Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد; full name Arabic: أبو
الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد,
translit. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd; 14
April 1126 – 10 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes
(/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/), was a medieval Andalusian
Arab polymath. He
wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology,
Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political
theory, the theory of Andalusian classical music, geography,
mathematics, as well as the medieval sciences of medicine, astronomy,
physics, and celestial mechanics.
Ibn Rushd was born in Córdoba, Al
Andalus (present-day Spain), and died at
Marrakesh in present-day
Morocco. His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba. The
13th-century philosophical movement in Latin
Christian and Jewish
tradition based on Ibn Rushd's work is called Averroism.
Ibn Rushd was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash'ari
theologians led by Al-Ghazali. Although highly regarded as a legal
scholar of the
Maliki school of Islamic law, Ibn Rushd's philosophical
ideas were considered controversial in Ash'arite Muslim circles.
Whereas al-Ghazali believed that any individual act of a natural
phenomenon occurred only because God willed it to happen, Ibn Rushd
insisted phenomena followed natural laws that God created.
Ibn Rushd had a greater impact on
Christian Europe, being known by the
sobriquet "the Commentator" for his detailed emendations to Aristotle.
Latin translations of Ibn Rushd's work led the way to the
popularization of Aristotle.
2.1 Early life and education
3.1 Commentaries on Aristotle
3.2 Standalone philosophical works
3.3 Islamic theology
3.5 Jurisprudence and law
4.1 The tradition of Islamic philosophy
4.2 Reconciliation of religion and philosophy
4.3 Nature of God
4.4 Eternity of the world
7 See also
8.1 Works cited
9 Further reading
10 External links
10.1 Works of Averroes
10.2 Information about Averroes
See also: Latinization of names
Ibn Rushd's full, transliterated
Arabic name is "ʾAbū l-Walīd
Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd". "Averroes" is the
Medieval Latin form of "Ibn Rushd", derived from the Spanish
pronunciation of the original Arabic name, wherein "Ibn" becomes
"Aben" or "Aven". The Latinized name is also spelled in some
instances as "Averroës", "Averrhoës", or "Averroès", with the
varying accents to mark that the "o" and "e" are separate vowels and
not an "œ" diphthong. Other forms of the name include:
"Ibin-Ros-din", "Filius Rosadis", "Ibn-Rusid", "Ben-Raxid",
"Ibn-Ruschod", "Den-Resched", "Aben-Rassad", "Aben-Rasd", "Aben-Rust",
"Avenrosdy", "Avenryz", "Adveroys", "Benroist", "Avenroyth", and
Ibn Rushd was the preeminent philosopher in the history of Al-Andalus.
14th-century painting by Andrea di Bonaiuto
Early life and education
Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn
Muhammad ibn Rushd was born in 1126 in Córdoba
to a family with a long and well-respected tradition of legal and
public service. His grandfather, Abu al-Walid
Muhammad (d. 1126) was
the chief judge (qadi) of Córdoba as well as the imam of the Great
Mosque of Córdoba under the Almoravids. His father, Abu al-Qasim
Ahmad, was not as celebrated as his grandfather, but was also qadi
until the Almoravids were replaced by the Almohads in 1146.
Ibn Rushd's education was, according to his traditional biographers,
"excellent", beginning with studies in hadith (traditions of
Prophet Muhammad), fiqh (jurisprudence), medicine and theology. He
Maliki jurisprudence under al-Hafiz Abu
Muhammad ibn Rizq, and
hadith with Ibn Bashkuwal, a student of his grandfather. His
father also taught him about jurisprudence, including on Imam Malik's
magnum opus the Muwatta. He studied medicine from Abu Jafar Jarim
al-Tajail, who probably taught him philosophy too. He also knew
the works of the philosopher
Ibn Bajjah (also known as Avempace), and
might have known him personally or been tutored by him. He
also studied the kalam theology of the
Ashari school, which he would
criticize later in life. His 13th century biographer Ibn al-Abbar
mentioned that he was more interested in the study of law and its
principles (usul) that that of hadith, and he was especially competent
in the field of khilaf (disputes and controversies in the Islamic
Ibn al-Abbar also mentioned his interests in "the
sciences of the ancients", probably in reference to Greek philosophy
By 1153, he was in
Marrakesh (in present-day Morocco), the capital of
Almohad caliphate to perform astronomical observations, in order
to find physical laws of astronomical movements instead of just
mathematical laws known at the time, but this research was
unsuccessful. During his stay in
Marrakesh he likely met Ibn
Tufayl, a renowned philosopher and the author of
Hayy ibn Yaqdhan who
was also the court physician in Marrakesh. Despite the
differences in their philosophy,
Averroes and ibn Tufayl became
Ibn Tufayl introduced
Averroes to the
Almohad caliph, Abu
Yaqub Yusuf. In a famous account reported by historian
Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi, the caliph asked
Averroes about whether the
heavens had existed since eternity, or if it had a beginning.
Knowing that this question was controversial and worried that a wrong
answer could put him in danger,
Averroes was did not answer. The
caliph then elaborated the views of Plato,
Aristotle and Muslim
philosophers on the topic, and discussed them with Ibn Tufayl.
This display of knowledge
Averroes at ease, and who then explained his
own views on the issue, which impressed the caliph.
similarly impressed by Abu Yaqub, and later said that the caliph had
"a profuseness of learning I did not suspect".
After the introduction,
Averroes remained in the Abu Yaqub's favor up
until the caliph's death in 1184. When the caliph complained about
the difficulty in understanding Aristotle's work to ibn Tufayl, the
philosopher recommended that
Averroes to work on explaining
it. This was the beginning of Averroes' massive commentaries
on Aristotle. His very first works on
Aristotle were written in
In the same year, he was appointed qadi (judge) in Seville. In
1171, he became qadi in his hometown Córdoba. As qadi his
day-to-day job was to decide cases and give fatwas (legal opinion)
based on the Islamic law. The rate of his writing increased during
this time, despite other obligations and his travels within the
Almohad empire. Many of his works between 1169 and 1179 were dated
in Seville rather than Córdoba. In 1179 he was appointed qadi in
Seville again. In 1182 he succeeded his friend
Ibn Tufayl as court
physician, and later in the same year he was appointed the chief qadi
of Córdoba, a prestigious office once held by his
In 1184 Caliph Abu Yaqub died and was succeeded by Abu Yusuf Yaqub
Averroes remained in royal favor, but in
1195 his fortune reversed. Various charges were made against
him and he was then tried by a tribunal in Córdoba. The
tribunal condemned his teachings, ordered his works burned and
Averroes to the nearby Lucena. Early biographers gave
various reasons for this fall from grace, including a possible insult
to the caliph in his writings, but modern scholars attributed it
to political reasons. The
Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam argued that the
caliph distanced himself from
Averroes to gain support from more
orthodox ulema, who opposed
Averroes and whose support al-Mansur
needed for his war against
Christian kingdoms. Historian of
Islamic philosophy Majid Fakhry also argued that this was due to
public pressure from traditional
Maliki jurists opposed to
After a few years, he returned to court in
Marrakesh and was again in
the caliph's favor. However, he died shortly after, on 11 December
1198 (9 Safar 595 in the Islamic calendar). He was initially
buried in North Africa, but his body was later moved Córdoba for
another funeral. Future Sufi mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi
(1165–1240) was present at the Córdoba funeral.
Imaginary debate between
Ibn Rushd and Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte
Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century.
See also: List of works by Averroes
Ibn Rushd's first writings date from his age of 31 (year
1157).[better source needed] He was a prolific writer
and his works, according to Fakhry, "covered a greater variety of
subjects" than any of his predecessors in the East, including
philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence or legal theory, and
linguistics. The largest share of his writing were commentaries or
paraphrases on the works of Aristotle, which—especially the long
ones—often contain his original thoughts. In addition, French
Ernest Renan wrote that
Averroes had at least 67 original
works, which included 28 works on philosophy, 20 on medicine, 8 on
law, 5 on theology, and 4 on grammar, in addition to his commentaries
on most of Aristotle's works and his commentary on Plato's The
Republic. Many of Averroes' works did not survive in Arabic, but
survived in its Hebrew or Latin translations. For example, among the
long commentaries of Aristotle, only "a tiny handful of Arabic
Commentaries on Aristotle
The Long Commentary on Aristotle's On the Soul, French Manuscript,
third quarter of the 13th century.
Ibn Rushd wrote commentaries on nearly all of Aristotle's surviving
works. The only exception was Politics (Aristotle), which he did
not have access to, so he wrote commentaries on Plato's Republic's
instead. He classified his commentaries into three categories,
called by modern scholars short, middle and long commentaries. The
short commentaries (jami) were generally written in his early career
and contain summaries of Aristotlean doctrines. The middle
commentaries (talkhis) contain paraphrases to clarify and simplify
Aristotle's original text. The middle commentaries were probably
written in response to his patron and caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf's
complaints about the difficulty in understanding Aristotle's original
text, as well as to help others in a similar position. The
long commentaries (tafsir), or line-by-line commentaries include the
whole text with a detailed analysis of each line. The long
commentaries are very detailed and contain high degree of original
thought, and were unlikely to be intended for the general
audience. Only five of Aristotle's works had all three types of
commentaries: Physics, Metaphysics, On the Soul, On the Heavens, and
Standalone philosophical works
Other than commentaries,
Averroes also wrote standalone philosophical
treatises, including On the Intellect, On the Syllogism, On
Conjunction with the Active Intellect, On Time, On the Heavenly Sphere
and On the Motion of the Sphere. He also wrote several polemics: Essay
on al-Farabi's Approach to Logic, as Compared to that of Aristotle,
Methaphysical Questions Dealt with in the
Book of Healing
Book of Healing by Ibn Sina,
and Rebuttal of Ibn Sina's Classification of Existing Entities.
Scholarly sources, including Fakhry and the Encyclopedia of Islam,
named three theological works as Averroes' key writings in this area.
Fasl al-Maqal ("The Decisive Treatise") is a 1178 treatise which
argued for the compatibility of
Islam and philosophy. Al-Kashf 'an
Manahij al-Adillah ("Exposition of the Methods of Proof"), written in
1179 criticizes the theologies of the Asharites, and laid out
Averroes' argument for proving the existence of God, as well as his
thoughts on God's attributes and actions. The 1180 Tahafut
al-Tahafut ("Incoherence of the Incoherence") is a rebuttal of
al-Ghazali's (d. 1111) landmark criticism of philosophy The
Incoherence of the Philosophers. It combines ideas in his commentaries
and standalone works and uses them to respond to al-Ghazali. In
addition, the work also criticizes
Avicenna and his neo-Platonist
tendencies, sometimes agreeing with al-Ghazali's critique against
Title page from Colliget
Ibn Rushd wrote a medical encyclopedia called Kulliyat
("Generalities", i. e. general medicine), known in its Latin
translation as Colliget. He also made a compilation of the works
of Galen, and wrote a commentary on The Canon of
Medicine (Al-Qanun fi
Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980–1037).
Jurisprudence and law
Ibn Rushd is also a highly regarded legal scholar of the Maliki
school. Perhaps his best-known work in this field is "Bidāyat
al-Mujtahid wa Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid, "a textbook of
in a comparative framework, which is rendered in English as The
Distinguished Jurist's Primer. He is also the author of "al-Bayān
wa'l-Taḥṣīl, wa'l-Sharḥ wa'l-Tawjīh wa'l-Ta`līl fi Masā'il
al-Mustakhraja, "a long and detailed commentary based on the
"Mustakhraja" of Muḥammad al-`Utbī al-Qurtubī.
Main article: Averroism
The tradition of Islamic philosophy
Ibn Rushd furthered the tradition of Greek philosophy in the Islamic
world (falsafa). His commentaries removed the neo-Platonic bias of his
predecessors. Criticizing al-Farabi's attempt to merge
Ibn Rushd argued that Aristotle's philosophy
diverged in significant ways from Plato's.
Ibn Rushd rejected
Avicenna's Neoplatonism which was partly based on the works of
Plotinus and Proclus, which were mistakenly
attributed to Aristotle.
In metaphysics, or more exactly ontology,
Ibn Rushd rejects the view
Avicenna that existence is merely accidental. Avicenna
holds that "essence is ontologically prior to existence". The
accidental are attributes which are not essential, but rather are
additional contingent characteristics. Ibn Rushd, following Aristotle,
holds that individual existing substances are primary. One may
separate them mentally; however, ontologically speaking, existence and
essence are one. According to Fakhry, this represents
a change from Plato's theory of Ideas, where ideas precede
particulars, to Aristotle's theory where particulars come first and
the essence is "arrived at by a process of abstraction."
Reconciliation of religion and philosophy
His most important original philosophical work was The Incoherence of
the Incoherence (Tahafut al-tahafut), in which he defended
Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's (AD 1058–1111) claims
The Incoherence of the Philosophers
The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifa).
Al-Ghazali had argued that Aristotelianism, especially as presented in
the writings of Avicenna, was self-contradictory and an affront to the
teachings of Islam. In particular he argued that three philosophical
points (viz. a pre-eternal world, God only knowing universal—that is
to say, Platonic—characteristics of particulars, and a spiritual
rather than physical resurrection) constituted not just heresy, but
rather disbelief in
Islam itself. Ibn Rushd's rebuttal was
two-pronged: First, he contended that al-Ghazali's arguments were
mistaken, arguing that the
Qur'an actually commanded devout Muslims to
study of philosophy. Second,
Ibn Rushd contended that he actually
agreed with al-Ghazali in regards to a number of the latter's
criticisms of Avicenna;
Ibn Rushd argued that the system of Avicenna
was a distortion of genuine Aristotelianism, and as a result,
al-Ghazali was effectively aiming at the wrong target.
Ibn Rushd thus
argues that his own system is, as
Roger Arnaldez notes, "a
reconstruction of the true philosophy, that of
against the false, that of the neo-Platonic falāsifa, which distorted
the thinking of Aristotle".
Whereas al-Ghazali believed that phenomenon such as cotton burning
when coming into contact with fire happened each and every time only
because God willed it to happen: "all earthly occurrences depend on
heavenly occurrences." Ibn Rushd, by contrast insisted while God
created the natural law, humans "could more usefully say that fire
cause cotton to burn—because creation had a pattern that they could
In Fasl al-Maqal (Decisive Treatise),
Ibn Rushd argues for the
legality of philosophical investigation under Islamic law, and that
there is no inherent contradiction between philosophy and religion
In Kitab al-Kashf, which argued against the proofs of
by the Ash'arite school and discussed what proofs, on the popular
level, should be used instead.
Nature of God
In the treatise Al-Kashf 'an Manahij al-Adilla fi ‘Aqaid al-Milla
(The Exposition of the Methods of Proof Concerning the Beliefs of the
Ibn Rushd examined and critiqued the doctrines of four
sects of Islam: the Asharites, Mutazilites, the
Sufis and the those
whom he deems "literalists." While his work focuses on many topics,
part of it examines the various sects' proofs for the existence of
God, many of which
Ibn Rushd finds objectionable. After considering
and critiquing the various argument, he argues that there are only two
arguments that are worth upholding: the arguments from "providence"
and "invention". The first argument considers the fact that the world
and the universe seem fine-tuned to support human life. According to
Ibn Rushd, given the fact that the universe seems to have been made
just for humans, this suggests a creator who set the parameters of the
universe in the first place. The second argument, also known as the
teleological argument, contends that everything in the world appears
as if it were invented. This leads to the conclusion that there is a
designer behind creation.
In his philosophical treatises,
Ibn Rushd affirms the doctrine of
Ibn Rushd also argues that God has seven divine
attributes: knowledge, life, power, will, hearing, vision, and speech.
In regards to the first, the philosopher argued that "God, being the
cause of the universe, has knowledge based on being its cause; while
humans have knowledge based on the effects of such causes." Thus
human knowledge and divine knowledge, while related, are different
attributes. Given that life necessarily results from the natural
world, and God is the creator of said world,
Ibn Rushd thus contends
that life is by necessity the second attribute of the divine. The
attributes of will and power are essential aspects of what it means to
be "God", and given that God exists (per the arguments given in the
Ibn Rushd logically concludes that he must also have
these attributes by definition. As to speech,
Ibn Rushd argues that
knowledge and power inevitably give rise to speech, and given that God
has the first two, he thus has the third. Finally, in regards to
vision and speech,
Ibn Rushd points out that because God created the
world, he necessarily knows every part of it, just like an artist that
understands their work intimately. Given that two elements of the
world are the visual and the auditory, God must necessarily possess
the vision and speech.
Eternity of the world
Ibn Rushd looked to
Aristotle as to whether the world was eternal. In
his Physics, the Greek philosopher argues that everything that comes
into existence does so from a substratum. Therefore, if the underlying
matter of the universe came into existence, it would come into
existence from a substratum. But the nature of matter is precisely to
be the substratum from which other things arise. Consequently, the
underlying matter of the universe could have come into evidence only
from an already existing matter exactly like itself; to assume that
the underlying matter of the universe came into existence would
require assuming that an underlying matter already existed. As this
assumption is self-contradictory,
Aristotle argued, matter must be
eternal. Because in his eyes, "
Aristotle demonstrated the eternity
Ibn Rushd "abandon[ed] belief in the creation out of
This is not to say that
Ibn Rushd denied the Creation; rather, he
proposed an eternal creation. Oliver Leaman explains Ibn Rushd's
argument as such:
We [as humans] can decide to do something, we can wait for a certain
time before acting, we can wonder about our future actions; but such
possibilities cannot arise for [an eternal, omnipotent, omnipresent]
God. In his case there is no gap between desire and action, nothing
stands in the way of his activity; and yet we are told by al-Ghazali
that God suddenly created the world. What differentiates one time from
another for God? What could motivate him to create the world at one
particular time as opposed to another? For us, different times are
different because they have different qualitative aspects, yet before
the creation of the world, when there was nothing around to
characterize one time as distinct from another, there is nothing to
characterize one time over another as the time for creation to take
Not having access to Aristotle's Politics,
Ibn Rushd substituted
against Plato's Republic. He advances an authoritarian ideal,
following Plato's paternalistic model. Absolute monarchy, led by a
philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires
extensive use of coercion, although persuasion is preferred and is
possible if the young are properly raised. Rhetoric, not logic, is
the appropriate road to truth for the common man. Demonstrative
knowledge via philosophy and logic requires special study. Rhetoric
aids religion in reaching the masses.
Ibn Rushd accepts the principle of women's equality.
They should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best
among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers. He also
accepts Plato's illiberal measures such as the censorship of
literature. He uses examples from
Arab history to illustrate just and
degenerate political orders.
Ibn Rushd defined and measured force as "the rate at which work is
done in changing the kinetic condition of a material body" and
correctly argued "that the effect and measure of force is change in
the kinetic condition of a materially resistant mass".
Ibn Rushd also developed the notion that bodies have a
(non-gravitational) inherent resistance to motion into physics. This
idea in particular was adopted by
Thomas Aquinas and subsequently by
Johannes Kepler, who referred to this fact as "Inertia", a pivotal
fundamental in Newtonian dynamics.
Ibn Rushd followed Alhazen's incorrect explanation that a
rainbow is due to reflection, not refraction.
Regarding his studies in astronomy,
Ibn Rushd argued for a strictly
concentric model of the universe, and explained sunspots and
scientific reasoning regarding the occasional opaque colors of the
moon. He also worked on the description of the spheres, and movement
of the spheres.
Ibn Rushd also made some studies regarding Active intellect and
Passive intellect, both of the following were formerly regarded
subjects of Psychology.
Ibn Rushd, detail of the fresco
The School of Athens
The School of Athens by Raphael.
Ibn Rushd is most famous for his commentaries of Aristotle's works,
which had been mostly forgotten in the West. Before 1150, only a few
of Aristotle's works existed in translation in Latin Europe, although
the tradition of great philosophers and poets of antiquity continued
to be studied and copied in the Greek Byzantium. It was to some degree
through the Latin translations of Ibn Rushd's work beginning in the
thirteenth century, that the legacy of
Aristotle was recovered in the
Ibn Rushd's work on
Aristotle spans almost three decades, and he wrote
commentaries on almost all of Aristotle's work except for Aristotle's
Politics, to which he did not have access. Hebrew translations of his
work also had a lasting impact on Jewish philosophy. Moses Maimonides,
Samuel Ben Tibbon, Juda Ben Solomon Choen, and Shem Tob Ben Joseph
Falaquera were Jewish philosophers influenced by Ibn Rushd. In
regards to Muslim philosophy, in his work Fasl al-Maqāl (often
translated into English as The Decisive Treatise), he stresses the
importance of analytical thinking as a prerequisite to interpret the
Qur'an. However, because his death coincided with a change in the
culture of Al-Andalus,
Ibn Rushd had no major influence on Islamic
philosophic thought until modern times. Those Islamic philosophers
who did comment on his work often condemned his writings as
Christian West, Ibn Rushd's ideas were assimilated by Siger of
Thomas Aquinas and others (especially those from the
University of Paris) who situated themselves in the Christian
scholastic tradition, which valued Aristotelian logic. With that said,
famous scholastics such as Aquinas did not refer to
Ibn Rushd by name,
instead choosing to refer to him simply as "The Commentator" (with
Aristotle in turn being given the sobriquet "The Philosopher").
Ibn Rushd received a mixed reception from Christian
Europe: while he was regarded fairly highly for his detailed
commentaries on the works of Aristotle, his person philosophy—which
came to be known as Averroism—was criticized for not being
Christian doctrine. The Catholic Encyclopedia, for
His doctrines had a varying fortune in
Christian schools. At first
they secured a certain amount of adherence, then, gradually, their
Christian teaching became apparent, and finally,
owing to the revolt of the Renaissance from everything Scholastic,
they secured once more a temporary hearing. His commentaries, however,
had immediate and lasting success. St.
Thomas Aquinas used the "Grand
Averroes as his model, being, apparently, the first
Scholastic to adopt that style of exposition ... he always spoke of
the Arabian commentator as one who had [in his view] perverted the
Peripatetic tradition, but whose words, nevertheless, should be
treated with respect and consideration.
Indeed, Aquinas considered
Ibn Rushd to be the premiere commentator on
Aristotle, but he disagreed with his religious and theological
arguments. In regards to this point, Norman Kretzmann argues
that, through the use of the title "The Commentator", Aquinas was able
to convey Ibn Rushd's understanding of
Aristotle without having to
accept or condone Ibn Rushd's personal understanding of
Reflecting the deference that some medieval European scholars paid to
Ibn Rushd is named by Dante in
The Divine Comedy
The Divine Comedy along with the
thinkers and creative minds of ancient Greece and Rome whose spirits
dwell in "the place that favor owes to fame" in Limbo.
Ibn Rushd appears in a short story by Jorge Luis Borges, entitled
"Averroes's Search", in which he is portrayed trying to find the
meanings of the words tragedy and comedy. He is briefly mentioned in
the novel Ulysses by
James Joyce alongside Maimonides. He appears to
be waiting outside the walls of the ancient city of Cordoba in Alamgir
Hashmi's poem "In Cordoba".
The claim that
Ibn Rushd deserves equal respect with
the fictional Balthazar Abrabanel banished from Amsterdam by the
Amsterdam rabbinate in Eric Flint's novel 1634.
Ibn Rushd is the title of a play called The Gladius and The Rose,
written by Tunisian writer Mohamed Ghozzi, and which took first prize
in the theater festival in Charjah in 1999.
In his memoir, the British Indian novelist
Salman Rushdie recalls that
his father adopted the family name "Rushdie" in honour of Ibn Rushd,
who also appears as a character in Rushdie's novel, "Two Years Eight
Months and Twenty-Eight Nights".
8318 Averroes was named in his honor.
The plant genus
Averrhoa was named after him.
A lunar crater, ibn Rushd, was also named in his honor
The Muslim pop musician
Kareem Salama composed and performed a song in
2007 titled "
Aristotle and Averroes".
Ibn Rushd is the subject of the film Al Massir (Destiny) by Youssef
Ibn Rushd Prize for Freedom of Thought, awarded since 1999, is
named after him.
Islamic Golden Age
Kalam cosmological argument
^ Liz Sonneborn:
Averroes (Ibn Rushd)): Muslim scholar, philosopher,
and physician of the twelfth century, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2005
(ISBN 1404205144, ISBN 978-1-4042-0514-7) p.31 
^ a b (Leaman 2002, p. 27)
^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 1)
^ Charles Edwin Butterworth, Blake Andrée Kessel (eds.), The
Introduction of Arabic
Philosophy Into Europe, BRILL, 1994, p. 55.
^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and
Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications.
p. 12. ISBN 978-1780744209.
Thomas Aquinas admitted relying
Averroes to understand Aristotle.
^ "H-Net Reviews". H-net.org. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
Philosophy and Religion: The Averroistic Sources" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-03.
^ Duignan, Brian (2010).
Medieval Philosophy: From 500 to 1500 Ce. The
Rosen Publishing Group. p. 102. ISBN 1615302441. Retrieved
November 7, 2012.
^ a b "Averroës (Ibn Rushd) > By Individual Philosopher >
Philosophy". Philosophybasics.com. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
^ a b Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through
Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia . macmillan.
pp. 118–9. ISBN 9780099523277.
^ a b For al-Ghazali's argument see The Incoherence of the
Philosophers. Translated by Michael E. Marmura. 2nd ed, Provo Utah,
^ a b For Ibn Rushd's response, see Khalid,
Muhammad A. ed. Medieval
Islamic Philosophical Writings, Cambridge UK, 2005, p.162
^ Sonneborn, Liz (2006).
Averroes (Ibn Rushd): Muslim Scholar,
Philosopher, and Physician of the Twelfth Century. The Rosen
Publishing Group. p. 89. ISBN 1404205144. Retrieved November
^ a b c Arnaldez, Roger (2012). "Ibn Rus̲h̲d". In Bearman, P.;
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Averroes
Works of Averroes
DARE, the Digital
Averroes Research Environment, an ongoing effort to
collect digital images of all
Averroes manuscripts and full texts of
all three language-traditions.
Philosophy Online (links to works by and about
Averroes in several languages)
Theology of Averroes: Tractata translated from the
Arabic, trans. Mohammad Jamil-ur-Rehman, 1921
The Incoherence of the Incoherence
The Incoherence of the Incoherence translation by Simon van den Bergh.
[N. B. : This also contains a translation of most of the tahafut as
the refutations are mostly commentary of al-Ghazali statements that
were quoted verbatim.] There is also an Italian translation by Massimo
Campanini, Averroè, L'incoerenza dell'incoerenza dei filosofi, Turin,
SIEPM Virtual Library, including scanned copies (PDF) of the Editio
Juntina of Averroes' works in Latin (Venice 1550–1562)
Information about Averroes
Forcada, Miquel (2007). "Ibn Rushd: Abū al‐Walīd Muḥammad ibn
Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Rushd al‐Ḥafīd". In Thomas Hockey; et
al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer.
pp. 564–5. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. (PDF version)
Iskandar, Albert Z. (2008) [1970-80]. "Ibn Rushd, Abū'L-Walīd
Muḥammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muḥammad". Complete Dictionary of
Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com.
Fouad Ben Ahmed. "Ibn Rušd: Knowledge, pleasures and analogy", in:
Philosophia: E-Journal of
Philosophy and Culture, 4/2013.
Averroes on In Our Time at the BBC.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Averroes". Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Averroes". Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
DARE Bibliography, a comprehensive overview of the extant bibliography
Averroes Database, including a full bibliography of his works
BBC Radio 4 discussion, 5 October 2006, "In Our Time"
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