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Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger var. niger Aspergillopsis nigra (Tiegh.) Speg. Rhopalocystis nigra (Tiegh.) Grove Sterigmatocystis nigra (Tiegh.) Sacc., (1877)

Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus. It causes a disease called black mould on certain fruits and vegetables such as grapes, apricots, onions, and peanuts, and is a common contaminant of food. It is ubiquitous in soil and is commonly reported from indoor environments, where its black colonies can be confused with those of Stachybotrys
Stachybotrys
(species of which have also been called "black mould").[1] Some strains of A. niger have been reported to produce potent mycotoxins called ochratoxins;[2] other sources disagree, claiming this report is based upon misidentification of the fungal species.[citation needed] Recent evidence suggests some true A. niger strains do produce ochratoxin A.[1][3] It also produces the isoflavone orobol.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Pathogenicity

2.1 Plant disease 2.2 Human and animal disease

3 Industrial uses 4 Other uses 5 Genetics

5.1 Genome

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] A. niger is included in Aspergillus
Aspergillus
subgenus Circumdati, section Nigri. The section Nigri includes 15 related black-spored species that may be confused with A. niger, including A. tubingensis, A. foetidus, A. carbonarius, and A. awamori.[4][5] A number of morphologically similar species were recently described by Samson et al.[5] Recently the strain of ATCC 16404 Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger has been reclassified at Aspergillus
Aspergillus
brasiliensis (refer to publication by Varga et al.[6]). This has required an update to the U.S. Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia
European Pharmacopoeia
which commonly use this strain throughout the pharmaceutical industry. Pathogenicity[edit] Plant disease[edit]

A. niger growing on onion

A. niger causes black mold of onions and ornamental plants. Infection of onion seedlings by A. niger can become systemic, manifesting only when conditions are conducive. A. niger causes a common postharvest disease of onions, in which the black conidia can be observed between the scales of the bulb. The fungus also causes disease in peanuts and in grapes. Human and animal disease[edit] A. niger is less likely to cause human disease than some other Aspergillus
Aspergillus
species. In extremely rare instances, humans may become ill, but this is due to a serious lung disease, aspergillosis, that can occur. Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis
is, in particular, frequent among horticultural workers who inhale peat dust, which can be rich in Aspergillus
Aspergillus
spores. It has been found in the mummies of ancient Egyptian tombs and can be inhaled when they are disturbed.[7] A. niger is one of the most common causes of otomycosis (fungal ear infections), which can cause pain, temporary hearing loss, and, in severe cases, damage to the ear canal and tympanic membrane.

A. niger growing on SDA

Industrial uses[edit]

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A. niger is cultured for the industrial production of many substances. Various strains of A. niger are used in the industrial preparation of citric acid (E330) and gluconic acid (E574) and have been assessed as acceptable for daily intake by the World Health Organisation. A. niger fermentation is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.[8] Many useful enzymes are produced using industrial fermentation of A. niger. For example, A. niger glucoamylase is used in the production of high-fructose corn syrup, and pectinases are used in cider and wine clarification. Alpha-galactosidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain complex sugars, is a component of Beano and other products that decrease flatulence. Another use for A. niger within the biotechnology industry is in the production of magnetic isotope-containing variants of biological macromolecules for NMR analysis. A. niger growing from gold-mining solution contained cyano-metal complexes, such as gold, silver, copper, iron, and zinc. The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy-metal sulfides.[9] Alkali-treated A. niger binds to silver to 10% of dry weight. Silver biosorbtion occurs by stoichiometric exchange with Ca(II) and Mg(II) of the sorbent. Other uses[edit] For some time it was believed that A. niger was the main agent in the fermentation of Pu-erh tea.[10] This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian fermentations, including those that involve pu'er, where the authors have reclassified the organisms involved as Aspergillus
Aspergillus
luchuensis.[11] It is apparent that this species does not have the gene sequence for coding ochratoxin and thus pu'er tea should be considered safe for human consumption.[12] A. niger is also cultured for the extraction of the enzyme, glucose oxidase, used in the design of glucose biosensors, due to its high affinity for β-D-glucose.[13][14] Genetics[edit] Genome[edit]

Genomic information

NCBI genome ID 429

Ploidy haploid

Genome
Genome
size 34 Mb

Number of chromosomes 8

The A. niger ATCC 1015 genome was sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute in a collaboration with other institutions.[15] The genomes of two A. niger strains have been fully sequenced.[16][17] See also[edit]

Fungi
Fungi
portal

Contamination control

References[edit]

^ a b Samson RA, Houbraken J, Summerbell RC, Flannigan B, Miller JD (2001). "Common and important species of fungi and actinomycetes in indoor environments". Microogranisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments. CRC. pp. 287–292. ISBN 0415268001.  ^ Abarca M, Bragulat M, Castellá G, Cabañes F (1994). " Ochratoxin
Ochratoxin
A production by strains of Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger var. niger". Appl Environ Microbiol. 60 (7): 2650–2. PMC 201698 . PMID 8074536.  ^ Schuster E, Dunn-Coleman N, Frisvad JC, Van Dijck PW (2002). "On the safety of Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger—a review". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 59 (4–5): 426–35. doi:10.1007/s00253-002-1032-6. PMID 12172605.  ^ Klich MA (2002). Identification of common Aspergillus
Aspergillus
species. Utrecht, The Netherlands, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. ISBN 90-70351-46-3.  ^ a b Samson, RA, Houbraken JA, Kuijpers AF, Frank JM, Frisvad JC (2004). "New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus
Aspergillus
section Nigri" (PDF). Studies in Mycology. 50: 45–6.  ^ Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Toth, B.; Frisvad, J. C.; Perrone, G.; Susca, A.; Meijer, M.; Samson, R. A. (2007). " Aspergillus
Aspergillus
brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus
Aspergillus
species with world-wide distribution". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 57 (8): 1925. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65021-0. PMID 17684283.  ^ Handwerk, Brian (May 6, 2005) Egypt's "King Tut Curse" Caused by Tomb Toxins?. National Geographic. ^ "Inventory of GRAS
GRAS
Notices: Summary of all GRAS
GRAS
Notices". US FDA/CFSAN. 2008-10-22. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-31.  ^ Singh, Harbhajan (2006). Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 509. ISBN 0470050586.  ^ Petro, Mike. "Pu-erh, A Westerner's Quest". Retrieved 2008-07-10.  ^ Hong, Seung-Beom; et al. (2013). " Aspergillus
Aspergillus
luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus
Aspergillus
in East Asia". PLOS ONE. 8 (5): e63769. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063769. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Mogensen, Varga; Thrane; et al. "(30 June 2009) " Aspergillus
Aspergillus
acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2"". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 132 (2–3): 141–144. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.04.011. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Staiano, M.; Bazzicalupo, P.; Rossi, M.; d'Auria, S. (2005). " Glucose
Glucose
biosensors as models for the development of advanced protein-based biosensors". Molecular bioSystems. 1 (5–6): 354–362. doi:10.1039/b513385h. PMID 16881003.  ^ Ghoshdastider U, Wu R, Trzaskowski B, Mlynarczyk K, Miszta P, Gurusaran M, Viswanathan S, Renugopalakrishnan V, Filipek S (2015). "Nano-Encapsulation of Glucose
Glucose
Oxidase Dimer by Graphene". RSC Advances. 5 (18): 13570–78. doi:10.1039/C4RA16852F.  ^ "Home – Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger ATCC 1015 v4.0".  ^ Pel H, de Winde J, Archer D, et al. (2007). " Genome
Genome
sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger CBS 513.88". Nat Biotechnol. 25 (2): 221–31. doi:10.1038/nbt1282. PMID 17259976.  ^ Andersen MR, Salazar MP, Schaap PJ, et al. (2011). "Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88". Genome
Genome
Res. 21 (6): 885–97. doi:10.1101/gr.112169.110. PMC 3106321 . PMID 21543515. 

External links[edit]

Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis
information, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services A. niger ATCC 1015 genome Aspergillus
Aspergillus
website (Manchester University, UK)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q132014 EoL: 2920814 EPPO: ASPENI GBIF: 3465658 MycoBank: 284309 NCBI: 5061 W

.