HOME
The Info List - Avalon



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

AVALON (/ˈævəˌlɒn/ ; Latin : Insula Avallonis, Old French Avalon, Welsh : Ynys Afallon, Ynys Afallach; literally meaning "the isle of fruit trees") is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend . It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth 's 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
("The History of the Kings of Britain") as the place where King Arthur
King Arthur
's sword Excalibur
Excalibur
was forged and later where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann
Battle of Camlann
. Avalon
Avalon
was associated from an early date with mystical practices and people such as Morgan le Fay
Morgan le Fay
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 In Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend

* 3 Connection to Glastonbury
Glastonbury

* 3.1 Other locations for Avalon
Avalon

* 4 See also * 5 References

ETYMOLOGY

Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as Insula Avallonis in the Historia. In the later Vita Merlini he called it Insula Pomorum the "isle of fruit trees" (from Latin pōmus "fruit tree"). The name is generally considered to be of Welsh origin (though an Old Cornish or Old Breton
Old Breton
origin is also possible), derived from Old Welsh , Old Cornish , or Old Breton
Old Breton
aball or avallen(n), "apple tree, fruit tree" (cf. afall in Modern Welsh
Modern Welsh
, derived from Common Celtic *abalnā). It is also possible that the tradition of an "apple" island among the British was influenced by Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir
Manannán mac Lir
and Lugh
Lugh
, Emain Ablach (also the Old Irish poetic name for the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
), where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees" – derived from Old Irish aball ("apple")—and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, which was used to replace the name Avalon
Avalon
in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales. All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo- (as found in the place name Aballo/Aballone, now Avallon
Avallon
in Burgundy
Burgundy
or in the Italian surname Avallone) and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal- "apple", which is related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко (jabloko), Latvian ābele, et al.

IN ARTHURIAN LEGEND

La Mort d'Arthur (The Death of King Arthur) by James Archer (1860)

According to Geoffrey in the Historia and much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon
Avalon
is the place where King Arthur
King Arthur
is taken after fighting Mordred
Mordred
at the Battle of Camlann
Battle of Camlann
to recover from his wounds. Welsh , Cornish and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never really died, but would inexorably return to lead his people against their enemies . The Historia also states that Avalon
Avalon
is where his sword Excalibur
Excalibur
was forged. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon
Avalon
in more detail in Vita Merlini , in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend
the enchantress Morgan le Fay
Morgan le Fay
as the chief of nine sisters (Moronoe, Mazoe, Gliten, Glitonea, Gliton, Tyronoe, Thiten and Thiton) who live on Avalon. Geoffrey's description of the island indicates a sea voyage was needed to get there. His description of Avalon
Avalon
here, which is heavily indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
(being mostly derived from the section on famous islands in Isidore's famous work Etymologiae
Etymologiae
, XIV.6.8 "Fortunatae Insulae"), shows the magical nature of the island: The island of apples which men call “The Fortunate Isle ” (Insula POMORUM quae Fortunata uocatur) gets its name from the fact that it produces all things of itself; the fields there have no need of the ploughs of the farmers and all cultivation is lacking except what nature provides. Of its own accord it produces grain and grapes, and apple trees grow in its woods from the close-clipped grass. The ground of its own accord produces everything instead of merely grass, and people live there a hundred years or more. There nine sisters rule by a pleasing set of laws those who come to them from our country.

By comparison, Isidore's description of the Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
reads: "The Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
(Fortunatarum insulae) signify by their name that they produce all kinds of good things, as if they were happy and blessed with an abundance of fruit. Indeed, well-suited by their nature, they produce fruit from very precious trees ; the ridges of their hills are spontaneously covered with grapevines; instead of weeds, harvest crops and garden herbs are common there. Hence the mistake of pagans and the poems by worldly poets, who believed that these isles were Paradise because of the fertility of their soil. They are situated in the Ocean, against the left side of Mauretania, closest to where the sun sets, and they are separated from each other by the intervening sea."

In medieval geographies, Isidore's Fortunate Islands were identified with the Canaries .

CONNECTION TO GLASTONBURY

Around 1190, Avalon
Avalon
became associated with Glastonbury
Glastonbury
, when monks at Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones of Arthur and his queen. The works of Gerald of Wales
Wales
make the first known connection: What is now known as Glastonbury
Glastonbury
was, in ancient times, called the Isle of Avalon. It is virtually an island, for it is completely surrounded by marshlands. In Welsh it is called Ynys Afallach, which means the Island of Apples and this fruit once grew in great abundance. After the Battle of Camlann, a noblewoman called Morgan, later the ruler and patroness of these parts as well as being a close blood-relation of King Arthur, carried him off to the island, now known as Glastonbury, so that his wounds could be cared for. Years ago the district had also been called Ynys Gutrin in Welsh, that is the Island of Glass, and from these words the invading Saxons later coined the place-name 'Glastingebury'.

Though no longer an island in the twelfth century, the high conical bulk of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Tor had been surrounded by marsh before the surrounding fenland in the Somerset Levels
Somerset Levels
was drained. In ancient times, Ponter\'s Ball Dyke would have guarded the only entrance to the island. The Romans eventually built another road to the island. Gerald wrote that Glastonbury's earliest name in Welsh was Ineswitrin (or Ynys Witrin), the Isle of glass, a name noted by earlier historians which suggests that the location was at one point seen as an island. The discovery of the burial is described by chroniclers, notably Gerald of Wales
Wales
, as being just after King Henry II 's reign when the new abbot of Glastonbury, Henry de Sully , commissioned a search of the abbey grounds. At a depth of 5 m (16 feet) the monks were said to have discovered a massive treetrunk coffin and a leaden cross bearing the inscription: Leaden cross inscribed with Arthur's epitaph. from Camden , Britannia (1607) Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arturius in insula Avalonia. ("Here lies entombed the renowned King Arthur
King Arthur
in the island of Avalon").

Accounts of the exact inscription vary, with five different versions existing. The earliest is by Gerald in "Liber de Principis instructione" c. 1193, who wrote that he viewed the cross in person and traced the lettering. His transcript reads: "Here lies buried the famous King Arthur
King Arthur
("Arthurus") with Guinevere
Guinevere
("Wenneveria") his second wife in the isle of Avalon". Inside the coffin were two bodies, who Giraldus refers to as Arthur and "his queen "; the bones of the male body were described as being gigantic. The account of the burial by the chronicle of Margam Abbey says three bodies were found, the other being of Mordred
Mordred
. In 1278, the remains were reburied with great ceremony, attended by King Edward I and his queen, before the High Altar at Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Abbey, where they were the focus of pilgrimages until the Reformation .

The story is today seen as an example of pseudoarchaeology . Historians today generally dismiss the authenticity of the find, attributing it to a publicity stunt performed to raise funds to repair the Abbey, which was mostly burned in 1184. Long before this William of Malmesbury , a historian interested in Arthur, said in his history of England "But Arthur’s grave is nowhere seen, whence antiquity of fables still claims that he will return." As William wrote a comprehensive history of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
De antiquitae Glatoniensis ecclesie around 1130 which discussed many pious legends connected to the Abbey, but made no mention of either Arthur's grave or a connection of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
to the name Avalon, stating firmly it was previously known as Ineswitrin, this raises further suspicions concerning the burial. It is known for certain the monks later added forged passages to William's history discussing Arthurian connections. The fact that the search for the body is connected to Henry II and Edward I, both kings who fought major Welsh wars, has had scholars suggest that propaganda may have played a part as well. Gerald, a constant supporter of royal authority, in his account of the discovery clearly aims to destroy the idea of the possibility of King's Arthur's messianic return: "Many tales are told and many legends have been invented about King Arthur
King Arthur
and his mysterious ending. In their stupidity the British people maintain that he is still alive. Now that the truth is known, I have taken the trouble to add a few more details in this present chapter. The fairy-tales have been snuffed out, and the true and indubitable facts are made known, so that what really happened must be made crystal clear to all and separated from the myths which have accumulated on the subject."

The burial discovery ensured that in later romances, histories based on them and in the popular imagination Glastonbury
Glastonbury
became increasingly identified with Avalon, an identification that continues strongly today. The later development of the legends of the Holy Grail
Holy Grail
and Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
by Robert de Boron interconnected these legends with Glastonbury
Glastonbury
and with Avalon, an identification which also seems to be made in Perlesvaus . The popularity of Arthurian Romance has meant this area of the Somerset Levels
Somerset Levels
has today become popularly described as THE VALE OF AVALON. In more recent times writers such as Dion Fortune , John Michell , Nicholas Mann and Geoffrey Ashe have formed theories based on perceived connections between Glastonbury
Glastonbury
and Celtic legends of the otherworld and Annwn
Annwn
in attempts to link the location firmly with Avalon, drawing on the various legends based on Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Tor as well as drawing on ideas like Earth mysteries
Earth mysteries
, Ley lines and even the myth of Atlantis
Atlantis
. Arthurian literature also continues to use Glastonbury
Glastonbury
as an important location as in The Mists of Avalon
Avalon
, A Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Romance and The Bones of Avalon . Even the fact that Somerset
Somerset
has many apple orchards has been drawn in to support the connection. Glastonbury's connection to Avalon
Avalon
continues to make it a site of tourism and the area has great religious significance for Neopagans , Neo-druids and as a New Age community , as well as Christians. Hippy identification of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
with Avalon seen in the work of Michell and in Gandalf\'s Garden also helped inspire the Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Festival .

OTHER LOCATIONS FOR AVALON

In medieval times suggestions for the location of Avalon
Avalon
ranged far beyond Glastonbury. They included on the other side of the Earth at the antipodes , Sicily
Sicily
, and other unnamed locations in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
.

In more recent times, just like in the quest for Arthur's mythical capital Camelot , a large number of locations have been put forward as being the real "Avalon". Geoffrey Ashe suggests an association of Avalon
Avalon
with the town of Avallon
Avallon
in Burgundy
Burgundy
, as part of a theory connecting King Arthur
King Arthur
to the Romano-British leader Riothamus who campaigned in that area.

SEE ALSO

* Mythology portal

* Annwn
Annwn
- the Welsh otherworld * Agharta * Atlantis
Atlantis
* Baltia * Brittia * Hyperborea
Hyperborea
* Lady of the Lake * Shambhala * Shangri-La * Thule
Thule
* Tír na nÓg
Tír na nÓg

REFERENCES

Citations

* ^ Matasović, Ranko, Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, Brill, 2008, p. 23 * ^ A B Koch, John. Celtic Culture:a historical encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO 2006, p. 146. * ^ Savage, John J. H. "Insula Avallonia", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 73, (1942), pp. 405–415. * ^ Nitze, William Albert, Jenkins, Thomas Atkinson. Le Haut Livre du Graal, Phaeton Press, 1972, p. 55. * ^ Zimmer, Heinrich. Bretonische Elemente in der Artursage des Gottfried von Monmouth, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, Volume 12, 1890, pp. 246–248. * ^ Marstrander, Carl Johan Sverdrup (ed.), Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1976, letter A, column 11, line 026. * ^ Hamp, Eric P. The north European word for ‘apple’, Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, 37, 1979, pp. 158–166. * ^ Adams, Douglas Q. The Indo-European Word for 'apple' Again. Indogermanische Forschungen, 90, 1985, pp. 79–82. * ^ Berthelot, Anne, “Apprivoiser la merveille”, in: Mélanges en l’honneur de Francis Dubost, Paris: Champion, 2005, pp. 49–66. * ^ " Vita Merlini Index". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 1 April 2016.

* ^ Barney, S., Lewis, W.J., Beach, J.A., Berghof, O (eds.), The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 294. * ^ Tilley, Arthur Augustus, Medieval France: A Companion to French Studies, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 176 * ^ Sobecki, Sebastian I., The Sea and Medieval English Literature, DS Brewer, 2008, p. 81. * ^ O'Callaghan, J., Kagay, D., Vann, T. (eds), On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions: Essays in Honor of Joseph F. O'Callaghan, BRILL, 1998, p. 61. * ^ McClure, Julia, The Franciscan Invention of the New World, Springer, Nov 30, 2016, p. 66. * ^ "Two Accounts of the Exhumation of Arthur\'s Body: Gerald of Wales". britannia.com. Retrieved 1 April 2016. * ^ Allcroft, Arthur Hadrian (1908), Earthwork of England: Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman and Mediæval, Nabu Press, pp. 69–70, ISBN 978-1-178-13643-2 , retrieved 12 April 2011 * ^ Carley, James P. (2001), Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Abbey and the Arthurian tradition, D.S. Brewer, p. 316, ISBN 978-0-85991-572-4 * ^ Modern scholarship views the Glastonbury
Glastonbury
cross as the result of a probably late 12th-century fraud. See Rahtz 1993 and Carey 1999 . * ^ O. J. Padel , "The Nature of Arthur" in Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 27 (1994), pp. 1–31 at p.10 * ^ Glastonbury
Glastonbury
in Norris J. Lacy, Editor, The Arthurian Encyclopedia (1986 Peter Bedrick Books, New York). * ^ Rahtz 1993 * ^ "Two Accounts of the Exhumation of Arthur\'s Body: Gerald of Wales". britannia.com. Retrieved 1 April 2016. * ^ John Ezard. "Treadmill in the Vale of Avalon". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 April 2016. * ^ "Glastonbury: Alternative Histories", in Ronald Hutton, Witches, Druids and King Arthur * ^ Avalon
Avalon
in Norris J. Lacy, Editor, The Arthurian Encyclopedia (1986 Peter Bedrick Books, New York). * ^ Geoffrey Ashe (1985), The Discovery of King Arthur, London: Guild Publishing, pp. 95–96, (p95) In Welsh it is Ynys Avallach. Geoffrey's Latin equivalent is Insula Avallonis. It has been influenced by the spelling of a real place called Avallon. Avallon
Avallon
is a Gaulish name with the same meaning, and the real Avalon
Avalon
is in Burgundy—where Arthur's Gallic career ends. Again, we glimpse an earlier and different passing of Arthur, on the Continent and not in Britain. (p. 96) Riothamus too led an army of Britons into Gaul, and was the only British King who did. He too advanced to the neighbourhood of Burgundy. He too was betrayed by a deputy ruler who treated with barbarian enemies. He, too, is last located in Gaul among the pro-Roman Burgundians. He, too, disappears after a fatal battle, without any recorded death. The line of his retreat, prolonged on a map, shows that he was going in the direction of the real Avalon. (p. 96)

Bibliography

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article AVALON .

* Rahtz, Philip (1993), English Heritage Book of Glastonbury, London: Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-6865-6 . * Carey, John (1999), "The Finding of Arthur’s Grave: A Story from Clonmacnoise?", in Carey, John; Koch, John T.; Lambert, Pierre-Yves, Ildánach Ildírech. A Festschrift for Proinsias Mac Cana, Andover: Celtic Studies Publications, pp. 1–14, ISBN 978-1-891271-01-4 .

* v * t * e

King Arthur
King Arthur
and the Matter of Britain
Matter of Britain

KEY PEOPLE

* King Arthur
King Arthur
* Constantine * Sir Ector
Sir Ector
* Gawain * Gorlois * Queen Guinevere
Guinevere
* Igraine * Iseult
Iseult
* Lady of the Lake * Lancelot
Lancelot
* King Lot * King Mark * Merlin
Merlin
* Mordred
Mordred
* Morgan le Fay
Morgan le Fay
* Morgause * Percival
Percival
* Tristan * Uther Pendragon
Uther Pendragon

Knights of the Round Table
Round Table

* Aglovale * Agravain * Bagdemagus * Bedivere
Bedivere
* Bors * Breunor (La Cote Mal Taillée) * Calogrenant * Caradoc
Caradoc
* Dagonet * Dinadan * Elyan the White * Erec * Gaheris * Galahad
Galahad
* Gareth
Gareth
* Geraint
Geraint
* Griflet * Hector de Maris * Hoel * Kay * Lamorak * Leodegrance
Leodegrance
* Lionel * Lucan * Maleagant * Morholt * Palamedes * Pelleas * Pellinore * Safir * Sagramore * Segwarides * Tor * Urien
Urien
* Ywain
Ywain
* Ywain
Ywain
the Bastard

OTHER CHARACTERS

* Sir Balin * Sir Balan * King Ban * Claudas * Culhwch
Culhwch
* Dindrane
Dindrane
* Elaine of Astolat * Elaine of Corbenic * Fisher King * Galehaut * Hellawes * Black Knight * Green Knight
Green Knight
* Red Knight * Lohengrin
Lohengrin
* Emperor Lucius * Olwen * Questing Beast * Rience * Tom Thumb
Tom Thumb

OBJECTS

* Excalibur
Excalibur
* Holy Grail
Holy Grail
* Round Table
Round Table
* Siege Perilous

PLACES

* Astolat * Avalon * Brocéliande
Brocéliande
(Paimpont ) * Caerleon
Caerleon
* Camelot * Celliwig * Corbenic
Corbenic
* Glastonbury
Glastonbury
* Logres * Lyonesse * Sarras * Tintagel
Tintagel

IN MEDIA

* Books * Films * Various media

TOPICS

* Battle of Badon * Battle of Camlann
Battle of Camlann
* Dolorous Stroke * King Arthur\'s family * Historicity of King Arthur
King Arthur
* King Arthur\'s messianic return

* v * t * e

Geoffrey of Monmouth

WORKS

* Prophetiae Merlini
Prophetiae Merlini
(c. 1135) * Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(c. 1136) * Vita Merlini (c. 1150)

TRANSLATIONS

* Roman de Brut
Roman de Brut
* Layamon\'s Brut * Brut y Brenhinedd

CHARACTERS

* Aeneas
Aeneas
* Saint Alban
Saint Alban
* Albanactus * Alhfrith of Deira * Allectus
Allectus
* Ambrosius Aurelianus * Amphibalus
Amphibalus
* Andragius * Archgallo * Archmail * King Arthur
King Arthur
* Arvirargus * Ascanius
Ascanius
* Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury
* Aurelius Conanus * Bedivere
Bedivere
* Beldgabred * Beli Mawr * Belinus * Bladud
Bladud
* Bledric ap Custennin * Bledudo * Brennius * Brutus Greenshield * Brutus of Troy
Brutus of Troy
* Budic II of Brittany * Cadfan ap Iago
Cadfan ap Iago
* Cadoc
Cadoc
* Cador * Cadwaladr
Cadwaladr
* Cadwallon ap Cadfan * Camber (legendary king) * Cap of Britain * Capetus Silvius * Capoir * Caracalla
Caracalla
* Caradocus * Carausius
Carausius
* Cassivellaunus * Catellus * Catigern * Cherin * Claudius
Claudius
* Cledaucus * Clotenus * Coel Hen * Coilus * Conan Meriadoc * Constans II (usurper)
Constans II (usurper)
* Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
* Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor)
Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor)
* Constantine (Briton) * Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
* Cordelia of Britain
Cordelia of Britain
* Corineus
Corineus
* Cunedagius * Cunobeline
Cunobeline
* Danius * Saint David
Saint David
* Digueillus * Diocletian
Diocletian
* Dionotus * Dunvallo Molmutius * Ebraucus * Edadus * Edern ap Nudd
Edern ap Nudd
* Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin of Northumbria
* Eldol * Eldol, Consul of Gloucester * Elidurus * Eliud * Enniaunus * Estrildis * Eudaf Hen * Ferrex * Fulgenius * Gawain * Gerennus * Goffar the Pict * Gogmagog (folklore) * Goneril
Goneril
* Gorboduc * Gorbonianus * Gorlois * Gracianus Municeps * Guiderius * Guinevere
Guinevere
* Guithelin * Gurgintius * Gurguit Barbtruc * Gurgustius * Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio
Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio
* Queen Gwendolen * Helena (empress)
Helena (empress)
* Helenus * Hengist and Horsa
Hengist and Horsa
* Hoel * Humber the Hun * Iago ap Beli * Idvallo * Igraine * Ingenius of Britain * Jago of Britain * Julius and Aaron
Julius and Aaron
* Julius Asclepiodotus * Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
* Sir Kay
Sir Kay
* Keredic * Kimarcus * Kinarius * Latinus
Latinus
* Lavinia
Lavinia
* Leil * Leir of Britain
Leir of Britain
* Locrinus * King Lot * Lucius of Britain * Lucius Tiberius * Lud son of Heli
Lud son of Heli
* Maddan * Maelgwn Gwynedd * Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
* Mandubracius * Queen Marcia * Marganus * Marganus II * Marius of Britain * Mempricius * Merianus * Merlin
Merlin
* Millus * Mordred
Mordred
* Morgause * Morvidus * Myrddin Wyllt * Nennius of Britain * Octa of Kent * Oenus * Oswald of Northumbria
Oswald of Northumbria
* Oswiu of Northumbria
Oswiu of Northumbria
* Owain mab Urien
Urien
* Penda of Mercia
Penda of Mercia
* Peredur
Peredur
* Peredurus * Pir of the Britons * Porrex I * Porrex II * Publius Septimius Geta
Publius Septimius Geta
* Quintus Laberius Durus * Redechius * Redon of Britain * Regan (King Lear)
Regan (King Lear)
* Rhydderch Hael
Rhydderch Hael
* Rience * Rivallo * Rud Hud Hudibras * Runo * Sawyl Penuchel * Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
* Silvius (mythology)
Silvius (mythology)
* Sisillius I * Sisillius II * Sisillius III * Son of Gorbonianus * Taliesin
Taliesin
* Tasciovanus
Tasciovanus
* Trahern * Turnus
Turnus
* Urianus * Uther Pendragon
Uther Pendragon
* Venissa * Vespasian
Vespasian
* Vortigern
Vortigern
* Vortimer * Vortiporius
Vortiporius
* Wulfhere of Mercia
Wulfhere of Mercia
* Ywain
Ywain
* Æthelberht of Kent
Æthelberht of Kent
* Æthelfrith of Northumbria
Æthelfrith of Northumbria
* Œthelwald of Deira

TOPICS

* Avalon * Battle of Arfderydd * Battle of Badon * Battle of Camlann
Battle of Camlann
* Battle of Guoloph
Battle of Guoloph
* Brut y Tywysogion
Brut y Tywysogion
* Crocea Mors * Excalibur
Excalibur
* Lailoken * List of legendary kings of Britain * List of legendary rulers of Cornwall
Cornwall
* Logres * Matter of Britain
Matter of Britain
* Molmutine Laws * Nennius * Riothamus * River Malvam * Siege of Exeter (c. 630) * Locations associated with Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend
* Treachery of the Long Knives * Trinovantum * Trojan genealogy of Nennius * Walter of Oxford

* WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE TEXTS

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Avalon
Avalon
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Help:IPA/English /wiki/Latin_language

.