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The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles.[1] It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user,[citation needed] such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive comes from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle.[clarification needed] This term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry[2][need quotation to verify] (1860-1930), first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Safety 3 Economy 4 World motor vehicle production

4.1 By year 4.2 By country 4.3 By manufacturer 4.4 By market segment

5 Company
Company
relationships

5.1 Stake holding 5.2 Joint ventures

6 Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the automobile Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916 Fiat
Fiat
assembly line in 1961 The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States
United States
led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[4] After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan
Japan
and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China
China
took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China
China
almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan
Japan
was in third place with 9.9 million units.[5] From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.[6]

Safety[edit] Main article: Automobile safety Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles
Automobiles
and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.[7] In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy[edit] See also: Automotive industry
Automotive industry
by country Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[8] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group
Boston Consulting Group
predicted that, by 2014, one-third of world demand would be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down.[9] It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport.[10] Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran
Iran
and Indonesia.[11] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate.[12][13] However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC
BRIC
countries.[9] In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.[14]

World motor vehicle production[edit] .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center World Motor Vehicle Production[15]Production volume (1000 vehicles) 1960s: Post war increase 1970s: Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation. 1990s: production started in NICs 2000s: rise of China
China
as top producer

Automotive industry
Automotive industry
crisis of 2008–2010to 1950: USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.[16] 1950s: UK, Germany
Germany
and France
France
restarted production. 1960s: Japan
Japan
started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France
France
and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s. 1990s: Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France. 2000s: China
China
increased its production drastically, and became the world's largest producing country in 2009 . 2010s: India overtakes Korea, Canada, Spain to become 5th largest automobile producer. 2013: The share of China
China
(25.4%), India, Korea, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%.

2018: India overtakes Germany
Germany
to become 4th largest automoblie producer. World motor production (1997-2016) By year[edit] See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production [38]

Year

Production

Change

Source

1997

54,434,000

[17]

1998

52,987,000

2.7%

[17]

1999

56,258,892

6.2%

[18]

2000

58,374,162

3.8%

[19]

2001

56,304,925

3.5%

[20]

2002

58,994,318

4.8%

[21]

2003

60,663,225

2.8%

[22]

2004

64,496,220

6.3%

[23]

2005

66,482,439

3.1%

[24]

2006

69,222,975

4.1%

[25]

2007

73,266,061

5.8%

[26]

2008

70,520,493

3.7%

[27]

2009

61,791,868

12.4%

[28]

2010

77,857,705

26.0%

[29]

2011

79,989,155

3.1%

[30]

2012

84,141,209

5.3%

[31]

2013

87,300,115

3.7%

[32]

2014

89,747,430

2.6%

[33]

2015

90,086,346

0.4%

[34]

2016

94,976,569

4.5%

[35]

2017

97,302,534

2.36%

[36]

2018

95,634,593

1.71%

[37]

Car
Car
exports by country (2014) from [http://atlas.cid.harvard.edu/explore/tree_map/export/show/all/8703/2014/ Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity Global automobile import and export in 2011

By country[edit] Main article: Automotive industry
Automotive industry
by country The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 14 countries (boldfaced in the list below) currently possess the capability to design original production automobiles from the ground up.[39][40]

Algeria Argentina Australia (main page) Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(main page) Belarus
Belarus
(main page) Belgium Brazil (main page) Bulgaria (main page) Canada (main page) China
China
(main page) Colombia Czech Republic Ecuador Egypt Finland France
France
(main page) Ghana Germany
Germany
(main page) Hungary (main page) India (main page) Indonesia
Indonesia
(main page) Iran
Iran
(main page) Italy
Italy
(main page) Japan
Japan
(main page) Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya
Kenya
(main page) Malaysia (main page) Mexico (main page) Morocco
Morocco
(main page) Netherlands Pakistan (main page) Philippines Poland (main page) Portugal Romania
Romania
(main page) Russia (main page) Serbia
Serbia
(main page) Slovakia
Slovakia
(main page) Slovenia South Africa (main page) South Korea
South Korea
(main page) Spain (main page) Sweden (main page) Taiwan Thailand
Thailand
(main page) Tunisia Turkey (main page) Ukraine
Ukraine
(main page) United Kingdom (main page) United States
United States
(main page) Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(main page) Venezuela Vietnam

Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries (2017)

Country

Motor vehicle
Motor vehicle
production (units)

China

29,015,434

United States

11,189,985

Japan

9,693,746

Germany

5,645,581

India

4,782,896

South Korea

4,114,913

Mexico

4,068,415

Spain

2,848,335

Brazil

2,699,672

France

2,227,000

Canada

2,199,789

Thailand

1,988,823

United Kingdom

1,749,385

Turkey

1,695,731

Russia

1,551,293

Iran

1,515,396

Czech Republic

1,419,993

Indonesia

1,216,615

Italy

1,142,210

Slovakia

1,001,520

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By manufacturer[edit] See also: List of manufacturers by motor vehicle production This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, according to OICA.[38]

Rank Group Country Vehicles

1 Toyota  Japan 10,466,051

2 Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group  Germany 10,382,334

3 Hyundai  South Korea 7,218,391

4 General Motors  United States 6,856,880

5 Ford  United States 6,386,818

6 Nissan  Japan 5,769,277

7 Honda  Japan 5,236,842

8 Fiat
Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles   Italy
Italy
/  United States 4,600,847

9 Renault  France 4,153,589

10 PSA  France 3,649,742

11 Suzuki  Japan 3,302,336

12 SAIC  China 2,866,913

13 Daimler  Germany 2,549,142

14 BMW  Germany 2,505,741

15 Geely  China 1,950,382

By market segment[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018) Company
Company
relationships[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stake holding[edit] It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

Daimler AG
Daimler AG
holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG
Daimler AG
holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.

Daimler AG
Daimler AG
holds a 3.1% in the Renault- Nissan
Nissan
Alliance. Daimler AG
Daimler AG
holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG
Daimler AG
holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group
FAW Group
owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat
Fiat
Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş
Tofaş
with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat
Fiat
Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat
Fiat
Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group
Fujian Motors Group
holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China
China
Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China
China
Motor, and Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China
China
Motor and Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely
Geely
Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely
Geely
Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings
PROTON Holdings
and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars.[41] Geely
Geely
Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimler AG. Geely
Geely
Holding Group holds an 8.3% stake and a 15.9% exercisable voting rights in Volvo. General Motors
General Motors
holds a 94% stake in GM Korea
GM Korea
and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake. General Motors
General Motors
holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. Isuzu
Isuzu
owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. Mahindra & Mahindra holds a 70% stake in SsangYong Motor MAN SE
MAN SE
holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania. Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries. Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Group holds 20% of Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Motors. Nissan
Nissan
owns 34% of Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Motors and has since October 2016,[42] thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Motors' board and a third of its directors.[43] Nissan
Nissan
owns 43% of Nissan
Nissan
Shatai. Porsche
Porsche
Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche
Porsche
automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group. Renault
Renault
and Nissan
Nissan
Motors have an alliance (Renault- Nissan
Nissan
Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault
Renault
holding 43.4% of Nissan
Nissan
shares, and Nissan
Nissan
holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault
Renault
shares. Renault- Nissan
Nissan
Alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG. Renault
Renault
holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ Renault
Renault
holds an 80.1% stake in Renault
Renault
Samsung. SAIPA
SAIPA
holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro. Toyota
Toyota
holds a 100% stake in Daihatsu. Toyota
Toyota
holds a 50.1% stake in Hino. Toyota
Toyota
holds a 16.7% stake in Subaru
Subaru
Corporation, parent company of Subaru. Toyota
Toyota
holds a 5.9% stake in Isuzu. Toyota
Toyota
holds a 5.05% stake in Mazda, while Mazda
Mazda
holds 0.25% stake in Toyota.[44] Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group holds a 99.55% stake in the Audi
Audi
Group. Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE
MAN SE
(55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen
Volkswagen
is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division. Paccar
Paccar
has a 19% stake in Tatra. ZAP holds a 51% stake in Zhejiang Jonway. Joint ventures[edit] Beijing Automotive Group
Beijing Automotive Group
has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile. Beijing Automotive Group
Beijing Automotive Group
also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. BMW
BMW
and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW
BMW
Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake. Changan Automobile
Changan Automobile
has a joint venture with Groupe PSA
Groupe PSA
(Changan PSA), both hold a 50-50% stake, Changan Automobile
Changan Automobile
has a joint venture with Suzuki
Suzuki
(Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake, Changan Automobile
Changan Automobile
has a 50-50% joint venture with Mazda
Mazda
(Changan Mazda). Changan Automobile
Changan Automobile
and Ford
Ford
have a 50-50% joint venture called Changan Ford. Changan Automobile
Changan Automobile
and JMCG
JMCG
have a joint venture called Jiangling Motor Holding. Chery
Chery
has a joint venture with Tata Motors
Tata Motors
called Chery
Chery
Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. Chery
Chery
and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. Daimler AG
Daimler AG
and BYD Auto
BYD Auto
have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
and Nissan
Nissan
have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company. Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen, Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
has a 50-50% joint venture with Honda
Honda
called Dongfeng Honda, Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
has a joint venture with AB Volvo
Volvo
called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel, Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
has a 50-50% joint venture with Renault
Renault
named Dongfeng Renault
Renault
in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013 Ford
Ford
and Navistar International
Navistar International
have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck. Ford
Ford
and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford
Ford
Sollers. Ford
Ford
and Koç Holding
Koç Holding
have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford
Ford
Otosan. Ford
Ford
and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford
Ford
Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%. FAW Group
FAW Group
and General Motors
General Motors
has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM, FAW Group
FAW Group
has a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group called FAW-Volkswagen, FAW Group
FAW Group
has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota
Toyota
called Sichuan FAW Toyota
Toyota
Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz. General Motors
General Motors
and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation
Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation
(SAIC), both have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors
General Motors
and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors
General Motors
India Private Limited. General Motors
General Motors
and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors
General Motors
owns 25%. General Motors, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ
AvtoVAZ
owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%. Hyundai Motor Company
Company
and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%. Isuzu
Isuzu
and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu. Isuzu
Isuzu
and General Motors
General Motors
has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu
Isuzu
Truck South Africa. Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu
Isuzu
owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%. Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International
Navistar International
have a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International
Navistar International
owns 49%. Mahindra & Mahindra has a joint venture with Renault
Renault
called Mahindra Renault, where Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Renault owns 49%. MAN SE
MAN SE
and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN SE
MAN SE
owns 49%. Navistar International
Navistar International
and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar. PSA Groupe and Toyota
Toyota
have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroen Automobile Czech Sollers JSC is involved in joint ventures with Ford
Ford
( Ford
Ford
Sollers) and Mazda
Mazda
to produce cars. Tata Motors
Tata Motors
also formed a joint venture in India with Fiat
Fiat
and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology. Tata Motors
Tata Motors
and Marcopolo have a joint venture called Tata Marcopolo, where Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%. Volvo
Volvo
Group and Eicher Motors
Eicher Motors
has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles. Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume[edit] The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2016 production figures from the International Organization
Organization
of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers
Manufacturers
(OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[45][46]

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets

1. Toyota
Toyota
(Japan)

Daihatsu Japan

Subsidiary Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia

Hino Japan

Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean

Lexus Japan

Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India

Toyota Japan

Division Global, except Iran

2. Volkswagen
Volkswagen
AG (Germany)

Audi Germany

Subsidiary Global, except Iran

Bentley United Kingdom

Subsidiary Global

Bugatti France

Subsidiary Global, except Australia

Ducati Italy

Subsidiary Global

Lamborghini Italy

Subsidiary Global

MAN Germany

Subsidiary Global, except North America

Porsche Germany

Subsidiary Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba

Scania Sweden

Subsidiary Global, except North America

SEAT Spain

Subsidiary Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America (Excluding Chile), Middle East, Northern Africa, New Zealand

Škoda Czech Republic

Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand

Volkswagen Germany

Division Global

Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Commercial Vehicles Germany

Subsidiary Global

VTB Brazil

Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa

3. Hyundai (South Korea)

Genesis South Korea

Business Unit South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

Hyundai South Korea

Division Global

Kia South Korea

Subsidiary Global

4. General Motors
General Motors
(United States)

Buick United States

Business Unit North America, China, Israel

Cadillac United States

Business Unit North America, Middle East, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea

Chevrolet United States

Business Unit Global, (except Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India)

GMC United States

Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel)

Holden Australia

Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand

JieFang China

Business Unit China

SAIC-GM China

Business Unit China

GM Uzbekistan Uzbekistan

Business Unit Central Asia, Russia

5. Ford
Ford
(United States)

Ford United States

Division Global

Mercury United States

Division North America

Lincoln United States

Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China

Troller Veículos Especiais Brazil

Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe

6. Nissan
Nissan
(Japan)

Datsun Japan

Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa, Bolivia

Infiniti Japan

Subsidiary Global, except South America (excluding Chile), Indonesia, Africa (excluding South Africa)

Nissan Japan

Division Global

7. Honda
Honda
(Japan)

Acura Japan

Division China, Kuwait, North America, Russia

Honda Japan

Division Global

8. Fiat
Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles
Automobiles
(Italy)/(USA)

Abarth Italy

Subsidiary Global, except Iran

Alfa Romeo Italy

Subsidiary Global, except Iran, Taiwan, the Philippines
Philippines
and Brazil

Chrysler United States

Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)

Dodge United States

Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines)

Fiat Italy

Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia

Fiat
Fiat
Professional Italy
Italy
/United States

Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada

Jeep United States

Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia (excluding India, Sri Lanka), South East Asia (excluding Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)

Lancia Italy

Division Europe, except United Kingdom, Ireland

Maserati Italy

Subsidiary Global

RAM United States

Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru, Australia

9. Renault
Renault
(France)

Alpine France

Subsidiary Europe, Japan
Japan
and Australia

Dacia Romania

Subsidiary Europe, North Africa

Lada Russia

Business Unit Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Egypt

Renault France

Division Global ( except USA and Canada)

Renault
Renault
Samsung Motors South Korea

Subsidiary South Korea

10. Groupe PSA
Groupe PSA
(France)

Citroën France

Division Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia)

DS France

Division Europe and China

Peugeot France

Division Global, (except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)

Opel Germany

Subsidiary Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Mongolia, Chile

Vauxhall United Kingdom

Subsidiary United Kingdom

General Motors
General Motors
India stopped producing vehicles for the Indian market in 2017. It however continues to export vehicles to other markets. See also[edit]

Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers Automotive industry
Automotive industry
by country Automotive industry
Automotive industry
crisis of 2008–2010 Automotive industry
Automotive industry
in the United States Big Three (automobile manufacturers) Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States List of countries by motor vehicle production Motocycle List of largest automotive companies by revenue

References[edit]

^ Automotive industry
Automotive industry
at the Encyclopædia Britannica

^ Scientific and Technical Societies of the United States
United States
(Eighth ed.). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. 1968. p. 164. Retrieved 25 March 2014.

^ Harper, Douglas. "automotive". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 October 2018.

^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science. 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013.

^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013.

^ Aichner, T.; Coletti, P (2013). "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing
Marketing
Practice. 15 (1): 20–35.

^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization
Organization
for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014.

^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014.

^ a b Khor, Martin. "Developing economies slowing down". twnside.org.sg. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015.

^ "2014 Global Automotive Consumer Study : Exploring consumer preferences and mobility choices in Europe" (PDF). Deloittelcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.

^ Eisenstein, Paul A. "Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World". TheDetroitBureau.com.

^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto Industry Sets New World Record In 2010. Will Do It Again In 2011". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 6 April 2019.

^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.

^ "U.S. vehicle sales peaked in 2000". thecherrycreeknews.com. 27 May 2015. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.

^ "Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries (Thousands of vehicles)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 23 May 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2019.

^ "Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR". Hydrogenambassadors.com. Retrieved 3 July 2015.

^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015.

^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2015 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2016 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2017 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ "2018 Production Statistics". oica.net.

^ a b OICA: World Ranking of Manufacturers

^ Jared Lynch, Mark Hawthorne (17 October 2015). "Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.

^ http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads/By-country.pdf

^ "China's Geely
Geely
to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton". Bloomberg.com. 23 May 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.

^ " Nissan
Nissan
to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 1 July 2016.

^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 June 2017.

^ Toyota
Toyota
buys stake in Mazda, joint US factory, EV development planned CarAdvice

^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford
Ford
to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.

^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.

External links[edit]

Look up automotive industry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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