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The Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
( Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea) also known as the Australian sea-lion or Australian sealion, is a species of sea lion that is the only endemic pinniped in Australia.[2] It is currently monotypic in the genus Neophoca, with the extinct Pleistocene New Zealand sea lion Neophoca
Neophoca
palatina the only known congener.[3] These sea lions are sparsely distributed through Houtman Arbrolhos Islands (28°S., 114°E.) in Western Australia
Australia
and The Pages
The Pages
Islands (35°46’S., 138°18’E) in Southern Australia. With a population estimated at around 14,730 animals, the Wildlife Conservation Act of Western Australia
Australia
(1950) has listed them as “in need of special protection”. Their Conservation status
Conservation status
is listed as endangered. These pinnipeds are specifically known for their abnormal breeding cycles, which are varied between 5 months breeding cycle and a 17-18 month aseasonal breeding cycle, compared to other pinnipeds which fit into a 12-month reproductive cycle.[2] Females are either silver or fawn with a cream underbelly and males are dark chocolate brown with a yellow mane and are bigger than the females.

Contents

1 Phylogeny 2 Communication 3 Diet 4 Breeding behavior 5 Population status and protection measures

5.1 Ecology

6 References 7 Further reading

Phylogeny[edit]

Australian sea lions on the beach at the Seal Bay Conservation Park
Seal Bay Conservation Park
on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

The Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
is a pinniped, most closely related to other species of sea lions and fur seals making up the family Otariidae.[4] These mammals use their flippers to propel themselves in water and can walk on land with their flippers. Australian sea lions share distinct features with other sea lions. These include short fur, short flippers and a bulky body.[5] Communication[edit]

An Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
vocalizing.

In pinnipeds, mothers and pups are frequently separated throughout nursing and are thus expected to have evolved an efficient individual recognition system. Consequentially, in Australian sea lions, as in many social mammals, mothers and their offspring can identify each other. Individual recognition produces mutual benefits by avoiding misdirected maternal care and therefore energy expenditure for mothers, and the risk of injury for young approaching unrelated, potentially dangerous, adult females. Individual recognition can be accomplished with a combination of several sensory modalities, including olfaction, vision, and audition. The use of olfactory cues as a close range recognition mechanism allows mothers to further confirm their pup’s identity. In contrast to recent olfactory studies in pinnipeds which showed the presence but not a natural function of olfaction in pinnipeds, the present study shows that wild Australian sea lions use their olfactory abilities in a functional manner, by discrimination between the scents of their own offspring and a non-filial pup.[6] However, in a dynamic, crowded colony, the acoustic channel seems to be the most reliable modality. For pinnipeds, neither visual nor olfactory cues are likely to be the primary modality for mother–pup recognition.[7] Male Australian sea lions were observed producing three different call types: a barking call, a bleating call and a female-like call. The predominant call type produced by males of all ages was the barking call. The barking call of Australian sea lions was similar in structure to the barking calls described in some other species of otariid in that it was a short sound produced repetitively in a series. Mature Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
males were found to emit the barking call in almost all social interactions, despite the existence of at least three call types in their vocal repertoire, plus a guttural threat and growl.[8] Diet[edit] Australian sea lions have been described as opportunistic, benthic foragers. Limited stomach content and faecal analyses have identified a wide variety of prey in the diet of the Australian sea lion, including teleost fish, squid, cuttlefish, octopus, sharks (including Port Jackson sharks), rock lobster, other small crustaceans and penguins. Regurgitate and stomach samples from Australian sea lions at Seal Bay contained hard parts consisting predominantly of benthic taxa. This supports previous evidence that this species forages primarily on neritic, benthic prey, many of which are non-migratory. For the cephalopod component of the Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
diet, octopus and giant cuttlefish made up the greatest biomass of prey taxa. Although the Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
feeds off seasonally available prey such as semelparous cephalopods, it also exploits prey species that are available throughout the year, such as rock lobster and many of the fish species.[9] Breeding behavior[edit]

Sea Lion
Lion
Mother and Cub - Pearson Island, South Australia

Australian Sea lions breed on at least 50 islands, 27 in Western Australia
Australia
and 23 in Southern Australia. Prior to a study that took place from 1987-1992, 31 of the 50 islands were undiscovered, as well as 19 more islands considered additional breeding grounds.[10] On the basis of surveys conducted primarily in 1990, about 70% of the population was in Southern Australia
Australia
and 30% in Western-Australia.[11] Pup production was estimated at 2432 for these 50 islands in 1990. In 1994 and 1995 another 10 breeding colonies were recorded on the mainland in the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
region, only producing 161 pups.[11] Thus, reproduction is yielding less and less pups per breeding season. The four largest colonies, on The Pages
The Pages
Islands, at Seal Bay on Kangaroo Island, and at Dangerous Reef, produced 42% of the total pup numbers; they are at the eastern end of the range, east of Port Lincoln.[11] The breeding cycle of the Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
is unusual within the pinniped family. It is a 17.6 to 18-month cycle and is 'not' synchronized between colonies. However, census data collected since 1973 shows that breeding events shift forward in time to 13.8 days earlier every 18 months.[12] The duration of the breeding season can range from five to seven months and has been recorded for up to nine months at Seal Bay on Kangaroo Island. Bulls do not have fixed territories during the breeding season. The males fight other males from a very young age to establish their individual positions in the male hierarchy and during the breeding season, dominant males will guard females for the right to breed with her when she comes into oestrus. A female comes into season for about 24 hours within 7 to 10 days after she has given birth to her new pup. She will only look after the new pup and generally fights off the previous season's pup if it attempts to continue to suckle from her. Male Australian sea lions are also known to kill young as an act of defence of territory. Australian sea lions also practice alloparental care, in which an adult may adopt the pup or pups of another. This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them. This behavior is common and is seen in many other animal species such as the elephant and fathead minnow.[13]

Sea lions on Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island
beach

Population status and protection measures[edit] About 14,730 Australian sea lions remain.[14] This number is thought to be stable or slightly decreasing.[15] The Australian sea lion population is struggling due to their long and complicated breeding cycle, high site fidelity of females, and high mortality. The transition for young mammals from dependence on milk to independent foraging can lead to increased mortality as well. The Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
demonstrates one of the longest lactation periods in pinnipeds and pups begin diving before they are weaned. Australian sea lion adults work hard to forage benthically, demonstrating high field metabolic rates, and spending 58% of time at sea diving and 35% of time at sea on or near the bottom. Juveniles spend 67% of time at sea diving and 44% of time at sea on or near the bottom. Although many air-breathing vertebrates dive well within their estimated limit of oxygen stores, Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
adults and juveniles appear to operate close to their physiological maximum. The prolonged dependency period could provide extensive opportunities for foraging lessons, while the extreme diving behavior required in the Australian sea lions’ environment might necessitate it. Alternatively, it has hypothesized that female harbor seals accompanying pups demonstrate reduced foraging efficiency, and hence, the metabolic demands of foraging for Australian sea may preclude lactating females from performing suboptimal dives with their young. This becomes a preventative measure to maintain a population and avoid a complete extinction. However, as a result of small population size, small breeding colony size, low reproductive rate, exposure to human activities, and evidence of population declines in some areas, Australian sea lions have recently been listed as threatened and vulnerable.[16] Sea lions were heavily hunted following European settlement, greatly reducing their numbers. Large-scale hunting ceased in the 1920s,[15] with harvesting being banned with the introduction of the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972
National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972
which prohibited a harvest. The Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
was listed as vulnerable under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 in 2005 and is also listed as a threatened species in each state in its range ( South Australia
South Australia
and Western Australia). On 11 June 2013, the Recovery Plan for the Australian Sea Lion
Lion
( Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea) was adopted by the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. The plan considers the conservation requirements of the species across its range and identifies the actions to be taken to ensure its long-term viability in nature and the parties that will undertake those actions.[17][18] The Australian Fisheries Management Authority Commission has also finalised the Australian Sea Lion
Lion
Management Strategy which came into force on 30 June 2010 which includes closures of waters around colonies, seasonal closures, increased observation of sea lion activity and trials of modified fishing techniques and equipment. The strategy is designed to meet the commission’s obligations under the Fisheries Management Act 1991 and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The strategy will significantly reduce the impact of fishing in the SESSF on Australian sea lions and enable the recovery of the species, including all subpopulations.[19] Ecology[edit]

Australia
Australia
sea lion off Pearson Island

Australian sea lions defecate nutrient-rich faeces which may provide an important nutrient source for coastal ecosystems. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial consortia found in the faeces of Australian sea lions found very high levels of nutrient cycling and transport genes which may break down the nutrients defecated by sea lions into a bioavailable form for incorporation into marine food webs.[20] Diving behaviors indicate that the Australian Sea Lions worked extremely hard to exploit the benefits of their surrounding habitats. The Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
exceeds the limit (calculated aerobic dive limit) on 79% of dives. Australian sea lions spend 58% of time at sea diving and demonstrate high field metabolism,[21] which allows the sea lions to maximize their time spent at or near the benthos, with 61% of each dive and 35% of their time at sea being spent at the deepest 20% of the dives.[22] When diving, these animals are spending 57.9% of their time at sea spent at depths greater than or equal to 6 m, which can be considered as continuous diving.[22] Seasonal variability in foraging energetics and dive behavior is likely to be sensitive to regional oceanography, the maintenance costs of female sea lions and their offspring, and the distribution and behavior of their prey. Australian sea lions live on sand beaches and smooth rocks on island offshore of the Australian Coast.[23] Australian sea lions tend to live on islands between Pages Island in the south coast of Australia and Houtman Adbrolhos island west coast of Australia. Australian sea lions predominantly are on Kangaroo island.[24] These sea lions are non-migratory mammals that live on the coastal land of western and southern Australia.[25] These sea lions live around their birthplace and are at most 300 km away from their birthplace. Also Australian sea lions travel inward on land during tumultuous weather. Sea lions are known to travel up to 9.4 km inland. Australian sea lions biographical range from the Indian and Pacific Ocean.[26] References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Australian sea lion.

^ Goldsworthy, S. & Gales, N. (2008). " Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  Listed as Endangered (EN A2bd+3d) ^ a b Gales, NJ; Cheal, AJ; Pobar, GJ; Williamson, P (1992-01-01). "Breeding biology and movements of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea, off the west coasst of Western Australia". Wildlife Research. 19 (4): 405–415. doi:10.1071/wr9920405.  ^ Churchill, Morgan; Boessenecker, Robert W. (16 June 2016). "Taxonomy and biogeography of the Pleistocene New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
Neophoca palatina (Carnivora: Otariidae)". Journal of Paleontology. 90 (02): 375–388. doi:10.1017/jpa.2016.15.  ^ Scheffer, Victor B. (1958-01-01). Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses: A Review of the Pinnipedia. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804705448.  ^ Shaughnessy, Peter (2009-01-17). "Australian sea lions Neophoca cinerea at colonies in South Australia: distribution and abundance, 2004 to 2008" (PDF). ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH. doi:10.3354/esr00317. Retrieved 2015-08-29.  ^ Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Schaal, Benoist; Charrier, Isabelle (2011-02-23). "Social olfaction in marine mammals: wild female Australian sea lions can identify their pup's scent". Biology Letters. 7 (1): 60–62. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0569. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 3030890 . PMID 20685695.  ^ Charrier, Isabelle; Harcourt, Robert G. (2006-10-17). "Individual Vocal Identity in Mother and Pup Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca cinerea)". Journal of Mammalogy. 87 (5): 929–938. doi:10.1644/05-MAMM-A-344R3.1. ISSN 0022-2372.  ^ Gwilliam, Jessica; Charrier, Isabelle; Harcourt, Robert G. (2008-07-15). "Vocal identity and species recognition in male Australian sea lions, Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea". Journal of Experimental Biology. 211 (14): 2288–2295. doi:10.1242/jeb.013185. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 18587123.  ^ "Dietary analysis of regurgitates and stomach samples from free-living Australian sea lions". www.publish.csiro.au. 2006-12-19. Retrieved 2015-10-30.  ^ Gales, N. J.; Shaughnessy, P. D.; Dennis, T. E. (1994-11-01). "Distribution, abundance and breeding cycle of the Australian sea lion Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea (Mammalia: Pinnipedia)". Journal of Zoology. 234 (3): 353–370. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04853.x. ISSN 1469-7998.  ^ a b c Shaughnessy, P.D.; Dennis, T.E.; Seager, P.G. (2005-01-01). "Status of Australian sea lions, Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea, and New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus
Arctocephalus
forsteri, on Eyre Peninsula and the far west coast of South Australia". Wildlife Research. 32 (1): 85–101. doi:10.1071/wr03068.  ^ Higgins, Lesley V. (1993-05-21). "The Nonannual, Nonseasonal Breeding Cycle of the Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea". Journal of Mammalogy. 74 (2): 270–274. doi:10.2307/1382381. ISSN 0022-2372.  ^ Riedman, Marianne L. (December 1982). “The Evolution of Alloparental Care in Mammals and Birds”. The Quarterly Review of Biology 57 (4): 405-435 ^ "Wildlife as Canon Sees It". National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society. 218 (6). December 2010. Surviving number: Estimated at 14,730  ^ a b http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=22 ^ "Web of Science [v.5.19] - All Databases Full Record". apps.webofknowledge.com. Retrieved 2015-10-30.  ^ "Recovery Plan for the Australian Sea Lion
Lion
( Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea) 2013 Gazette - C2013G01027". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ "Recovery Plan for the Australian Sea Lion
Lion
( Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea)". Commonwealth of Australia, Department for the Environment. 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ "Australian Sea Lion
Lion
Management Strategy and SESSF Closure Direction No. 3". Australian Fisheries Management Authority Commission. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ Lavery TJ et al. 2012. High nutrient transport and cycling potential revealed in the microbial metagenome of Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(Neophoca cinerea) faeces. PLoS One 7(5): e36478. doi:10.1371.journal.pone.0036478 ^ Fowler, Shannon L.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Gales, Nicholas J.; Kuhn, Carey E. (2006-03-01). "Ontogeny of diving behaviour in the Australian sea lion: trials of adolescence in a late bloomer". Journal of Animal
Animal
Ecology. 75 (2): 358–367. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01055.x. ISSN 1365-2656.  ^ a b Costa, Daniel P.; Gales, Nicholas J. (2003-02-01). "Energetics of a Benthic Diver: Seasonal Foraging Ecology of the Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea". Ecological Monographs. 73 (1): 27–43. doi:10.1890/0012-9615(2003)073[0027:eoabds]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 3100073.  ^ " Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea (Australian sea lion)". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Retrieved 2015-10-30.  ^ les/esr_oa/n013p087.pdf "Web of Science [v.5.19] - All Databases Full Record" Check url= value (help) (PDF). apps.webofknowledge.com. Retrieved 2015-10-30.  ^ Shaughnessy, Peter (2009-01-17). "Australian sea lions Neophoca cinerea at colonies in South Australia: distribution and abundance, 2004 to 2008" (PDF). ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH. doi:10.3354/esr00317. Retrieved 2015-08-28.  ^ Hoglund, Kara. " Neophoca
Neophoca
cinerea Australian sea lion". Animal Diversity Web. Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 

Further reading[edit]

Shannon Leone Fowler (2005). Ontogeny of diving in the Australian sea lion. Ph.D. thesis. University of California, Santa Cruz. Randall R. Reeves; Brent S. Stewart; Phillip J. Clapham; James A. Powell (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0375411410. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q744392 ADW: Neophoca ARKive: neophoca-cinerea EoL: 328616 Fossilworks: 71852 GBIF: 2433484 iNaturalist: 41759 ITIS: 180623 IUCN: 14549 MSW: 14001013 NCBI: 161930 SPRAT

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