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The ATLAS MOUNTAINS (Arabic : جبال الأطلس‎‎, jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; Berber : ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵓⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb
Maghreb
. It stretches around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) through Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
. The range's highest peak is Jebel Toubkal , with an elevation of 4,167 metres (13,671 ft) in southwestern Morocco. It separates the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara
Sahara
Desert. The Atlas mountains are primarily inhabited by Berber populations. The terms for 'mountain' in some Berber languages
Berber languages
are adrar and adras, which are believed to be cognates of the toponym Atlas.

The mountains are home to a number of plant and animal species unique in Africa, often more like those of Europe; many of them are endangered and some have already gone extinct . Examples include the Barbary macaque
Barbary macaque
, the Atlas bear (Africa's only native bear; now extinct), the Barbary leopard , the Barbary stag , Barbary sheep , the Barbary lion (extinct in the wild), the Atlas Mountain badger, the North African elephant (extinct), the North African aurochs
North African aurochs
(extinct), Cuvier\'s gazelle , the Northern bald ibis
Northern bald ibis
, dippers , the Atlas mountain viper , the Atlas cedar
Atlas cedar
, the European black pine
European black pine
, and the Algerian oak
Algerian oak
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geology

* 1.1 Natural resources

* 2 Subranges of the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains

* 2.1 Middle Atlas range * 2.2 High Atlas
High Atlas
* 2.3 Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas
ranges * 2.4 Saharan Atlas range * 2.5 Tell Atlas range * 2.6 Aurès mountain range

* 3 See also * 4 References and notes

GEOLOGY

Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
across North Africa
Africa

The basement rock of most of Africa
Africa
was formed during the Precambrian period, and is much older than the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
lying on the continent. The Atlas was formed during three subsequent phases of Earth's geology.

The first tectonic deformation phase involves only the Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas
, which was formed in the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era (~300 million years ago) as the result of continental collisions . North America
North America
, Europe
Europe
and Africa were connected millions of years ago. The tectonic boundary.

The Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas
Mountains are believed to have originally been formed as part of Alleghenian orogeny . These mountains were formed when Africa
Africa
and America collided, and were once a chain rivaling today's Himalayas
Himalayas
. Today, the remains of this chain can be seen in the Fall Line region in the Eastern United States
Eastern United States
. Some remnants can also be found in the later formed Appalachians in North America.

A second phase took place during the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era (before ~66 My). It consisted of a widespread extension of the Earth's crust that rifted and separated the continents mentioned above. This extension was responsible for the formation of many thick intracontinental sedimentary basins including the present Atlas. Most of the rocks forming the surface of the present High Atlas
High Atlas
were deposited under the ocean at that time.

Finally, in the Paleogene and Neogene
Neogene
Periods (~66 million to ~1.8 million years ago), the mountain chains that today constitute the Atlas were uplifted, as the land masses of Europe
Europe
and Africa
Africa
collided at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
. Such convergent tectonic boundaries occur where two plates slide towards each other forming a subduction zone (if one plate moves underneath the other), and/or a continental collision (when the two plates contain continental crust ). In the case of the Africa- Europe
Europe
collision, it is clear that tectonic convergence is partially responsible for the formation of the High Atlas
High Atlas
, as well as for the closure of the Strait of Gibraltar and the formation of the Alps
Alps
and the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
. However, there is a lack of evidence for the nature of the subduction in the Atlas region, or for the thickening of the Earth's crust generally associated with continental collisions. In fact, one of the most striking features of the Atlas to geologists is the relative small amount of crustal thickening and tectonic shortening despite the important altitude of the mountain range. Recent studies suggest that deep processes rooted in the Earth's mantle may have contributed to the uplift of the High and Middle Atlas.

NATURAL RESOURCES

The Atlas are rich in natural resources . There are deposits of iron ore , lead ore , copper , silver , mercury , rock salt , phosphate , marble , anthracite coal and natural gas among other resources. View of the mountains

SUBRANGES OF THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

High Atlas, Morocco
Morocco

The range can be divided into four general regions:

* Middle Atlas , High Atlas
High Atlas
and Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas
(Morocco). * Tell Atlas (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia). * Aurès Mountains (Algeria, Tunisia). * Saharan Atlas (Algeria).

MIDDLE ATLAS RANGE

Main article: Middle Atlas

The MIDDLE ATLAS is a portion of the Atlas mountain range lying completely in Morocco. The Middle Atlas is the westernmost of three Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
chains that define a large, plateaued basin extending eastward. South of the Middle Atlas and separated by the Moulouya and Oum Er-Rbia rivers, the High Atlas
High Atlas
stretches for 700 kilometres (430 mi) with a succession of peaks among which ten reach above 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). North of the Middle Atlas and separated by the Sebou River , the Rif
Rif
mountains are an extension of the Baetic Cordillera (Baetic mountains, which include the Sierra Nevada ) in the south of Spain
Spain
.

HIGH ATLAS

Satellite photograph of the High Atlas
High Atlas
and Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas
Mountains. North is at the bottom; the city of Goulmima can be seen at center left. Main article: High Atlas
High Atlas

The High Atlas
High Atlas
in central Morocco
Morocco
rises in the west at the Atlantic coast and stretches in an eastern direction to the Moroccan-Algerian border. At the Atlantic and to the southwest, the range drops abruptly and makes an impressive transition to the coast and the Anti-Atlas range. To the north, in the direction of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
, the range descends less abruptly.

On the heights of Ouarzazate the massif is cut through by the Draa Valley which opens southward. It is mainly inhabited by Berber people, who live in small villages and cultivate the high plains of the Ourika Valley .

Near Barrage Cavagnac, there is a hydroelectric dam that has created the artificial lake Lalla Takerkoust. The lake serves also as a source for fish for the local fishermen.

The largest villages and towns of the area are Ouarzazate , Tahanaoute, Amizmiz , Imlil , Tin Mal and Ijoukak. Panoramic picture of the artificial lake of Lalla Takerkoust near Barrage Cavagnac, with the hydroelectric dam (far right)

ANTI-ATLAS RANGES

Main article: Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas

The Anti-Atlas
Anti-Atlas
extends from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the southwest of Morocco
Morocco
toward the northeast to the heights of Ouarzazate and further east to the city of Tafilalt (altogether a distance of approximately 500 kilometres or 310 miles). In the south it borders the Sahara
Sahara
. The easternmost point of the anti-Atlas is the Jbel Saghro range and its northern boundary is flanked by sections of the High Atlas
High Atlas
range . It includes the Djebel Siroua, a massif of volcanic origin with the highest summit of the range at 3,304 m. The Jebel Bani is a much lower range running along the southern side of the Anti Atlas.

SAHARAN ATLAS RANGE

Main article: Saharan Atlas

The Saharan Atlas of Algeria
Algeria
is the eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range. Though not as high as the Grand Atlas, they are far more imposing than the Tell Atlas range that runs to the north of them and closer to the coast. The highest peak in the range is the 2,236 m (7,336 ft) high Djebel Aissa. They mark the northern edge of the Sahara
Sahara
Desert . The mountains see some rainfall and are better suited to agriculture than the plateau region to the north. Today most of the population of the region are Berbers ( Imazighen ).

TELL ATLAS RANGE

Main article: Tell Atlas Panoramic view of typical Berber village ( Morocco
Morocco
- High Atlas
High Atlas
Mountains).

The Tell Atlas is a mountain chain over 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) in length, belonging to the Atlas mountain ranges and stretching from Morocco, through Algeria
Algeria
to Tunisia. It parallels the Mediterranean coast. Together with the Saharan Atlas to the south it forms the northernmost of two more or less parallel ranges which gradually approach one another towards the east, merging in Eastern Algeria. At the western ends at the Middle Atlas range in Morocco. The area immediately to the south of this range is the high plateau of the Hautes Plaines , with lakes in the wet season and salt flats in the dry.

AURèS MOUNTAIN RANGE

Main article: Aurès Mountains Aures Mountains
Aures Mountains
Location of the Aures region

The Aurès Mountains of Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
are the farthest eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range. The Aurès natural region is named after the range.

SEE ALSO

* Capsian culture
Capsian culture
* Teffedest Mountains * Nafusa Mountains * Atlas (mythology)
Atlas (mythology)

REFERENCES AND NOTES

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ATLAS MOUNTAINS .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ATLAS MOUNTAINS .

* ^ " Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
- Students Britannica Kids Homework Help". kids.britannica.com. Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ "Atlas Mountains: Facts and Location Study.com". Study.com. Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ UAB.es Potential field modelling of the Atlas lithosphere * ^ UAB.es Crustal structure under the central High Atlas
High Atlas
Mountains (Morocco) from geological and gravity data, P. Ayarza, et al., 2005, Tectonophysics, 400, 67-84 * ^ Des Montagnes du Sarho aux dunes de Merzouga * ^ Algeria
Algeria
- Ethnic Groups and Languages

* v * t * e

Major African geological formations

PLATES

* African Plate * Somali Plate * Madagascar Plate * Seychelles Plate

CRATONS AND SHIELDS

* Arabian-Nubian Shield * Congo Craton
Craton
* Kaapvaal Craton
Craton
* Kalahari Craton
Craton
* Saharan Metacraton * Tanzania Craton
Craton
* Tuareg Shield * West African Craton
Craton
* Zimbabwe Craton
Craton

SHEAR ZONES

* Aswa Dislocation * Broodkop Shear Zone * Central African Shear Zone
Central African Shear Zone
* Chuan Shear Zones * Foumban Shear Zone * Kandi Fault Zone * Mwembeshi Shear Zone * Todi Shear Zone * Western Meseta Shear Zone

OROGENS

* Alpide Orogen * Cape Fold Belt * Damara Orogen * East African Orogen * Eburnean Orogen * Gondwanide Orogen * Kibaran Orogen * Kuunga Orogen * Mauritanide Belt * Pan-African orogens * Terra Australis Orogen

RIFTS

* Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Anza trough * Bahr el Arab rift * Benue Trough
Benue Trough
* Blue Nile rift * East African Rift
Rift
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
Rift
Rift
* Lamu Embayment * Melut Basin * Muglad Basin
Muglad Basin
* Red Sea
Red Sea
Rift
Rift
* Sangha Aulacogen * Atbara rift * White Nile rift

SEDIMENTARY BASINS

* Angola Basin * Aoukar * Blue Nile Basin * Chad Basin * Congo Basin * Douala Basin * El Djouf * Foreland Karoo Basin * Gabon Basin * Iullemmeden Basin * Kufra Basin * Murzuq Basin * Niger Delta Basin * Ogaden Basin
Ogaden Basin
* Orange River basin * Ouled Abdoun Basin
Ouled Abdoun Basin
* Owambo Basin * Reggane Basin * Rio del Rey Basin * Sirte Basin * Somali Coastal Basin * Taoudeni basin * Tanzania Coastal Basin * Tindouf Basin * Turkana Basin

MOUNTAIN RANGES

* Aïr Mountains * Atlas Mountains * Aurès Mountains * Bambouk Mountains * Blue Mountains * Cameroon line * Central Pangean Mountains * Chaillu Mountains * Drakensberg
Drakensberg
* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* East African mountains * Great Escarpment * Great Karas Mountains * Guinée forestière * Imatong Mountains * Jebel Uweinat
Jebel Uweinat
* Loma Mountains * Mandara Mountains * Marrah Mountains
Marrah Mountains
* Mitumba Mountains * Nuba Mountains
Nuba Mountains
* Rif
Rif
Mountains * Rwenzori Mountains
Rwenzori Mountains
* Sankwala Mountains * Serra da Leba * Serra da Chela * Teffedest Mountains * Tibesti Mountains

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean
Mediterranean
* Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift
Rift
* Great Rift
Rift
Valley * Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Danakil Desert
Danakil Desert
* Danakil Alps
Alps
* Albertine Rift
Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift
Rift
Valley * Southern Rift
Rift
Valley

* Rift
Rift
Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau
Plateau
* Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast
Pepper Coast
* Gold Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld
Highveld
* Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
* Okavango Delta * False Bay
False Bay
* Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
* Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* James Bay
James Bay
* Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States
Mountain States
* Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
* Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
* West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains
Great Plains
* Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South
Deep South
* Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula
Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca
La Mixteca
* La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
* Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
* Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana
Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
* Ariana * Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria
Ingria
* Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan * Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau
Plateau
* Western Regions
Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
* Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
* Mongolian Plateau
Plateau
* Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia * China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau
Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau
Plateau
* Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah * Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
* Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
* Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift
Rift
Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea * Samaria
Samaria
* Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
* Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia * Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
* Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
* Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau
Plateau
* Coromandel Coast * Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas * Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
* Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula
Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel
English Channel
* Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean
Mediterranean
* Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine
Sloboda Ukraine
* Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia
Karelia
* East Karelia
Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula
Lefevre Peninsula
* Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
* Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago
* Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
* Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island * Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands
Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
* Society Islands
Society Islands
* Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
* Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut * Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
* Barents Sea
Barents Sea
* Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea
Pechora Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Queen Victoria Sea
* Wandel Sea * White Sea
White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
* English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
* Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
* Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea * James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
* Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
* Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea * Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea
Camotes Sea
* Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea
Chilean Sea
* Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea
East China Sea
* Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea
South China Sea
* Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
* Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea *