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The ATLAS MOUNTAINS (Arabic : جبال الأطلس‎‎, _jibāl al-ʾaṭlas_; Berber : ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵓⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, _idurar n waṭlas_) are a mountain range in the Maghreb . It stretches around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) through Morocco , Algeria and Tunisia . The range's highest peak is Jebel Toubkal , with an elevation of 4,167 metres (13,671 ft) in southwestern Morocco. It separates the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert. The Atlas mountains are primarily inhabited by Berber populations. The terms for 'mountain' in some Berber languages are _adrar_ and _adras_, which are believed to be cognates of the toponym _Atlas_.

The mountains are home to a number of plant and animal species unique in Africa, often more like those of Europe; many of them are endangered and some have already gone extinct . Examples include the Barbary macaque , the Atlas bear (Africa's only native bear; now extinct), the Barbary leopard , the Barbary stag , Barbary sheep , the Barbary lion (extinct in the wild), the Atlas Mountain badger, the North African elephant (extinct), the North African aurochs (extinct), Cuvier\'s gazelle , the Northern bald ibis , dippers , the Atlas mountain viper , the Atlas cedar , the European black pine , and the Algerian oak .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geology

* 1.1 Natural resources

* 2 Subranges of the Atlas Mountains

* 2.1 Middle Atlas range * 2.2 High Atlas * 2.3 Anti-Atlas ranges * 2.4 Saharan Atlas range * 2.5 Tell Atlas range * 2.6 Aurès mountain range

* 3 See also * 4 References and notes

GEOLOGY

Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa

The basement rock of most of Africa was formed during the Precambrian period, and is much older than the Atlas Mountains lying on the continent. The Atlas was formed during three subsequent phases of Earth's geology.

The first tectonic deformation phase involves only the Anti-Atlas , which was formed in the Paleozoic Era (~300 million years ago) as the result of continental collisions . North America , Europe and Africa were connected millions of years ago. The tectonic boundary.

The Anti-Atlas Mountains are believed to have originally been formed as part of Alleghenian orogeny . These mountains were formed when Africa and America collided, and were once a chain rivaling today's Himalayas . Today, the remains of this chain can be seen in the Fall Line region in the Eastern United States . Some remnants can also be found in the later formed Appalachians in North America.

A second phase took place during the Mesozoic Era (before ~66 My). It consisted of a widespread extension of the Earth's crust that rifted and separated the continents mentioned above. This extension was responsible for the formation of many thick intracontinental sedimentary basins including the present Atlas. Most of the rocks forming the surface of the present High Atlas were deposited under the ocean at that time.

Finally, in the Paleogene and Neogene Periods (~66 million to ~1.8 million years ago), the mountain chains that today constitute the Atlas were uplifted, as the land masses of Europe and Africa collided at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula . Such convergent tectonic boundaries occur where two plates slide towards each other forming a subduction zone (if one plate moves underneath the other), and/or a continental collision (when the two plates contain continental crust ). In the case of the Africa- Europe collision, it is clear that tectonic convergence is partially responsible for the formation of the High Atlas , as well as for the closure of the Strait of Gibraltar and the formation of the Alps and the Pyrenees . However, there is a lack of evidence for the nature of the subduction in the Atlas region, or for the thickening of the Earth's crust generally associated with continental collisions. In fact, one of the most striking features of the Atlas to geologists is the relative small amount of crustal thickening and tectonic shortening despite the important altitude of the mountain range. Recent studies suggest that deep processes rooted in the Earth's mantle may have contributed to the uplift of the High and Middle Atlas.

NATURAL RESOURCES

The Atlas are rich in natural resources . There are deposits of iron ore , lead ore , copper , silver , mercury , rock salt , phosphate , marble , anthracite coal and natural gas among other resources. View of the mountains

SUBRANGES OF THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

High Atlas, Morocco

The range can be divided into four general regions:

* Middle Atlas , High Atlas and Anti-Atlas (Morocco). * Tell Atlas (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia). * Aurès Mountains (Algeria, Tunisia). * Saharan Atlas (Algeria).

MIDDLE ATLAS RANGE

Main article: Middle Atlas

The MIDDLE ATLAS is a portion of the Atlas mountain range lying completely in Morocco. The Middle Atlas is the westernmost of three Atlas Mountains chains that define a large, plateaued basin extending eastward. South of the Middle Atlas and separated by the Moulouya and Oum Er-Rbia rivers, the High Atlas stretches for 700 kilometres (430 mi) with a succession of peaks among which ten reach above 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). North of the Middle Atlas and separated by the Sebou River , the Rif mountains are an extension of the Baetic Cordillera (Baetic mountains, which include the Sierra Nevada ) in the south of Spain .

HIGH ATLAS

Satellite photograph of the High Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. North is at the bottom; the city of Goulmima can be seen at center left. Main article: High Atlas

The High Atlas in central Morocco rises in the west at the Atlantic coast and stretches in an eastern direction to the Moroccan-Algerian border. At the Atlantic and to the southwest, the range drops abruptly and makes an impressive transition to the coast and the Anti-Atlas range. To the north, in the direction of Marrakesh , the range descends less abruptly.

On the heights of Ouarzazate the massif is cut through by the Draa Valley which opens southward. It is mainly inhabited by Berber people, who live in small villages and cultivate the high plains of the Ourika Valley .

Near Barrage Cavagnac, there is a hydroelectric dam that has created the artificial lake Lalla Takerkoust. The lake serves also as a source for fish for the local fishermen.

The largest villages and towns of the area are Ouarzazate , Tahanaoute, Amizmiz , Imlil , Tin Mal and Ijoukak. Panoramic picture of the artificial lake of Lalla Takerkoust near Barrage Cavagnac, with the hydroelectric dam (far right)

ANTI-ATLAS RANGES

Main article: Anti-Atlas

The Anti-Atlas extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest of Morocco toward the northeast to the heights of Ouarzazate and further east to the city of Tafilalt (altogether a distance of approximately 500 kilometres or 310 miles). In the south it borders the Sahara . The easternmost point of the anti-Atlas is the Jbel Saghro range and its northern boundary is flanked by sections of the High Atlas range . It includes the Djebel Siroua, a massif of volcanic origin with the highest summit of the range at 3,304 m. The Jebel Bani is a much lower range running along the southern side of the Anti Atlas.

SAHARAN ATLAS RANGE

Main article: Saharan Atlas

The Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range. Though not as high as the Grand Atlas, they are far more imposing than the Tell Atlas range that runs to the north of them and closer to the coast. The highest peak in the range is the 2,236 m (7,336 ft) high Djebel Aissa. They mark the northern edge of the Sahara Desert . The mountains see some rainfall and are better suited to agriculture than the plateau region to the north. Today most of the population of the region are Berbers ( Imazighen ).

TELL ATLAS RANGE

Main article: Tell Atlas Panoramic view of typical Berber village ( Morocco - High Atlas Mountains).

The Tell Atlas is a mountain chain over 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) in length, belonging to the Atlas mountain ranges and stretching from Morocco, through Algeria to Tunisia. It parallels the Mediterranean coast. Together with the Saharan Atlas to the south it forms the northernmost of two more or less parallel ranges which gradually approach one another towards the east, merging in _Eastern Algeria_. At the western ends at the Middle Atlas range in Morocco. The area immediately to the south of this range is the high plateau of the Hautes Plaines , with lakes in the wet season and salt flats in the dry.

AURèS MOUNTAIN RANGE

Main article: Aurès Mountains Aures Mountains Location of the Aures region

The Aurès Mountains of Algeria and Tunisia are the farthest eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range. The Aurès natural region is named after the range.

SEE ALSO

* Capsian culture * Teffedest Mountains * Nafusa Mountains * Atlas (mythology)

REFERENCES AND NOTES

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ATLAS MOUNTAINS _.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ATLAS MOUNTAINS _.

* ^ " Atlas Mountains - Students Britannica Kids Homework Help". _kids.britannica.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ "Atlas Mountains: Facts and Location Study.com". _Study.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ UAB.es Potential field modelling of the Atlas lithosphere * ^ UAB.es _Crustal structure under the central High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) from geological and gravity data_, P. Ayarza, et al., 2005, Tectonophysics, 400, 67-84 * ^ Des Montagnes du Sarho aux dunes de Merzouga * ^ Algeria - Ethnic Groups and Languages

* v * t * e

Major African geological formations

PLATES

* African Plate * Somali Plate * Madagascar Plate * Seychelles Plate

CRATONS AND SHIELDS

* Arabian-Nubian Shield * Congo Craton * Kaapvaal Craton * Kalahari Craton * Saharan Metacraton * Tanzania Craton * Tuareg Shield * West African Craton * Zimbabwe Craton

SHEAR ZONES

* Aswa Dislocation * Broodkop Shear Zone * Central African Shear Zone * Chuan Shear Zones * Foumban Shear Zone * Kandi Fault Zone * Mwembeshi Shear Zone * Todi Shear Zone * Western Meseta Shear Zone

OROGENS

* Alpide Orogen * Cape Fold Belt * Damara Orogen * East African Orogen * Eburnean Orogen * Gondwanide Orogen * Kibaran Orogen * Kuunga Orogen * Mauritanide Belt * Pan-African orogens * Terra Australis Orogen

RIFTS

* Afar Triangle * Anza trough * Bahr el Arab rift * Benue Trough * Blue Nile rift * East African Rift * Gulf of Suez Rift * Lamu Embayment * Melut Basin * Muglad Basin * Red Sea Rift * Sangha Aulacogen * Atbara rift * White Nile rift

SEDIMENTARY BASINS

* Angola Basin * Aoukar * Blue Nile Basin * Chad Basin * Congo Basin * Douala Basin * El Djouf * Foreland Karoo Basin * Gabon Basin * Iullemmeden Basin * Kufra Basin * Murzuq Basin * Niger Delta Basin * Ogaden Basin * Orange River basin * Ouled Abdoun Basin * Owambo Basin * Reggane Basin * Rio del Rey Basin * Sirte Basin * Somali Coastal Basin * Taoudeni basin * Tanzania Coastal Basin * Tindouf Basin * Turkana Basin

MOUNTAIN RANGES

* Aïr Mountains * Atlas Mountains * Aurès Mountains * Bambouk Mountains * Blue Mountains * Cameroon line * Central Pangean Mountains * Chaillu Mountains * Drakensberg * Ethiopian Highlands * East African mountains * Great Escarpment * Great Karas Mountains * Guinée forestière * Imatong Mountains * Jebel Uweinat * Loma Mountains * Mandara Mountains * Marrah Mountains * Mitumba Mountains * Nuba Mountains * Rif Mountains * Rwenzori Mountains * Sankwala Mountains * Serra da Leba * Serra da Chela * Teffedest Mountains * Tibesti Mountains

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia

* Lower Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa * Sudan (region) * Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos * Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa * Francophone Africa * Lusophone Africa * Arabophone Africa * Sub-Saharan Africa * Tropical Africa * Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada * Western Canada * Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada * Atlantic Canada * French Canada * English Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico * Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico * Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico * Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica * Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America

NORTH

* Caribbean South America * West Indies * Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia * Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano * Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga * Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains * Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia * Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia * Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China proper

* Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria * Inner Manchuria * Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Red Sea * Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden * Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz * Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan * Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant

* Southern Levant * Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights * Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank * Galilee * Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula * Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus

* Caucasus mountains

* Greater Caucasus * Lesser Caucasus

* North Caucasus

* South Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas * Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia * Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia * Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland * Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans * Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus * Greater Caucasus * Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles * English Channel * Channel Islands * Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea * Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia * New Caledonia * Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia * Capital Country * Eastern Australia * Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia * Nullarbor Plain * Outback

* Southern Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia * Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island * Hawaiian Islands * Cook Islands

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic Alaska * British Arctic Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark * Greenland * Northern Canada * Northwest Territories * Nunavik * Nunavut * Russian Arctic * Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon * North American Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth 's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico * Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea * Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea * Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea * Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 315125605 * GND : 4003394-6 * BNF : cb13319258b (data)

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