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Aspen
Aspen
is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section Populus, of the Populus genus.[1]

Contents

1 Species 2 Habitat and longevity 3 Image gallery 4 Uses 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Species[edit] These species are called aspens:

Populus
Populus
adenopoda – Chinese aspen (China, south of P. tremula) Populus
Populus
davidiana – Korean aspen (Eastern Asia) Populus
Populus
grandidentata – Bigtooth aspen (eastern North America, south of P. tremuloides) Populus
Populus
sieboldii – Japanese aspen[2] (Japan) Populus
Populus
tremula – Eurasian aspen (northern Europe and Asia) Populus tremuloides
Populus tremuloides
– Quaking aspen or trembling aspen (northern and western North America)

Habitat and longevity[edit] The aspens are all native to cold regions with cool summers, in the north of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south at high-altitude areas such as mountains or high plains. They are all medium-sized deciduous trees reaching 15–30 m (49–98 ft) tall. In North America, it is referred to as Quaking Aspen
Aspen
or Trembling Aspen because the leaves "quake" or tremble in the wind. This is due to their flattened petioles which reduces aerodynamic drag on the trunk and branches. Aspens typically grow in environments that are otherwise dominated by coniferous tree species, and which are often lacking other large deciduous tree species. Aspens have evolved several adaptations that aid their survival in such environments. One is the flattened leaf petiole, which reduces aerodynamic drag during high winds and decreases the likelihood of trunk or branch damage. Dropping leaves in the winter (like most but not all other deciduous plants) also helps to prevent damage from heavy winter snow. Additionally, the bark is photosynthetic, meaning that growth is still possible after the leaves have been dropped. The bark also contains lenticels that serve as pores for gas exchange (similar to the stomata on leaves). Aspens are also aided by the rhizomatic nature of their root systems. Most aspens grow in large clonal colonies, derived from a single seedling, and spread by means of root suckers; new stems in the colony may appear at up to 30–40 m (98–131 ft) from the parent tree. Each individual tree can live for 40–150 years above ground, but the root system of the colony is long-lived. In some cases, this is for thousands of years, sending up new trunks as the older trunks die off above ground. For this reason, it is considered to be an indicator of ancient woodlands. One such colony in Utah, given the nickname of "Pando", is estimated to be 80,000 years old,[3] making it possibly the oldest living colony of aspens. Some aspen colonies become very large with time, spreading about 1 m (3.3 ft) per year, eventually covering many hectares. They are able to survive forest fires, because the roots are below the heat of the fire, and new sprouts appear after the fire burns out. The high stem turnover rate combined with the clonal growth leads to proliferation in aspen colonies. The high stem turnover regime supports a diverse herbaceous understory. Aspens do not thrive in the shade, and it is difficult for seedlings to grow in an already mature aspen stand. Fire indirectly benefits aspen trees, since it allows the saplings to flourish in open sunlight in the burned landscape, devoid of other competing tree species. Aspens have increased in popularity as a forestry cultivation species, mostly because of their fast growth rate and ability to regenerate from sprouts. This lowers the cost of reforestation after harvesting since no planting or sowing is required. Recently, aspen populations have been declining in some areas. This may be due to several different factors, such as climate change, which exacerbates drought and modifies precipitation patterns. Recruitment failure from herbivory or grazing prevents new trees from coming up after old trees die. Additionally, successional replacement by conifers due to fire suppression alters forest diversity and creates conditions where aspen may be at less of an advantage. Sudden aspen death is also occurring more often as a result of drought stress. In contrast with many trees, aspen bark is base-rich,[clarification needed] meaning aspens are important hosts for bryophytes[4] and act as food plants for the larvae of butterfly (Lepidoptera) species—see List of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
that feed on poplars. Young aspen bark is an important seasonal forage for the European hare and other animals in early spring. Aspen
Aspen
is also a preferred food of the European beaver. Elk, deer, and moose not only eat the leaves but also strip the bark with their front teeth. Image gallery[edit]

Leaf of Populus
Populus
grandidentata.

Autumn colour of Populus
Populus
tremula.

Male flowers (catkin) of Populus
Populus
tremula.

Aspen
Aspen
grove in fall.

Uses[edit] Aspen
Aspen
wood is white and soft, but fairly strong, and has low flammability. It has a number of uses, notably for making matches and paper where its low flammability makes it safer to use than most other woods.[citation needed] Shredded aspen wood is used for packing and stuffing, sometimes called excelsior (wood wool). Aspen
Aspen
flakes are the most common species of wood used to make oriented strand boards.[5] It is also a popular animal bedding, since it lacks the phenols associated with pine and juniper, which are thought to cause respiratory system ailments in some animals. Heat-treated aspen is a popular material for the interiors of a sauna. While standing trees sometimes tend to rot from the heart outward, the dry timber weathers very well, becoming silvery-grey and resistant to rotting and warping, and has traditionally been used for rural construction in the northwestern regions of Russia (especially for roofing, in the form of thin slats). See also[edit]

Trees portal Plant epithet Aspen
Aspen
trunk rot

References[edit]

^ "technology transfer fact sheet: Populus
Populus
spp" (PDF). Forest Products Laboratory: R&D USDA. Madison, Wisconsin: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Retrieved 20 September 2010.  ^ " Populus
Populus
sieboldii". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ Quaking Aspen
Aspen
by the Bryce Canyon
Bryce Canyon
National Park Service ^ The Biodiversity and Management of Aspen
Aspen
woodlands: Proceedings of a one-day conference held in Kingussie, Scotland, on 25th May 2001 ^ "Trembling Aspen". Alberta Wood
Wood
Products. Forest Industry Development Branch, Government of Alberta. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Fox, Mark, Linda E. Tackaberry, Pascal Drouin, Yves Bergeron, Robert L. Bradley, Hughes B. Massicotte, and Han Chen (2013). "Microbial community structure of soils under four productivity classes of aspen forests in Northern British Columbia". Ecoscience 20(3):264–275. doi:10.2980/20-3-3611.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aspen
Aspen
trees in heraldry.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Aspen.

Aspen
Aspen
Information Resource, U.K. Quaking Aspen
Aspen
Forests of the Colorado Plateau Bioimages: Populus
Populus
grandidentata bigtooth aspen Aspen
Aspen
Research Bibliography Aspen
Aspen
Photo Gallery Aspen
Aspen
Compounds, Medicinal Benefits and Uses Loyola Medicine: Aspen
Aspen
Dosage, Interaction, Warnings and Side Effects Steens Aspen
Aspen
Video produced by Oregon Field Guide

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