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Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
(Arabic: ابن رشد‎; full name Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد‎, translit. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd; 14 April 1126 – 10 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes (/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/), was a medieval Andalusian Arab
Arab
polymath. He wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, the Maliki
Maliki
school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political theory, the theory of Andalusian classical music, geography, mathematics, as well as the medieval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus (present-day Spain), and died at Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in present-day Morocco. His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba.[8] The 13th-century philosophical movement in Latin Christian
Christian
and Jewish tradition based on Ibn Rushd's work is called Averroism. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash'ari theologians led by Al-Ghazali. Although highly regarded as a legal scholar of the Maliki
Maliki
school of Islamic law, Ibn Rushd's philosophical ideas were considered controversial in Ash'arite Muslim circles.[9] Whereas al-Ghazali believed that any individual act of a natural phenomenon occurred only because God willed it to happen, Ibn Rushd insisted phenomena followed natural laws that God created.[10][11][12] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
had a greater impact on Christian
Christian
Europe, being known by the sobriquet "the Commentator" for his detailed emendations to Aristotle. Latin translations of Ibn Rushd's work led the way to the popularization of Aristotle.[13]

Contents

1 Name 2 Biography

2.1 Early life and education 2.2 Career

3 Works

3.1 Commentaries on Aristotle 3.2 Standalone philosophical works 3.3 Islamic theology 3.4 Medicine 3.5 Jurisprudence and law

4 Thoughts

4.1 The tradition of Islamic philosophy 4.2 Reconciliation of religion and philosophy 4.3 Nature of God 4.4 Eternity of the world 4.5 Politics 4.6 Physics 4.7 Astronomy 4.8 Psychology

5 Significance 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Works cited

9 Further reading 10 External links

10.1 Works of Averroes 10.2 Information about Averroes

Name[edit] See also: Latinization of names Ibn Rushd's full, transliterated Arabic name is "ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd".[14][15] "Averroes" is the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
form of "Ibn Rushd", derived from the Spanish pronunciation of the original Arabic name, wherein "Ibn" becomes "Aben" or "Aven".[16] The Latinized name is also spelled in some instances as "Averroës", "Averrhoës", or "Averroès", with the varying accents to mark that the "o" and "e" are separate vowels and not an "œ" diphthong.[17] Other forms of the name include: "Ibin-Ros-din", "Filius Rosadis", "Ibn-Rusid", "Ben-Raxid", "Ibn-Ruschod", "Den-Resched", "Aben-Rassad", "Aben-Rasd", "Aben-Rust", "Avenrosdy", "Avenryz", "Adveroys", "Benroist", "Avenroyth", and "Averroysta".[18] Biography[edit]

Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
was the preeminent philosopher in the history of Al-Andalus. 14th-century painting by Andrea di Bonaiuto

Early life and education[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Rushd was born in 1126 in Córdoba to a family with a long and well-respected tradition of legal and public service. His grandfather, Abu al-Walid Muhammad
Muhammad
(d. 1126) was the chief judge (qadi) of Córdoba as well as the imam of the Great Mosque of Córdoba under the Almoravids.[19] His father, Abu al-Qasim Ahmad, was not as celebrated as his grandfather, but was also qadi until the Almoravids were replaced by the Almohads in 1146.[20] Ibn Rushd's education was, according to his traditional biographers, "excellent",[19] beginning with studies in hadith (traditions of Prophet Muhammad), fiqh (jurisprudence), medicine and theology. He learned Maliki
Maliki
jurisprudence under al-Hafiz Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Rizq, and hadith with Ibn Bashkuwal, a student of his grandfather.[19][21] His father also taught him about jurisprudence, including on Imam Malik's magnum opus the Muwatta.[22] He studied medicine from Abu Jafar Jarim al-Tajail, who probably taught him philosophy too.[23] He also knew the works of the philosopher Ibn Bajjah (also known as Avempace), and might have known him personally or been tutored by him.[20][21] He also studied the kalam theology of the Ashari
Ashari
school, which he would criticize later in life.[23] His 13th century biographer Ibn al-Abbar mentioned that he was more interested in the study of law and its principles (usul) that that of hadith, and he was especially competent in the field of khilaf (disputes and controversies in the Islamic jurisprudence).[23] Ibn al-Abbar also mentioned his interests in "the sciences of the ancients", probably in reference to Greek philosophy and sciences.[23] Career[edit] By 1153, he was in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
(in present-day Morocco), the capital of the Almohad
Almohad
caliphate to perform astronomical observations, in order to find physical laws of astronomical movements instead of just mathematical laws known at the time, but this research was unsuccessful.[23] During his stay in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
he likely met Ibn Tufayl, a renowned philosopher and the author of Hayy ibn Yaqdhan who was also the court physician in Marrakesh.[23][21] Despite the differences in their philosophy, Averroes
Averroes
and ibn Tufayl became friends.[24][21] In 1169, Ibn Tufayl introduced Averroes
Averroes
to the Almohad
Almohad
caliph, Abu Yaqub Yusuf.[25][23] In a famous account reported by historian Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi, the caliph asked Averroes
Averroes
about whether the heavens had existed since eternity, or if it had a beginning.[25][23] Knowing that this question was controversial and worried that a wrong answer could put him in danger, Averroes
Averroes
was did not answer.[25] The caliph then elaborated the views of Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
and Muslim philosophers on the topic, and discussed them with Ibn Tufayl.[25][23] This display of knowledge Averroes
Averroes
at ease, and who then explained his own views on the issue, which impressed the caliph.[23] Averroes
Averroes
was similarly impressed by Abu Yaqub, and later said that the caliph had "a profuseness of learning I did not suspect".[25] After the introduction, Averroes
Averroes
remained in the Abu Yaqub's favor up until the caliph's death in 1184.[23] When the caliph complained about the difficulty in understanding Aristotle's work to ibn Tufayl, the philosopher recommended that Averroes
Averroes
to work on explaining it.[25][23] This was the beginning of Averroes' massive commentaries on Aristotle.[25] His very first works on Aristotle
Aristotle
were written in 1169.[25] In the same year, he was appointed qadi (judge) in Seville.[23][26] In 1171, he became qadi in his hometown Córdoba.[23][22] As qadi his day-to-day job was to decide cases and give fatwas (legal opinion) based on the Islamic law.[26] The rate of his writing increased during this time, despite other obligations and his travels within the Almohad
Almohad
empire.[23] Many of his works between 1169 and 1179 were dated in Seville rather than Córdoba.[23] In 1179 he was appointed qadi in Seville again.[22] In 1182 he succeeded his friend Ibn Tufayl as court physician, and later in the same year he was appointed the chief qadi of Córdoba, a prestigious office once held by his grandfather.[23][26] In 1184 Caliph Abu Yaqub died and was succeeded by Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur.[23] Initially, Averroes
Averroes
remained in royal favor, but in 1195 his fortune reversed.[23][25] Various charges were made against him and he was then tried by a tribunal in Córdoba.[25][23] The tribunal condemned his teachings, ordered his works burned and banished Averroes
Averroes
to the nearby Lucena.[23] Early biographers gave various reasons for this fall from grace, including a possible insult to the caliph in his writings,[25] but modern scholars attributed it to political reasons. The Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
argued that the caliph distanced himself from Averroes
Averroes
to gain support from more orthodox ulema, who opposed Averroes
Averroes
and whose support al-Mansur needed for his war against Christian
Christian
kingdoms.[23] Historian of Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
Majid Fakhry also argued that this was due to public pressure from traditional Maliki
Maliki
jurists opposed to Averroes.[25] After a few years, he returned to court in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
and was again in the caliph's favor.[23] However, he died shortly after, on 11 December 1198 (9 Safar 595 in the Islamic calendar).[23] He was initially buried in North Africa, but his body was later moved Córdoba for another funeral.[23] Future Sufi mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi (1165–1240) was present at the Córdoba funeral.[23] Works[edit]

Imaginary debate between Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
and Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century.[27]

See also: List of works by Averroes Ibn Rushd's first writings date from his age of 31 (year 1157).[28][better source needed] He was a prolific writer and his works, according to Fakhry, "covered a greater variety of subjects" than any of his predecessors in the East, including philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence or legal theory, and linguistics.[29] The largest share of his writing were commentaries or paraphrases on the works of Aristotle, which—especially the long ones—often contain his original thoughts.[30] In addition, French author Ernest Renan
Ernest Renan
wrote that Averroes
Averroes
had at least 67 original works, which included 28 works on philosophy, 20 on medicine, 8 on law, 5 on theology, and 4 on grammar, in addition to his commentaries on most of Aristotle's works and his commentary on Plato's The Republic.[31] Many of Averroes' works did not survive in Arabic, but survived in its Hebrew or Latin translations. For example, among the long commentaries of Aristotle, only "a tiny handful of Arabic manuscript remans".[32] Commentaries on Aristotle[edit]

The Long Commentary on Aristotle's On the Soul, French Manuscript, third quarter of the 13th century.

Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
wrote commentaries on nearly all of Aristotle's surviving works.[29] The only exception was Politics (Aristotle), which he did not have access to, so he wrote commentaries on Plato's Republic's instead.[29] He classified his commentaries into three categories, called by modern scholars short, middle and long commentaries.[33] The short commentaries (jami) were generally written in his early career and contain summaries of Aristotlean doctrines.[30] The middle commentaries (talkhis) contain paraphrases to clarify and simplify Aristotle's original text.[30] The middle commentaries were probably written in response to his patron and caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf's complaints about the difficulty in understanding Aristotle's original text, as well as to help others in a similar position.[30][33] The long commentaries (tafsir), or line-by-line commentaries include the whole text with a detailed analysis of each line.[34] The long commentaries are very detailed and contain high degree of original thought,[30] and were unlikely to be intended for the general audience.[33] Only five of Aristotle's works had all three types of commentaries: Physics, Metaphysics, On the Soul, On the Heavens, and Posterior Analytics.[29] Standalone philosophical works[edit] Other than commentaries, Averroes
Averroes
also wrote standalone philosophical treatises, including On the Intellect, On the Syllogism, On Conjunction with the Active Intellect, On Time, On the Heavenly Sphere and On the Motion of the Sphere. He also wrote several polemics: Essay on al-Farabi's Approach to Logic, as Compared to that of Aristotle, Methaphysical Questions Dealt with in the Book of Healing
Book of Healing
by Ibn Sina, and Rebuttal of Ibn Sina's Classification of Existing Entities.[29] Islamic theology[edit] Scholarly sources, including Fakhry and the Encyclopedia of Islam, named three theological works as Averroes' key writings in this area. Fasl al-Maqal ("The Decisive Treatise") is a 1178 treatise which argued for the compatibility of Islam
Islam
and philosophy.[35] Al-Kashf 'an Manahij al-Adillah ("Exposition of the Methods of Proof"), written in 1179 criticizes the theologies of the Asharites,[36] and laid out Averroes' argument for proving the existence of God, as well as his thoughts on God's attributes and actions.[37] The 1180 Tahafut al-Tahafut ("Incoherence of the Incoherence") is a rebuttal of al-Ghazali's (d. 1111) landmark criticism of philosophy The Incoherence of the Philosophers. It combines ideas in his commentaries and standalone works and uses them to respond to al-Ghazali.[38] In addition, the work also criticizes Avicenna
Avicenna
and his neo-Platonist tendencies, sometimes agreeing with al-Ghazali's critique against him.[38] Medicine[edit]

Title page from Colliget

Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
wrote a medical encyclopedia called Kulliyat ("Generalities", i. e. general medicine), known in its Latin translation as Colliget.[39] He also made a compilation of the works of Galen, and wrote a commentary on The Canon of Medicine
Medicine
(Al-Qanun fi 't-Tibb) of Avicenna
Avicenna
(Ibn Sina) (980–1037). Jurisprudence and law[edit] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
is also a highly regarded legal scholar of the Maliki school. Perhaps his best-known work in this field is "Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid, "a textbook of Maliki
Maliki
doctrine in a comparative framework, which is rendered in English as The Distinguished Jurist's Primer.[40] He is also the author of "al-Bayān wa'l-Taḥṣīl, wa'l-Sharḥ wa'l-Tawjīh wa'l-Ta`līl fi Masā'il al-Mustakhraja, "a long and detailed commentary based on the "Mustakhraja" of Muḥammad al-`Utbī al-Qurtubī. Thoughts[edit] Main article: Averroism The tradition of Islamic philosophy[edit] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
furthered the tradition of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world (falsafa). His commentaries removed the neo-Platonic bias of his predecessors.[2] Criticizing al-Farabi's attempt to merge Plato
Plato
and Aristotle's ideas, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
argued that Aristotle's philosophy diverged in significant ways from Plato's.[41] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
rejected Avicenna's Neoplatonism[42] which was partly based on the works of neo-Platonic philosophers, Plotinus
Plotinus
and Proclus, which were mistakenly attributed to Aristotle.[43] In metaphysics, or more exactly ontology, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
rejects the view advanced by Avicenna
Avicenna
that existence is merely accidental. Avicenna holds that "essence is ontologically prior to existence". The accidental are attributes which are not essential, but rather are additional contingent characteristics. Ibn Rushd, following Aristotle, holds that individual existing substances are primary. One may separate them mentally; however, ontologically speaking, existence and essence are one.[44][45][46] According to Fakhry,[47] this represents a change from Plato's theory of Ideas, where ideas precede particulars, to Aristotle's theory where particulars come first and the essence is "arrived at by a process of abstraction." Reconciliation of religion and philosophy[edit] His most important original philosophical work was The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-tahafut), in which he defended Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's (AD 1058–1111) claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers
The Incoherence of the Philosophers
(Tahafut al-falasifa).[48] Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
had argued that Aristotelianism, especially as presented in the writings of Avicenna, was self-contradictory and an affront to the teachings of Islam. In particular he argued that three philosophical points (viz. a pre-eternal world, God only knowing universal—that is to say, Platonic—characteristics of particulars, and a spiritual rather than physical resurrection) constituted not just heresy, but rather disbelief in Islam
Islam
itself.[49] Ibn Rushd's rebuttal was two-pronged: First, he contended that al-Ghazali's arguments were mistaken, arguing that the Qur'an
Qur'an
actually commanded devout Muslims to study of philosophy.[50] Second, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
contended that he actually agreed with al-Ghazali in regards to a number of the latter's criticisms of Avicenna; Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
argued that the system of Avicenna was a distortion of genuine Aristotelianism, and as a result, al-Ghazali was effectively aiming at the wrong target. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
thus argues that his own system is, as Roger Arnaldez notes, "a reconstruction of the true philosophy, that of Aristotle
Aristotle
himself, against the false, that of the neo-Platonic falāsifa, which distorted the thinking of Aristotle".[14] Whereas al-Ghazali believed that phenomenon such as cotton burning when coming into contact with fire happened each and every time only because God willed it to happen: "all earthly occurrences depend on heavenly occurrences."[51] Ibn Rushd, by contrast insisted while God created the natural law, humans "could more usefully say that fire cause cotton to burn—because creation had a pattern that they could discern."[10][11][12] In Fasl al-Maqal (Decisive Treatise), Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
argues for the legality of philosophical investigation under Islamic law, and that there is no inherent contradiction between philosophy and religion[52] In Kitab al-Kashf, which argued against the proofs of Islam
Islam
advanced by the Ash'arite school and discussed what proofs, on the popular level, should be used instead[citation needed]. Nature of God[edit] In the treatise Al-Kashf 'an Manahij al-Adilla fi ‘Aqaid al-Milla (The Exposition of the Methods of Proof Concerning the Beliefs of the Community), Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
examined and critiqued the doctrines of four sects of Islam: the Asharites, Mutazilites, the Sufis
Sufis
and the those whom he deems "literalists." While his work focuses on many topics, part of it examines the various sects' proofs for the existence of God, many of which Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
finds objectionable. After considering and critiquing the various argument, he argues that there are only two arguments that are worth upholding: the arguments from "providence" and "invention". The first argument considers the fact that the world and the universe seem fine-tuned to support human life. According to Ibn Rushd, given the fact that the universe seems to have been made just for humans, this suggests a creator who set the parameters of the universe in the first place. The second argument, also known as the teleological argument, contends that everything in the world appears as if it were invented. This leads to the conclusion that there is a designer behind creation.[50] In his philosophical treatises, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
affirms the doctrine of divine unity. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
also argues that God has seven divine attributes: knowledge, life, power, will, hearing, vision, and speech. In regards to the first, the philosopher argued that "God, being the cause of the universe, has knowledge based on being its cause; while humans have knowledge based on the effects of such causes."[50] Thus human knowledge and divine knowledge, while related, are different attributes. Given that life necessarily results from the natural world, and God is the creator of said world, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
thus contends that life is by necessity the second attribute of the divine. The attributes of will and power are essential aspects of what it means to be "God", and given that God exists (per the arguments given in the above paragraph), Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
logically concludes that he must also have these attributes by definition. As to speech, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
argues that knowledge and power inevitably give rise to speech, and given that God has the first two, he thus has the third. Finally, in regards to vision and speech, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
points out that because God created the world, he necessarily knows every part of it, just like an artist that understands their work intimately. Given that two elements of the world are the visual and the auditory, God must necessarily possess the vision and speech.[50] Eternity of the world[edit] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
looked to Aristotle
Aristotle
as to whether the world was eternal. In his Physics, the Greek philosopher argues that everything that comes into existence does so from a substratum. Therefore, if the underlying matter of the universe came into existence, it would come into existence from a substratum. But the nature of matter is precisely to be the substratum from which other things arise. Consequently, the underlying matter of the universe could have come into evidence only from an already existing matter exactly like itself; to assume that the underlying matter of the universe came into existence would require assuming that an underlying matter already existed. As this assumption is self-contradictory, Aristotle
Aristotle
argued, matter must be eternal.[53] Because in his eyes, " Aristotle
Aristotle
demonstrated the eternity of matter", Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
"abandon[ed] belief in the creation out of nothing."[14] This is not to say that Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
denied the Creation; rather, he proposed an eternal creation. Oliver Leaman explains Ibn Rushd's argument as such:

We [as humans] can decide to do something, we can wait for a certain time before acting, we can wonder about our future actions; but such possibilities cannot arise for [an eternal, omnipotent, omnipresent] God. In his case there is no gap between desire and action, nothing stands in the way of his activity; and yet we are told by al-Ghazali that God suddenly created the world. What differentiates one time from another for God? What could motivate him to create the world at one particular time as opposed to another? For us, different times are different because they have different qualitative aspects, yet before the creation of the world, when there was nothing around to characterize one time as distinct from another, there is nothing to characterize one time over another as the time for creation to take place.[54]

Politics[edit] Not having access to Aristotle's Politics, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
substituted against Plato's Republic. He advances an authoritarian ideal, following Plato's paternalistic model. Absolute monarchy, led by a philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires extensive use of coercion,[55] although persuasion is preferred and is possible if the young are properly raised.[56] Rhetoric, not logic, is the appropriate road to truth for the common man. Demonstrative knowledge via philosophy and logic requires special study. Rhetoric aids religion in reaching the masses.[57] Following Plato, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
accepts the principle of women's equality. They should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers.[58][59] He also accepts Plato's illiberal measures such as the censorship of literature. He uses examples from Arab
Arab
history to illustrate just and degenerate political orders.[60] Physics[edit] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
defined and measured force as "the rate at which work is done in changing the kinetic condition of a material body" and correctly argued "that the effect and measure of force is change in the kinetic condition of a materially resistant mass".[61] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
also developed the notion that bodies have a (non-gravitational) inherent resistance to motion into physics. This idea in particular was adopted by Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and subsequently by Johannes Kepler, who referred to this fact as "Inertia", a pivotal fundamental in Newtonian dynamics.[62][63] In optics, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
followed Alhazen's incorrect explanation that a rainbow is due to reflection, not refraction.[64] Astronomy[edit] Regarding his studies in astronomy, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
argued for a strictly concentric model of the universe, and explained sunspots and scientific reasoning regarding the occasional opaque colors of the moon. He also worked on the description of the spheres, and movement of the spheres.[65] Psychology[edit] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
also made some studies regarding Active intellect and Passive intellect, both of the following were formerly regarded subjects of Psychology.[9][66][67] Significance[edit]

Ibn Rushd, detail of the fresco The School of Athens
The School of Athens
by Raphael.

Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
is most famous for his commentaries of Aristotle's works, which had been mostly forgotten in the West. Before 1150, only a few of Aristotle's works existed in translation in Latin Europe, although the tradition of great philosophers and poets of antiquity continued to be studied and copied in the Greek Byzantium. It was to some degree through the Latin translations of Ibn Rushd's work beginning in the thirteenth century, that the legacy of Aristotle
Aristotle
was recovered in the Latin West. Ibn Rushd's work on Aristotle
Aristotle
spans almost three decades, and he wrote commentaries on almost all of Aristotle's work except for Aristotle's Politics, to which he did not have access. Hebrew translations of his work also had a lasting impact on Jewish philosophy. Moses Maimonides, Samuel Ben Tibbon, Juda Ben Solomon Choen, and Shem Tob Ben Joseph Falaquera were Jewish philosophers influenced by Ibn Rushd.[68] In regards to Muslim philosophy, in his work Fasl al-Maqāl (often translated into English as The Decisive Treatise), he stresses the importance of analytical thinking as a prerequisite to interpret the Qur'an. However, because his death coincided with a change in the culture of Al-Andalus, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
had no major influence on Islamic philosophic thought until modern times.[69] Those Islamic philosophers who did comment on his work often condemned his writings as unorthodox.[48] In the Christian
Christian
West, Ibn Rushd's ideas were assimilated by Siger of Brabant and Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and others (especially those from the University of Paris) who situated themselves in the Christian scholastic tradition, which valued Aristotelian logic. With that said, famous scholastics such as Aquinas did not refer to Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
by name, instead choosing to refer to him simply as "The Commentator" (with Aristotle
Aristotle
in turn being given the sobriquet "The Philosopher"). Ultimately, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
received a mixed reception from Christian Europe: while he was regarded fairly highly for his detailed commentaries on the works of Aristotle, his person philosophy—which came to be known as Averroism—was criticized for not being compatible with Christian
Christian
doctrine. The Catholic Encyclopedia, for instance, notes:

His doctrines had a varying fortune in Christian
Christian
schools. At first they secured a certain amount of adherence, then, gradually, their incompatibility with Christian
Christian
teaching became apparent, and finally, owing to the revolt of the Renaissance from everything Scholastic, they secured once more a temporary hearing. His commentaries, however, had immediate and lasting success. St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
used the "Grand Commentary" of Averroes
Averroes
as his model, being, apparently, the first Scholastic to adopt that style of exposition ... he always spoke of the Arabian commentator as one who had [in his view] perverted the Peripatetic tradition, but whose words, nevertheless, should be treated with respect and consideration.[70]

Indeed, Aquinas considered Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
to be the premiere commentator on Aristotle, but he disagreed with his religious and theological arguments.[70][71] In regards to this point, Norman Kretzmann argues that, through the use of the title "The Commentator", Aquinas was able to convey Ibn Rushd's understanding of Aristotle
Aristotle
without having to accept or condone Ibn Rushd's personal understanding of philosophy.[71] Legacy[edit]

Reflecting the deference that some medieval European scholars paid to him, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
is named by Dante in The Divine Comedy
The Divine Comedy
along with the thinkers and creative minds of ancient Greece and Rome whose spirits dwell in "the place that favor owes to fame" in Limbo. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
appears in a short story by Jorge Luis Borges, entitled "Averroes's Search", in which he is portrayed trying to find the meanings of the words tragedy and comedy. He is briefly mentioned in the novel Ulysses by James Joyce
James Joyce
alongside Maimonides. He appears to be waiting outside the walls of the ancient city of Cordoba in Alamgir Hashmi's poem "In Cordoba". The claim that Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
deserves equal respect with Maimonides
Maimonides
got the fictional Balthazar Abrabanel banished from Amsterdam by the Amsterdam rabbinate in Eric Flint's novel 1634. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
is the title of a play called The Gladius and The Rose, written by Tunisian writer Mohamed Ghozzi, and which took first prize in the theater festival in Charjah in 1999.[citation needed] In his memoir, the British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
recalls that his father adopted the family name "Rushdie" in honour of Ibn Rushd, who also appears as a character in Rushdie's novel, "Two Years Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights". The asteroid 8318 Averroes was named in his honor.[72] The plant genus Averrhoa
Averrhoa
was named after him. A lunar crater, ibn Rushd, was also named in his honor The Muslim pop musician Kareem Salama composed and performed a song in 2007 titled " Aristotle
Aristotle
and Averroes". Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
is the subject of the film Al Massir (Destiny) by Youssef Chahine. The Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
Prize for Freedom of Thought, awarded since 1999, is named after him.

See also[edit]

Islamic Golden Age Kalam
Kalam
cosmological argument

References[edit]

^ Liz Sonneborn: Averroes
Averroes
(Ibn Rushd)): Muslim scholar, philosopher, and physician of the twelfth century, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2005 (ISBN 1404205144, ISBN 978-1-4042-0514-7) p.31 [1] ^ a b (Leaman 2002, p. 27) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 1) ^ Charles Edwin Butterworth, Blake Andrée Kessel (eds.), The Introduction of Arabic Philosophy
Philosophy
Into Europe, BRILL, 1994, p. 55. ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. p. 12. ISBN 978-1780744209. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
admitted relying heavily on Averroes
Averroes
to understand Aristotle.  ^ "H-Net Reviews". H-net.org. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ " Spinoza
Spinoza
on Philosophy
Philosophy
and Religion: The Averroistic Sources" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-03.  ^ Duignan, Brian (2010). Medieval
Medieval
Philosophy: From 500 to 1500 Ce. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 102. ISBN 1615302441. Retrieved November 7, 2012.  ^ a b "Averroës (Ibn Rushd) > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy". Philosophybasics.com. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ a b Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia . macmillan. pp. 118–9. ISBN 9780099523277.  ^ a b For al-Ghazali's argument see The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Translated by Michael E. Marmura. 2nd ed, Provo Utah, 2000, pp.116-7. ^ a b For Ibn Rushd's response, see Khalid, Muhammad
Muhammad
A. ed. Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings, Cambridge UK, 2005, p.162 ^ Sonneborn, Liz (2006). Averroes
Averroes
(Ibn Rushd): Muslim Scholar, Philosopher, and Physician of the Twelfth Century. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 89. ISBN 1404205144. Retrieved November 3, 2012.  ^ a b c Arnaldez, Roger (2012). "Ibn Rus̲h̲d". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, T.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
(2 ed.). Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0340. Retrieved June 21, 2017 – via BrillOnline Reference Works.  ^ Rosenthal, Erwin I.J. (April 14, 2016). "Averroes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved June 21, 2017.  ^ Renan, Ernest (1882). Averroès et l'Averroïsme: Essai Historique (in French). Calmann-Lévy. p. 6. Retrieved June 21, 2017. Le nom latin d' Averroès s'est formé d'Ibn-Roschd par l'effet de la prononciation espagnole, où Ibn devient Aben ou Aven.  ^ Robert Irwin (2006). Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and its Discontents. The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-58567-835-8. ^ Renan, Ernest (1882). Averroès et l'Averroïsme: Essai Historique (in French). Calmann-Lévy. p. 6. Retrieved June 21, 2017. Peu de noms ont subi des transcriptions aussi variées : Ibin-Rosdin, Filius Rosadis, Ibn Rusid, Ben-Raxid, Ibn Ruschod, Ben-Resched, Aben Rassad, Aben-Rois, Aben-Rasd. Aben-Rust, Avenrosd, Avenryz, Adveroys, Benroist, Avenroyth, Averroysta, etc.  ^ a b c Arnaldez 1986, p. 909. ^ a b Hillier, Biography. ^ a b c d Wohlman 2009, p. 16. ^ a b c Dutton 1994, p. 190. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Arnaldez 1986, p. 910. ^ Fakhry 2001, p. 1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fakhry 2001, p. 2. ^ a b c Dutton 1994, p. 196. ^ "Inventions et decouvertes au Moyen-Age", Samuel Sadaune, p.112 ^ Kenny, Joseph. "Chronology of the works of Ibn-Rushd". Archived from the original on August 3, 2002. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  ^ a b c d e Fakhry 2001, p. 3. ^ a b c d e Taylor 2005, p. 181. ^ Ahmad, Jamil (September 1994), "Averroes", Monthly Renaissance, 4 (9), retrieved 2008-10-14  ^ Adamson 2016, p. 180. ^ a b c Adamson 2006, p. 180. ^ McGinnis & Reisman 2005, p. 295. ^ Arnaldez 1986, pp. 911–912. ^ Arnaldez 1986, pp. 913–914. ^ Arnaldez 1986, pp. 914. ^ a b Arnaldez 1986, pp. 915. ^ "ملخص لأعمال ابن زهر وابن رشد الطبية".  ^ Nyazee, The Distinguished Jurist's Primer, 2 vols. (Reading: Garnet Publishing 1994 & 1996) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 6) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 7) ^ Popkin, Richard H., ed. (1999). The Columbia History of Western Philosophy. MJF Books. pp. 184–185. . The works in question were the Liber de Causis
Liber de Causis
and The Theology
Theology
of Aristotle. ^ Hyman, Arthur, ed. (2010). Philosophy
Philosophy
in the Middle Ages: The Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Traditions (3rd ed.). Hackett Publishing Co. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-60384-208-2.  ^ (Fakhry 2001, pp. 8–9) ^ (Leaman 2002, p. 35) ^ (Fakhry 2001, pp. 8) ^ a b Esposito, John L. (ed.). "Ibn Rushd". The Islamic World: Past and Present. Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 8, 2017 – via Oxford Islamic Studies Online.  ^ Leaman, Oliver (2002). An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-521-79757-3.  ^ a b c d H. Chad Hillier (2006). Averroes
Averroes
(Averroes) (1126–1198 CE), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ^ Averroes. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
al-Qurtubi Averroes' Tahafut al-tahafut E-text Edition (The Incoherence of the Incoherence). 1. Translated by van den Bergh, Simon. Trustees of the "E. J. W. Gibb Memorial". Retrieved September 15, 2015.  ^ Sarrió, Diego R. (2015). "The Philosopher as the Heir of the Prophets: Averroes's Islamic Rationalism". Al-Qanṭara. 36 (1): 45–68. doi:10.3989/alqantara.2015.002. ISSN 1988-2955.  p.48 ^ Aristotle, Physics
Physics
I, 7. ^ Leaman, Oliver (1998). "Ibn Rushd, Abu'l Walid Muhammad
Muhammad
(1126-98)". In Craig, Edward. Routledge
Routledge
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. Retrieved June 21, 2017 – via Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
Online.  ^ Black, Antony (2011). The History of Islamic Political Thought (2nd ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7486-3987-8.  ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 106) ^ Robert Pasnau (Nov–Dec 2011). "The Islamic Scholar Who Gave Us Modern Philosophy". Humanities. 32 (6).  ^ ( Averroes
Averroes
2005, p. xix) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 110) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 114) ^ Agutter, Paul S.; Wheatley, Denys N. (2008). Thinking about Life: The history and philosophy of biology and other sciences. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402088667.  ^ Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ Abdus Salam; H. R. Dalafi; Mohamed Hassan. Renaissance of Sciences in Islamic Countries. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir (2007). "Kamal Al-Din Al-Farisi's Explanation of the Rainbow" (PDF). Humanity & Social Sciences Journal. 2 (1): 75–85 [p. 77].  ^ " Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
[Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]". Iep.utm.edu. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ Ibn Rushd's Metaphysics: A Translation with Introduction of Ibn Rushd's ... – Averročs. 1986-12-31. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 132) ^ (Leaman 2002, p. 28) ^ a b Turner, William (1907). "Averroes". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved April 8, 2017.  ^ a b Kretzmann, Norman (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780521437691.  ^ Ana Ruiz, Vibrant Andalusia: The Spice of Life in Southern Spain, p. 42.

Works cited[edit]

Adamson, Peter (2016). Philosophy
Philosophy
in the Islamic World: A History of Philosophy
Philosophy
Without Any Gaps. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957749-1.  Arnaldez, Roger (1986). "Ibn Rushd". In B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, Ch. Pellat and J. Schacht. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition. Vol. III: H-Iram. Leiden
Leiden
and London: Brill and Luzac & co. pp. 909–920. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0340. ISBN 90-04-08118-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Averroes
Averroes
(2005), Averroes
Averroes
On Plato's Republic, translated by Ralph Lerner, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-8975-X  Dutton, Yasin (1994). "The Introduction to Ibn Rushd's "Bidāyat al-Mujtahid"". Islamic Law and Society. Brill. 1 (2): 188–205. doi:10.2307/3399333. JSTOR 3399333.  Fakhry, Majid (2001), Averroes
Averroes
(Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 1-85168-269-4  Hillier, H. Chad. " Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
(Averroes) (1126—1198)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002.  Leaman, Olivier (2002), An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
(2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-79757-3  McGinnis, Jon; Reisman, David C. (2007). Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 1-60384-392-2.  Taylor, Richard C. (2005). "Averroes: religious dialectic and Aristotelian philosophical thought". In Peter Adamson, Richard C. Taylor. The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 180–200. ISBN 9780521520690. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Wohlman, Avital (2009-12-04). Al-Ghazali, Averroes
Averroes
and the Interpretation of the Qur'an: Common Sense and Philosophy
Philosophy
in Islam. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-22444-8.  Rosenthal, Erwin I.J. (2017-12-26). "Averroës". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. 

Further reading[edit]

Baffioni, Carmela (2004), Averroes
Averroes
and the Aristotelian Heritage, Guida Editori, ISBN 88-7188-862-6  Campanini, Massimo (2007), Averroè, Bologna: Il Mulino  Glasner, Ruth (2009), Averroes' Physics: A Turning Point in Medieval Natural Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Kogan, Barry S. (1985), Averroes
Averroes
and the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Causation, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-88706-063-3  Kupka, Thomas (2011), " Averroes
Averroes
als Rechtsgelehrter" [ Averroes
Averroes
as a Legal Scholar] (PDF), Rechtsgeschichte (18): 214–216  Leaman, Olivier (1998), Averroes
Averroes
and his philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-0675-5  Sorabji, Richard (1988), Matter, Space and Motion, Duckworth  Schmidt-Biggemann, Wilhelm (2010), "Sketch of a Cosmic Theory of the Soul
Soul
from Aristotle
Aristotle
to Averroes", in Siegfried Zielinski and Eckhard Fürlus in cooperation with Daniel Irrgang and Franziska Latell, Variantology 4. On Deep Time Relations of Arts, Sciences and Technologies In the Arabic-Islamic World and Beyond, Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, pp. 19–42, archived from the original on 2011-07-16 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Averroes
Averroes
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Averroes

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Averroes

Works of Averroes[edit]

DARE, the Digital Averroes
Averroes
Research Environment, an ongoing effort to collect digital images of all Averroes
Averroes
manuscripts and full texts of all three language-traditions. Averroes, Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
Online (links to works by and about Averroes
Averroes
in several languages) The Philosophy
Philosophy
and Theology
Theology
of Averroes: Tractata translated from the Arabic, trans. Mohammad Jamil-ur-Rehman, 1921 The Incoherence of the Incoherence
The Incoherence of the Incoherence
translation by Simon van den Bergh. [N. B. : This also contains a translation of most of the tahafut as the refutations are mostly commentary of al-Ghazali statements that were quoted verbatim.] There is also an Italian translation by Massimo Campanini, Averroè, L'incoerenza dell'incoerenza dei filosofi, Turin, Utet, 1997. SIEPM Virtual Library, including scanned copies (PDF) of the Editio Juntina of Averroes' works in Latin (Venice 1550–1562)

Information about Averroes[edit]

Forcada, Miquel (2007). "Ibn Rushd: Abū al‐Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Rushd al‐Ḥafīd". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 564–5. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0.  (PDF version) Iskandar, Albert Z. (2008) [1970-80]. "Ibn Rushd, Abū'L-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muḥammad". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com.  Fouad Ben Ahmed. "Ibn Rušd: Knowledge, pleasures and analogy", in: Philosophia: E-Journal of Philosophy
Philosophy
and Culture, 4/2013. ISSN 1314-5606 Averroes
Averroes
on In Our Time at the BBC.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Averroes". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Averroes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  DARE Bibliography, a comprehensive overview of the extant bibliography Averroes
Averroes
Database, including a full bibliography of his works "Averroes", BBC
BBC
Radio 4 discussion, 5 October 2006, "In Our Time" programme.

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Muslim scholars of the Maliki
Maliki
School

by century (AH CE)

2nd/8th

Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
(founder of the school) Ibn al-Qasim Ibn Wahb Ibn Bashir Ali ibn Ziyad

3rd/9th

Ashhab Ibn Nafi' Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam Asad ibn al-Furat Ibn al-Majishun Ibn Nafi' az-Zubayri Ibn Maslama al-Makhzumi Mutarrif Ibn Maslama al-Qa'nabi Yahya al-Laithi Al-Asbagh Ibn Habib Sahnun Al-'Utbi Ibn Sahnun Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn 'Abd al-Hakam Ibn al-Mawwaz Qadi
Qadi
Isma'il

4th/10th

Abu Imran al-Fasi Ibn al-Jallab Ibn Sha'ban Ibn Shiblun Al-Abhari Ibn Abi Zayd Sidi Mahrez

5th/11th

Al-Baqillani Ibn 'Abd al-Barr Al-Baji Al-Lakhmi Qadi
Qadi
'Abd al-Wahhab Al-Lamti

6th/12th

Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
al-Jadd At-Turtushi Sanad ibn 'Inan Al-Maziri Qadi
Qadi
Ayyad Averroes Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi Ibn Barrajan Al-Suhayli Al-Tamimi

7th/13th

Ibn Ata Allah Ibn Shas Ibn al-Hajib Ibn Daqiq al-Eid al-Qurtubi al-Qarafi Al-Azafi Al-Qattan Ibn Rushayd Al-Zarwili

8th/14th

Ibn al-Haj Ibn Farhun Ash-Shatibi Ibn Juzayy Khalil ibn-Ishaq Al-Fakihani Taqi al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ahmad al-Fasi Al-Sakkak

9th/15th

Ibn Marzuq Al-Mawwaq Ibn al-Azraq Ibn 'Arafa Ibn Khaldun Ahmad Zarruq Ibn Hilal Al-Sijilmasi

10th/16th

Al-Akhdari At-Tata'i Al-Hattab 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Ujhuri Nasir ud-Deen al-Laqqani Ali ibn Qasim al-Zaqqaq Al-Wansharisi Ibn Abi Jum'ah Al-Miknasi Al-Mandjur Al-Tamgruiti

11th/17th

Al-Ujhuri Al-Laqani Az-Zurqani Ibn Ashir Mayyara Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Zurqani Al-Dila'i Al-Rahman Al-Fasi Al-Qadir Al-Fasi

12th/18th

Al-Kharashi Al-'Adawi An-Nafrawi Al-Bannani Ad-Dardir Al-Hajj Al-Fasi Al-Tawudi Ibn Suda Ibn Al-Tayyib Al-Qasim Al-Sijilmasi

13th/19th

Ad-Desouki Al Alawi As-Sawi 'Illish Al-'Adawi Ahmed Harrak Srifi Ahmed Skirej

14th/20th

Abdallah Bin Bayyah Ahmed Babikir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Yaqoubi Muhammad
Muhammad
Alawi al-Maliki Mohamed Taher Ben Achour Mohamed Fadhel Ben Achour Al-Habib Bin Tahir Hamza Yusuf Othman Battikh Rashid Al Marikhi Salâh Ud Dîn At Tijânî

Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Hanbali Shafi'i Zahiri

v t e

Aristotelianism

Overview

Peripatetic school Physics Biology Ethics Logic Theology (unmoved mover)

Ideas and interests

Correspondence theory of truth Hexis Virtue ethics (golden mean) Four causes Telos Phronesis Eudaimonia Arete Temporal finitism Antiperistasis Philosophy
Philosophy
of nature (sublunary sphere) Potentiality and actuality Universals (substantial form) Hylomorphism Mimesis Catharsis Substance (hypokeimenon, ousia, transcendentals) Essence–accident Category of being Minima naturalia Magnanimity Sensus communis Rational animal Genus–differentia Mythos

Corpus Aristotelicum

Physics Organon Nicomachean Ethics Politics Metaphysics On the Soul Rhetoric Poetics

Followers

Alexander the Great Theophrastus Avicenna Averroes Maimonides Thomas Aquinas Mortimer Adler Alasdair MacIntyre Martha Nussbaum

Related topics

Platonism Commentaries on Aristotle Recovery of Aristotle Scholasticism Conimbricenses Pseudo-Aristotle Views on women Aristotle's wheel paradox Aristotle's razor

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19688718 LCCN: n81027798 ISNI: 0000 0001 2122 9902 GND: 118505238 SELIBR: 175761 SUDOC: 02825886X BNF: cb12013155x (data) NLA: 35011154 NDL: 00511808 NKC: jn19981000169 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV83443 BNE: XX891211 CiNii: DA00627

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