport, Bogotá to La Florida Airport, Tumaco.[45] On 27 November 1983, a Boeing 747–200 operating Flight 011 crashed onto a mountain just short of landing at Barajas Airport in Madrid, killed 181 of the 192 people aboard. The cause was determined to be pilot error. On 17 March 1988, a Boeing 727
Boeing 727
operating Flight 410 crashed into low mountains near Cúcuta
Cúcuta
– Norte de Santander, Colombia
Colombia
after take-off, killing all 143 on board. It was determined that pilot error was also the cause of this crash, in a situation similar to Flight 011. On 27 November 1989, a bomb destroyed Avianca
Avianca
Flight 203. All 110 passengers and crew were killed. On 25 January 1990, Avianca
Avianca
Flight 52, a Boeing 707–320 operating Flight 52 en route from Bogotá to New York City
New York City
via Medellín
Medellín
crashed in the town of Cove Neck, New York, after running out of fuel while in a holding pattern, awaiting landing at New York's Kennedy Airport, killing 73 of the 158 people aboard. On 26 April 1990, 19th of April Movement
19th of April Movement
presidential candidate Carlos Pizarro was gunned down during a domestic Avianca
Avianca
flight.[46][47] On 12 April 1999, a Fokker 50
Fokker 50
operating Flight 9463 from Bogotá to Bucaramanga
Bucaramanga
was hijacked by 6 ELN members, who forced the plane to make an emergency landing on a clandestine runway in the Bolivar region. One passenger died during captivity, the rest were eventually liberated a year after the hijack.[48]

Certifications[edit] In the field of security, Avianca
Avianca
has different international certifications that guarantee the quality of its procedures and safety standards in their services of maintenance, training and support to aircraft. In addition, on November 27, 2008 it received certification ISAGO ( IATA
IATA
Safety Audit for Ground Operations), being the first airline in the world to receive it. ISAGO certifies the compliance with the standards and practices for the control and management of the processes of care and boarding of passengers, cargo, luggage, as well as assistance and handling of aircraft.[49] References[edit]

^ "Servicio Service/Flota Fleet". Avianca
Avianca
en revista. 2016. pp. 116–117. ISSN 1909-1281. Retrieved 21 January 2017.  ^ "Resultados Avianca
Avianca
2009" (PDF). Avianca.fr. Retrieved 29 September 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez; Jorge Humberto Botero Angulo (7 March 2005). "Decreto número 604 de 2005 por el cual se concede la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Decree number 604 of 2005 which grants to Avianca
Avianca
the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo de la República de Colombia.  ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez (7 March 2005). "Discurso de entrega de la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Presidential address on the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer to Avianca] (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Presidencia de la República de Colombia. Nosotros no podemos perder la oportunidad de tener en Bogotá ese gran centro de conexiones. Y por supuesto, que lo haga la compañía bandera de Colombia, que es Avianca. Eso lo tiene que explicar el Gobierno a la opinión pública clara y paladinamente, sin malicias, sin cartas escondidas, y salir a defenderlo y decir por qué hay que hacerlo.  ^ Simón Rodríguez Rodríguez (21 September 1989). "Sentencia del Honorable Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia
Colombia
con relación al proceso número 132 que reposa en el expediente del año 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)" [Sentence of the Honourable Council of State of the Republic of Colombia
Colombia
in relation to the process number 132 which rests on the record of 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)] (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C.
Bogotá, D.C.
(Colombia): Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia. pp. 10, 16, 5th paragraph. Archived from the original (.doc) on 2011-07-04. Desde ningún punto de vista puede abrigarse duda alguna acerca del carácter eminentemente privado de la empresa Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia
Colombia
AVIANCA S. A. La prueba por excelencia en este caso, como es el certificado expedido por el Secretario de la Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla
Barranquilla
así lo determina (fls. 2 a 10). En él se lee que la empresa se constituyó por escritura pública número 2374, otorgada ante Notaría Segunda de Barranquilla, el día 5 de diciembre de 1919, registrada en el Juzgado Tercero del mismo Circuito, llamada inicialmente Sociedad Colombo – Alemana de Transportes Aéreos -SCADTA-.  ^ Friedman, Max Paul (April 2000). "Specter of a Nazi Threat: United States-Colombian Relations, 1939–1945". The Americas. 4. Washington, D.C. (United States): Catholic University of America Press on behalf of Academy of American Franciscan History. 56: 563–589 [566 2nd paragraph]. JSTOR 1008173.  ^ "Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.  ^ "Flightgobal: Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal.com. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ Brown, Claire (28 July 1998). "National Air and Space Museum Exhibition Examines the Development of Latino Aviation". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08. SCADTA
SCADTA
Junkers
Junkers
F 13, one of the first commercial airlines in Colombia. SCADTA
SCADTA
(now known as AVIANCA) is the oldest, continuously operating airline in the Western Hemisphere.  ^ "Avianca-Taca and Copa Airlines
Copa Airlines
to join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Avianca, Taca Airlines and Copa Airlines
Copa Airlines
join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ " Avianca
Avianca
confirms 'strategic merger' with TACA". Flightglobal. 10 July 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  ^ "Latin American airlines to merge". BBC. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ " Avianca
Avianca
looking to replace Fokkers 100". Eturbonews.com. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ "Copa Airlines, Copa Airlines
Copa Airlines
Colombia, United Airlines
United Airlines
and Avianca-TACA announce their intention to establish close cooperation agreements". avianca.co.uk. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ " Avianca
Avianca
se quitó el apellido Taca". ElEspectador. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Buitrago, Alejandra. " Avianca
Avianca
tendrá nueva sede administrativa a comienzos del 2009 en Eje Empresarial del Salitre m, portafolio.co, retrieved on 6 December 2015. "Será un edificio con 13.800 metros cuadrados de vidrio en sus fachadas, con un coeficiente de sombra de solo el 0,71% en diseño bioclimático que permitirá luz y aire naturales incluso en los sótanos." and "Su altura será de 46 metros y tres sótanos, para un área construida de 34.536 metros cuadrados. El primer piso tendrá locales comerciales y una amplia zona de parqueaderos." ^ Oficinas Colombia[dead link]." Avianca. 9 March 2000. Retrieved on 30 January 2011. ^ "Codeshare". www.avianca.com.  ^ " Avianca
Avianca
and Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
sign a codeshare agreement Avianca". www.avianca.com.  ^ " Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
And Avianca
Avianca
Sign Codeshare Agreement". www.singaporeair.com.  ^ http://www.avianca.com/en-uk/travel-information/before-your-flight/fleet.aspx ^ a b c d "Global Airline
Airline
Guide 2017 (Part One)". Airliner World (October 2017): 12.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c " Airbus
Airbus
O&D". Airbus
Airbus
S.A.S. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ "Boeing". Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ " Avianca
Avianca
Celebrates Arrival of the Dreamliner". Airliner World: 14. March 2015.  ^ http://www.airbus.com/presscentre/pressreleases/press-release-detail/detail/synergy-aerospace-to-acquire-ten-a350-xwb/ ^ http://aviationweek.com/awin/brazil-s-synergy-aerospace-acquire-10-airbus-a350-800s ^ " Avianca
Avianca
cumple 90 años" (PDF) (in Spanish). Avianca. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ Avianca
Avianca
(4 April 2010). "Nace una historia con alas" (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C.
Bogotá, D.C.
(Colombia): Avianca. [permanent dead link] ^ An example of one such aircraft; https://planefinder.net/data/aircraft/N959FD ^ " Avianca
Avianca
Fleet Details and History". Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Accident description for C-108 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013. ^ Accident description for HK-163 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 27 May 2012. ^ Accident description for HK-328 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013. ^ Accident description for HK-135 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013. ^ Jamaica Observer, "From Avianca
Avianca
to CanJet: MoBay Airport at Centre of J'can Aviation History", 22 April 2009 . Retrieved 25 April 2009. ^ Accident description for HK-109 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013. ^ Accident description for HK-174 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013. ^ Accident description for CCCP-M25 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013. ^ "Hijacking description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ "HK-107 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 5 September 2010.  ^ "HK-1341 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 5 September 2010.  ^ "HK-111 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "HK-508 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 24 August 2010.  ^ "Colombia". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 18 December 2010.  ^ "Americas Massive security at Colombia's airports". BBC News. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 18 December 2010.  ^ "Recordando los 10 años del secuestro del Fokker de Avianca". Noticias ABC colombia. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2012.  ^ "Avianca, primera aerolínea en el mundo en recibir certificación 'Isago' de IATA, tras auditoría de seguridad". portafolio.co. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 

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