The AUXILIARY TERRITORIAL SERVICE (ATS; often pronounced as an
acronym ) was the women's branch of the
The ATS had its roots in the Women\'s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC), which was formed in 1917 as a voluntary service. During the First World War its members served in a number of jobs including clerks, cooks, telephonists and waitresses. The WAAC was disbanded after four years in 1921.
Prior to the Second World War, the government decided to establish a
new Corps for women, and an advisory council, which included members
of the Territorial Army (TA), a section of the Women\'s Transport
Service (FANY) and the Women\'s Legion , was set up. The council
decided that the ATS would be attached to the Territorial Army, and
the women serving would receive two thirds the pay of male soldiers.
An ATS memorial at the
National Memorial Arboretum
All women in the army joined the ATS except for nurses, who joined Queen Alexandra\'s Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS), and medical and dental officers, who were commissioned directly into the Army and held army ranks, and those remaining in the FANY, known as Free FANYs.
* 1 The ATS in action * 2 The National Service Act * 3 Post-war * 4 Ranks * 5 List of Directors ATS * 6 Notable ATS personnel * 7 Notes * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
THE ATS IN ACTION
Two members of an ATS searchlight unit. ATS recruitment poster, with AA gun in background
The first recruits to the ATS were employed as cooks, clerks and storekeepers. At the outbreak of the Second World War, 300 ATS members were billeted to France. As the German Army advanced through France, the British Expeditionary Force was driven back towards the English Channel. This led to the evacuation of troops from Dunkirk in May 1940, and some ATS telephonists were among the last British personnel to leave the country.
As more men joined the war effort, it was decided to increase the size of the ATS, with numbers reaching 65,000 by September 1941. Women between the ages of 17 and 43 were allowed to join, although these rules were relaxed in order to allow WAAC veterans to join up to the age of 50. The duties of members were also expanded, seeing ATS orderlies, drivers, postal workers and ammunition inspectors.
Over the six-year period of the War, about 500 ATS personnel were trained to operate the Cinetheodolite, with the highest number being in 1943–44, when 305 ATS were in active service using this equipment. One application of this specialist camera was in gunnery practice, where a pair of Cinetheodolites a known distance apart filmed the shell bursts from anti-aircraft artillery against target drones towed by an aircraft. By comparing the filmed location of the shells' detonation and the target, accurate calculations of their relative position could be made that would reveal any systematic error in the gunsights .
THE NATIONAL SERVICE ACT
Two projectionists of the
Auxiliary Territorial Service
In December 1941, Parliament passed the National Service Act, which called up unmarried women between 20 and 30 years old to join one of the auxiliary services. These were the ATS, the Women\'s Royal Naval Service (WRNS), the Women\'s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) and the Women\'s Transport Service . Married women were also later called up, although pregnant women and those with young children were exempt. Other options under the Act included joining the Women\'s Voluntary Service (WVS), which supplemented the emergency services at home, or the Women\'s Land Army , helping on farms.
There was also provision made in the act for objection to service on moral grounds, as about a third of those on the conscientious objectors list were women. A number of women were prosecuted as a result of the act, some even being imprisoned. Despite this, by 1943 about 9 out of 10 women were taking an active part in the war effort.
Women were barred from serving in battle, but due to shortages of
men, ATS members, as well as members of the other women's voluntary
services, took over many support tasks, such as radar operators,
forming part of the crews of anti-aircraft guns and military police .
However, these roles were not without risk, and there were, according
Imperial War Museum
A secret trial (the 'Newark Experiment' in April 1941) having shown
that women were capable of operating heavy searchlight equipment and
coping with conditions on the often desolate searchlight sites,
members of the ATS began training at
Famous members of the ATS included
Mary Churchill, youngest daughter
After the cessation of hostilities women continued to serve in the ATS, as well as in the WRNS and WAAF. It was succeeded by the Women\'s Royal Army Corps (WRAC), which formed on 1 February 1949 under Army Order 6.
Initially ranks were completely different from those of the army, but used the same rank insignia, although the crown was replaced by a laurel wreath. Members were required to salute their own superior officers, but not other organizations' officers, although it was considered courteous to do so.
On 9 May 1941, the ATS rank structure was reorganized, and as of July 1941 the ATS was given full military status and members were no longer volunteers. The other ranks now held almost identical ranks to army personnel, but officers continued to have a separate rank system, that was somewhat modified. All uniforms and badges of rank remained the same, although crowns replaced laurel wreaths in the rank insignia. Members were now required to salute all superior officers.
The only holders of the rank of chief controller were the first three directors, promoted to the rank on their appointment, and Princess Mary , who held it from 1939 and was appointed the ATS's honorary controller-commandant in August 1941.
When other ranks were assigned to mixed-sex
PRE-JUNE 1941 ATS RANKS JUNE 1941 ATS RANKS POST-1938 BRITISH ARMY RANKS
Volunteer Private / Gunner 1 Private / Gunner 2
Chief Volunteer Lance-Corporal / Lance-Bombardier 1 Lance-Corporal / Lance-Bombardier
Sub-Leader Corporal / Bombardier 1 Corporal / Bombardier
Section Leader Sergeant Sergeant
n/a n/a Warrant Officer Class III 3
Senior Leader Warrant Officer Class II Warrant Officer Class II
n/a Warrant Officer Class I Warrant Officer Class I
Deputy Company Commander Subaltern Lieutenant
Company Commander Junior Commander Captain
Senior Commandant Senior Commander Major
Chief Commandant Chief Commander Lieutenant Colonel
Controller Controller Colonel
Senior Controller Senior Controller Brigadier
Chief Controller Chief Controller Major-General
n/a n/a Lieutenant-General
n/a n/a General
n/a n/a Field Marshal
n/a - no authorized rank 1 - used when assigned to AAC batteries 2 - various names used depending on unit 3 - no new appointments after 1940
LIST OF DIRECTORS ATS
* Chief Controller Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, July 1939–July 1941 * Chief Controller Jean Knox, July 1941–October 1943 * Chief Controller Dame Leslie Whateley, October 1943–April 1946 * Senior Controller Dame Mary Tyrwhitt, April 1946–January 1949
NOTABLE ATS PERSONNEL
See also: Category:
Auxiliary Territorial Service
* Julian Phelps Allan * Betty Harvie Anderson, Baroness Skrimshire of Quarter * Henrietta Barnett , later Director of the WRAF * Violet Bathurst, Lady Apsley * Joan Bernard * Bridget Boland * Nadia Cattouse * Mary Churchill * Mary Colvin * Primrose Cumming * HRH Princess Elizabeth * Pamela Frankau * Christian Fraser-Tytler * Valerie Goulding * Susan Hibbert * Elisabeth Kirkby * Esme Langley * Linda McCullough Thew * Bridget Monckton, 11th Lady Ruthven of Freeland * Stella Moray * Maisie Mosco * Jennifer Moyle * Eileen Nolan * Julia Pirie * Elisabeth Rivers-Bulkeley * Yvonne Rudelatt * Stella Schmolle * Nancy Salmon * Leslie Whateley * Celia Whitelaw, Viscountess Whitelaw
* ^ Margaret Dady, _Women's War: Life in the Auxiliary Territorial
* ^ Margaret Lang, Senior Commander K.T Staff, School of A. A.
Artillery, Manorbier in _The Kine Gazette_, December 1945. Printed by
E.H. Leach, South Parade, Tenby
* ^ "The life of an ATS Ack-Ack girl". Retrieved 2015-01-15.
* ^ "Personal statements from ATS gunners". Retrieved 2015-01-15.
* ^ Dady, _Women's War: Life in the Auxiliary Territorial Service_
* ^ "The
Auxiliary Territorial Service
* Bidwell Shelford. _Women's Royal Army Corps_ (1997) 141pp * Bigland, Eileen. _Britain's other army: The story of the A.T.S_ (1946), an official history * Cowper, J. M. _The Auxiliary Territorial Service_ (1949), an official history * Crang, Jeremy A. "The revival of the British women's auxiliary services in the late nineteen-thirties," _Historical Research_ (May 2010) Volume 83, Issue 220, pages 343–357, online at EBSCO * Crang, Jeremy A. "'Come into the Army, Maud': Women, Military Conscription, and the Markham Inquiry," _Defence Studies,_ Nov 2008, Vol. 8 Issue 3, pp 381–395, online at EBSCO * Dady, Margaret. _Women's War: Life in the Auxiliary Territorial Service_ (1986) * De Groot, Gerard J. "'I love the scent of cordite in your hair': Gender dynamics in mixed anti-craft batteries" _History,_ Jan 1997, Vol. 82 Issue 265, pp 73–92 * Kerr, Dorothy Brewer. _Girls Behind the Guns: With the Auxiliary Territorial Service in World War II_ (1990) * Noakes, Lucy. _Women in the British Army: War and the Gentle Sex, 1907–48_ (2006), pp 61–81 on ATS of war years * Robinson, Vee. _Sisters in Arms_ (1996) ISBN 0004720849 A personal memoir by an ATS anti-aircraft gun crew member.