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Avalon
Avalon
(/ˈævəˌlɒn/; Latin: Insula Avallonis, Old French
Old French
Avalon, Welsh: Ynys Afallon, Ynys Afallach; literally meaning "the isle of fruit [or apple] trees") is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
("The History of the Kings of Britain") as the place where King Arthur's sword Excalibur
Excalibur
was forged and later where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. Avalon
Avalon
was associated from an early date with mystical practices and figures such as Morgan le Fay. It is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geoffrey of Monmouth 3 Later medieval literature 4 Connection to Glastonbury 5 Other locations for Avalon 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

Etymology[edit] Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin
Latin
as Insula Avallonis in the Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(c. 1136). In the later Vita Merlini (c. 1150) he called it Insula Pomorum the "isle of fruit trees" (from Latin
Latin
pōmus "fruit tree"). The name is generally considered to be of Welsh origin (though an Old Cornish
Old Cornish
or Old Breton
Old Breton
origin is also possible), derived from Old Welsh, Old Cornish, or Old Breton
Old Breton
aball or avallen(n), "apple tree, fruit tree" (cf. afall in Modern Welsh, derived from Common Celtic *abalnā, literally "fruit-bearing (thing)").[1][2][3][4][5] It is also possible that the tradition of an "apple" island among the British was related to Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir
Manannán mac Lir
and Lugh, Emain Ablach (also the Old Irish poetic name for the Isle of Man),[2] where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees"[6] – derived from Old Irish aball ("apple")—and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, which was used to replace the name Avalon
Avalon
in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin
Latin
Arthurian tales. All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo "fruit tree" - (as found in the place name Aballo/Aballone) and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal- "apple", which is related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко (jabloko), Latvian ābele, et al.[7][8] Geoffrey of Monmouth[edit] According to Geoffrey in the Historia, and much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon
Avalon
is the place where King Arthur
King Arthur
is taken after fighting Mordred
Mordred
at the Battle of Camlann
Battle of Camlann
to recover from his wounds. Welsh, Cornish and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never really died, but would return to lead his people against their enemies. The Historia also states that Avalon
Avalon
is where his sword Excalibur
Excalibur
was forged. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon
Avalon
in more detail in Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend
the enchantress Morgan (Morgen) as the chief of nine sisters (Moronoe, Mazoe, Gliten, Glitonea, Gliton, Tyronoe, Thiten and Thiton)[9] who rule Avalon. Geoffrey's description of the island indicates a sea voyage was needed to get there. His description of Avalon
Avalon
here, which is heavily indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville (being mostly derived from the section on famous islands in Isidore's famous work Etymologiae, XIV.6.8 "Fortunatae Insulae"; in medieval geographies, Isidore's islands were identified with the Canaries[10][11][12][13]), shows the magical nature of the island:

The island of apples which men call the Fortunate Isle (Insula Pomorum quae Fortunata uocatur) gets its name from the fact that it produces all things of itself; the fields there have no need of the ploughs of the farmers and all cultivation is lacking except what nature provides. Of its own accord it produces grain and grapes, and apple trees grow in its woods from the close-clipped grass. The ground of its own accord produces everything instead of merely grass, and people live there a hundred years or more. There nine sisters rule by a pleasing set of laws those who come to them from our country.[14][note 1]

Later medieval literature[edit]

Le Morte d'Arthur
Le Morte d'Arthur
by James Archer (1860)

In Erec and Enide by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur's nephew named Guinguemar (a derivative of the legendary Breton hero Guingamor[16]). In Layamon's Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon
Avalon
to be healed there (by means of magic water) by a more supernatural and distinctively Anglo-Saxon redefinition of Geoffrey's Morgen: an elf queen of Avalon
Avalon
named Argante.[17] Some later versions of the Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend
(including the best-known, Le Morte d'Arthur
Le Morte d'Arthur
by Thomas Malory) have Morgan (by this time Arthur's sister in the narrative) and some other ladies (magical queens or enchantresses, sometimes with the Lady of the Lake
Lady of the Lake
among them; other may include the Queens of Eastland, the Northgales, the Outer Isles, and the Wasteland) arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from Camlann to Avalon
Avalon
on a black boat. In the Spanish summary of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal by Lope Garcia de Salazar, Morgan then uses her magic to hide Avalon
Avalon
in mist.[18] Arthur's fate is usually left untold; in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur
Stanzaic Morte Arthur
(which influenced Malory), the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
later receives Arthur's dead body and buries it at Glastonbury.[19] Conversely, Stephen of Rouen's chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, in which "Arthur" claims that he has been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his "deathless/eternal nymph" sister Morgan on Avalon, using the island's restorative herbs.[20][21] Morgan also features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch,[22] as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux,[23] where Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or "the Lady of the Secret Isle",[24] and Ogier the Dane,[25] where Avalon
Avalon
can be a "castle".[26] In his La Faula, Guillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island (Illa Encantada) and met Arthur who has been brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Holy Grail.[27] In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer, Morgan and her sister Marsion (Marrion) bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, Gawain, Ywain, Percival
Percival
and Guinevere.[28][29] Such stories take place centuries after the times of King Arthur. Connection to Glastonbury[edit] Around 1190, Avalon
Avalon
became associated with Glastonbury, when monks at Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones of Arthur and Guinevere. The works of Gerald of Wales
Wales
make the first known connection:

What is now known as Glastonbury
Glastonbury
was, in ancient times, called the Isle of Avalon. It is virtually an island, for it is completely surrounded by marshlands. In Welsh it is called Ynys Afallach, which means the Island of Apples and this fruit once grew in great abundance. After the Battle of Camlann, a noblewoman called Morgan, later the ruler and patroness of these parts as well as being a close blood-relation of King Arthur, carried him off to the island, now known as Glastonbury, so that his wounds could be cared for. Years ago the district had also been called Ynys Gutrin in Welsh, that is the Island of Glass, and from these words the invading Saxons later coined the place-name 'Glastingebury'.[30]

Though no longer an island in the 12th century, the high conical bulk of Glastonbury Tor
Glastonbury Tor
had been surrounded by marsh before the surrounding fenland in the Somerset Levels
Somerset Levels
was drained. In ancient times, Ponter's Ball Dyke would have guarded the only entrance to the island. The Romans eventually built another road to the island.[31] Gerald wrote that Glastonbury's earliest name in Welsh was Ineswitrin (or Ynys Witrin), the Isle of Glass, a name noted by earlier historians which suggests that the location was at one point seen as an island. The discovery of the burial is described by chroniclers, notably Gerald, as being just after King Henry II's reign when the new abbot of Glastonbury, Henry de Sully, commissioned a search of the abbey grounds. At a depth of 5 m (16 feet) the monks were said to have discovered a massive treetrunk coffin and a leaden cross bearing the inscription:

Leaden cross inscribed with Arthur's epitaph. from Camden, Britannia (1607)

Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arturius in insula Avalonia. ("Here lies entombed the renowned king Arthur in the island of Avalon.")

Accounts of the exact inscription vary, with five different versions existing. The earliest is by Gerald in Liber de Principis instructione c. 1193, who wrote that he viewed the cross in person and traced the lettering. His transcript reads: "Here lies buried the famous Arthurus with Wenneveria his second wife in the isle of Avalon." Inside the coffin were two bodies, whom Giraldus refers to as Arthur and "his queen"; the bones of the male body were described as being gigantic. The account of the burial by the chronicle of Margam Abbey says three bodies were found, the other being of Mordred.[32] In 1278, the remains were reburied with great ceremony, attended by King Edward I and his queen, before the High Altar at Glastonbury Abbey. There, the site became the focus of pilgrimages until the English Reformation. The story is today seen as an example of pseudoarchaeology. Historians today generally dismiss the authenticity of the find, attributing it to a publicity stunt performed to raise funds to repair the Abbey, which was mostly burned in 1184.[33][note 2] The fact that the search for the body is connected to Henry II and Edward I, both kings who fought major Anglo-Welsh wars, has had scholars suggest that propaganda may have played a part as well.[36] Gerald was a constant supporter of royal authority; in his account of the discovery clearly aims to destroy the idea of the possibility of King Arthur's messianic return:

Many tales are told and many legends have been invented about King Arthur and his mysterious ending. In their stupidity the British [i.e. Welsh, Cornish and Bretons] people maintain that he is still alive. Now that the truth is known, I have taken the trouble to add a few more details in this present chapter. The fairy-tales have been snuffed out, and the true and indubitable facts are made known, so that what really happened must be made crystal clear to all and separated from the myths which have accumulated on the subject.[30]

A view from Glastonbury Tor
Glastonbury Tor
in 2014

The burial discovery ensured that in later romances, histories based on them and in the popular imagination Glastonbury
Glastonbury
became increasingly identified with Avalon, an identification that continues strongly today. The later development of the legends of the Holy Grail
Holy Grail
and Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
by Robert de Boron interconnected these legends with Glastonbury
Glastonbury
and with Avalon, an identification which also seems to be made in Perlesvaus. The popularity of Arthurian romances has meant this area of the Somerset Levels
Somerset Levels
has today become popularly described as the Vale of Avalon.[37] In more recent times, writers such as Dion Fortune, John Michell, Nicholas Mann and Geoffrey Ashe have formed theories based on perceived connections between Glastonbury
Glastonbury
and Celtic legends of the Otherworld in attempts to link the location firmly with Avalon, drawing on the various legends based on Glastonbury Tor
Glastonbury Tor
as well as drawing on ideas like Earth mysteries, Ley lines
Ley lines
and even the myth of Atlantis. Arthurian literature also continues to use Glastonbury
Glastonbury
as an important location as in The Mists of Avalon, A Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Romance, and The Bones of Avalon. Even the fact that Somerset
Somerset
has many apple orchards has been drawn in to support the connection. Glastonbury's connection to Avalon
Avalon
continues to make it a site of tourism and the area has great religious significance for Neo-Pagans, Neo-Druids and as a New Age community, as well as Christians. Hippy identification of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
with Avalon
Avalon
seen in the work of Michell and in Gandalf's Garden also helped inspire the Glastonbury Festival.[38]

Other locations for Avalon[edit] See also: Locations associated with Arthurian legend In medieval times suggestions for the location of Avalon
Avalon
ranged far beyond Glastonbury. They included paradisal underworld realms equated with the other side of the Earth at the antipodes, Mongibel in Sicily,[39] and other unnamed locations in the Mediterranean.[40] In more recent times, just like in the quest for Arthur's mythical capital Camelot, a large number of locations have been put forward as being the real "Avalon". Ashe suggests an association of Avalon
Avalon
with the town of Avallon
Avallon
in Burgundy, as part of a theory connecting King Arthur to the Romano-British
Romano-British
leader Riothamus who campaigned in that area.[41] See also[edit]

Mythology portal

Annwn
Annwn
- the Welsh otherworld Baltia Brittia Hyperborea Thule Tír na nÓg Toyota Avalon
Toyota Avalon
- Full-size car
Full-size car
produced by Toyota
Toyota
& built in Georgetown, Kentucky

Notes[edit]

^ By comparison, Isidore's description of the Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
reads: "The Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
(Fortunatarum insulae) signify by their name that they produce all kinds of good things, as if they were happy and blessed with an abundance of fruit. Indeed, well-suited by their nature, they produce fruit from very precious trees [Sua enim aptae natura pretiosarum poma silvarum parturiunt]; the ridges of their hills are spontaneously covered with grapevines; instead of weeds, harvest crops and garden herbs are common there. Hence the mistake of pagans and the poems by worldly poets, who believed that these isles were Paradise
Paradise
because of the fertility of their soil. They are situated in the Ocean, against the left side of Mauretania, closest to where the sun sets, and they are separated from each other by the intervening sea."[15] ^ Long before this William of Malmesbury, a 12th-century historian interested in Arthur, wrote in his history of England: "But Arthur's grave is nowhere seen, whence antiquity of fables still claims that he will return."[34] It is known for certain the monks later added forged passages discussing Arthurian connections to William's comprehensive history of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
De antiquitae Glatoniensis ecclesie (On Antiquity of Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Church), written around 1130.[35]

References[edit]

Citations

^ Matasović, Ranko, Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, Brill, 2008, p. 23 ^ a b Koch, John. Celtic Culture:a historical encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO 2006, p. 146. ^ Savage, John J. H. "Insula Avallonia", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 73, (1942), pp. 405–415. ^ Nitze, William Albert, Jenkins, Thomas Atkinson. Le Haut Livre du Graal, Phaeton Press, 1972, p. 55. ^ Zimmer, Heinrich. Bretonische Elemente in der Artursage des Gottfried von Monmouth, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, Volume 12, 1890, pp. 246–248. ^ Marstrander, Carl Johan Sverdrup (ed.), Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1976, letter A, column 11, line 026. ^ Hamp, Eric P. The north European word for ‘apple’, Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, 37, 1979, pp. 158–166. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. The Indo-European Word for 'apple' Again. Indogermanische Forschungen, 90, 1985, pp. 79–82. ^ Berthelot, Anne, “Apprivoiser la merveille”, in: Mélanges en l’honneur de Francis Dubost, Paris: Champion, 2005, pp. 49–66. ^ Tilley, Arthur Augustus, Medieval France: A Companion to French Studies, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 176. ^ Sobecki, Sebastian I., The Sea and Medieval English Literature, DS Brewer, 2008, p. 81. ^ O'Callaghan, J., Kagay, D., Vann, T. (eds), On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions: Essays in Honor of Joseph F. O'Callaghan, BRILL, 1998, p. 61. ^ McClure, Julia, The Franciscan Invention of the New World, Springer, Nov 30, 2016, p. 66. ^ " Vita Merlini Index". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ Barney, S., Lewis, W.J., Beach, J.A., Berghof, O (eds.), The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 294. ^ Pérez, Kristina The Myth of Morgan la Fey. Palgrave Macmillan (2014), p 91. ^ "Argante of Areley Kings: Regional Definitions of National Identity in Layamon's Brut". Ohio State University.  ^ "Crossing the Ocean Sea - The Mythical Atlantic Islands". www.crossingtheoceansea.com.  ^ "Stanzaic Morte Arthur, Part 3". Robbins Library Digital Projects.  ^ Michael Twomey. "'Morgan le Fay, Empress of the Wilderness': A Newly Recovered Arthurian Text in London, BL Royal 12.C.ix Michael Twomey". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2015-09-07.  ^ Hebert, Jill M. (12 March 2013). "Morgan le Fay, Shapeshifter". Springer – via Google Books.  ^ "La desaparición de Morgana: de Tirant lo Blanch
Tirant lo Blanch
(1490) y Amadís de Gaula (1508) a Tyrant le Blanch (1737)".  ^ Hamilton, A. C. (2 September 2003). "The Spenser Encyclopedia". Routledge – via Google Books.  ^ "HUON OF BORDEAUX.* » 25 Jan 1896 » The Spectator Archive".  ^ "Digitised Manuscripts: BL Royal MS 15 E vi". The British Library.  ^ "Ogier the Dane". Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) – via Wikisource.  ^ "De l'illa de Mallorca a l'Illa Encantada: arrels artúriques de La Faula de Guillem de Torroella". Europeana Collections.  ^ "'But Arthur's Grave is Nowhere Seen'". www.arthuriana.co.uk.  ^ "MEDIEVALISTA". www2.fcsh.unl.pt.  ^ a b "Two Accounts of the Exhumation of Arthur's Body: Gerald of Wales". britannia.com. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ Allcroft, Arthur Hadrian (1908), Earthwork of England: Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman and Mediæval, Nabu Press, pp. 69–70, ISBN 978-1-178-13643-2, retrieved 12 April 2011  ^ Carley, James P. (2001), Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Abbey and the Arthurian tradition, D.S. Brewer, p. 316, ISBN 978-0-85991-572-4  ^ Modern scholarship views the Glastonbury
Glastonbury
cross as the result of a probably late 12th century fraud. See Rahtz 1993 and Carey 1999. ^ O. J. Padel. (1994). "The Nature of Arthur" in Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, 27, pp. 1–31, at p. 10 ^ "Glastonbury", in Norris J. Lacy (ed.) (1986). The Arthurian Encyclopedia. New York: Peter Bedrick Books. ^ Rahtz 1993 ^ John Ezard. "Treadmill in the Vale of Avalon". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ "Glastonbury: Alternative Histories", in Ronald Hutton, Witches, Druids and King Arthur. ^ Loomis, Roger Sherman Wales
Wales
and the Arthurian Legend, pub. University of Wales
Wales
Press, Cardiff 1956 and reprinted by Folcroft Press 1973, Chapter 5 King Arthur
King Arthur
and the Antipodes, pps. 70-71. ^ Avalon
Avalon
in Norris J. Lacy, Editor, The Arthurian Encyclopedia (1986 Peter Bedrick Books, New York). ^ Geoffrey Ashe (1985), The Discovery of King Arthur, London: Guild Publishing, pp. 95–96, (p. 95) In Welsh it is Ynys Avallach. Geoffrey's Latin
Latin
equivalent is Insula Avallonis. It has been influenced by the spelling of a real place called Avallon. Avallon
Avallon
is a Gaulish name with the same meaning, and the real Avalon
Avalon
is in Burgundy—where Arthur's Gallic career ends. Again, we glimpse an earlier and different passing of Arthur, on the Continent and not in Britain. (p. 96) Riothamus too led an army of Britons into Gaul, and was the only British King who did. He too advanced to the neighbourhood of Burgundy. He too was betrayed by a deputy ruler who treated with barbarian enemies. He, too, is last located in Gaul among the pro-Roman Burgundians. He, too, disappears after a fatal battle, without any recorded death. The line of his retreat, prolonged on a map, shows that he was going in the direction of the real Avalon. 

Bibliography

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Avalon.

Rahtz, Philip (1993), English Heritage Book of Glastonbury, London: Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-6865-6 . Carey, John (1999), "The Finding of Arthur's Grave: A Story from Clonmacnoise?", in Carey, John; Koch, John T.; Lambert, Pierre-Yves, Ildánach Ildírech. A Festschrift for Proinsias Mac Cana, Andover: Celtic Studies Publications, pp. 1–14, ISBN 978-1-891271-01-4 .

v t e

King Arthur
King Arthur
and the Matter of Britain

Key people

King Arthur Constantine Galahad Gawain Queen Guinevere Igraine Lady of the Lake Lancelot Merlin Mordred Morgan le Fay Morgause Percival Tristan Uther Pendragon

Knights of the Round Table

Aglovale Agravain Bagdemagus Bedivere Bors Breunor Calogrenant Caradoc Dagonet Dinadan Elyan the White Erec Gaheris Gareth Geraint Griflet Hector de Maris Hoel Kay Lamorak Leodegrance Lionel Lucan Morholt Palamedes Pelleas Pellinore Safir Sagramore Segwarides Tor Urien Ywain Ywain
Ywain
the Bastard

Other characters

Balin Balan King Ban Claudas Culhwch Dindrane Ector Elaine of Astolat Elaine of Corbenic Fisher King Galehaut Gorlois Gwenhwyfach Hellawes Iseult Black Knight Green Knight Red Knight Lohengrin King Lot Maleagant King Mark Emperor Lucius Olwen Questing Beast Rience Tom Thumb

Objects

Excalibur Holy Grail Round Table Siege Perilous

Places

Astolat Avalon Brocéliande
Brocéliande
(Paimpont) Caerleon Camelot Celliwig Corbenic Glastonbury Logres Lyonesse Sarras Tintagel

In media

Books Films Various media

Topics

Battle of Badon Battle of Camlann Dolorous Stroke King Arthur's family Historicity of King Arthur King Arthur's messianic return

v t e

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Works

Prophetiae Merlini
Prophetiae Merlini
(c. 1135) Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(c. 1136) Vita Merlini (c. 1150)

Translations

Roman de Brut Layamon's Brut Brut y Brenhinedd

Characters

Aeneas Saint Alban Albanactus Alhfrith of Deira Allectus Ambrosius Aurelianus Amphibalus Andragius Archgallo Archmail King Arthur Arvirargus Ascanius Augustine of Canterbury Aurelius Conanus Bedivere Beldgabred Beli Mawr Belinus Bladud Bledric ap Custennin Bledudo Brennius Brutus Greenshield Brutus of Troy Budic II of Brittany Cadfan ap Iago Cadoc Cador Cadwaladr Cadwallon ap Cadfan Camber (legendary king) Cap of Britain Capetus Silvius Capoir Caracalla Caradocus Carausius Cassivellaunus Catellus Catigern Cherin Claudius Cledaucus Clotenus Coel Hen Coilus Conan Meriadoc Constans II (usurper) Constantine the Great Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) Constantine (Briton) Constantius Chlorus Cordelia of Britain Corineus Cunedagius Cunobeline Danius Saint David Digueillus Diocletian Dionotus Dunvallo Molmutius Ebraucus Edadus Edern ap Nudd Edwin of Northumbria Eldol Eldol, Consul of Gloucester Elidurus Eliud Enniaunus Estrildis Eudaf Hen Ferrex Fulgenius Gawain Gerennus Goffar the Pict Gogmagog (folklore) Goneril Gorboduc Gorbonianus Gorlois Gracianus Municeps Guiderius Guinevere Guithelin Gurgintius Gurguit Barbtruc Gurgustius Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio Queen Gwendolen Helena (empress) Helenus Hengist and Horsa Hoel Humber the Hun Iago ap Beli Idvallo Igraine Ingenius of Britain Jago of Britain Julius and Aaron Julius Asclepiodotus Julius Caesar Sir Kay Keredic Kimarcus Kinarius Latinus Lavinia Leil Leir of Britain Locrinus King Lot Lucius of Britain Lucius Tiberius Lud son of Heli Maddan Maelgwn Gwynedd Magnus Maximus Mandubracius Queen Marcia Marganus Marganus II Marius of Britain Mempricius Merianus Merlin Millus Mordred Morgause Morvidus Myrddin Wyllt Nennius of Britain Octa of Kent Oenus Oswald of Northumbria Oswiu of Northumbria Owain mab Urien Penda of Mercia Peredur Peredurus Pir of the Britons Porrex I Porrex II Publius Septimius Geta Quintus Laberius Durus Redechius Redon of Britain Regan (King Lear) Rhydderch Hael Rience Rivallo Rud Hud Hudibras Runo Sawyl Penuchel Septimius Severus Silvius (mythology) Sisillius I Sisillius II Sisillius III Son of Gorbonianus Taliesin Tasciovanus Trahern Turnus Urianus Uther Pendragon Venissa Vespasian Vortigern Vortimer Vortiporius Wulfhere of Mercia Ywain Æthelberht of Kent Æthelfrith of Northumbria Œthelwald of Deira

Topics

Avalon Battle of Arfderydd Battle of Badon Battle of Camlann Battle of Guoloph Brut y Tywysogion Crocea Mors Excalibur Lailoken List of legendary kings of Britain List of legendary rulers of Cornwall Logres Matter of Britain Molmutine Laws Nennius Riothamus River Malvam Siege of Exeter (c. 630) Locations associated with Arthurian legend Treachery of the Long Knives Trinovantum Trojan genealogy of Nennius Walter of Oxford

Wikiquote

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