HOME
The Info List - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation


--- Advertisement ---



21 members

 Australia  Brunei  Canada  Chile  People's Republic of China  Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) (Name as Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
in APEC)[1]  Hong Kong  Indonesia  Japan  South Korea  Malaysia  Mexico  New Zealand  Peru  Philippines  Papua New Guinea  Russia  Singapore  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

Leaders

• Chairperson

Trần Đại Quang

• Executive Director

Alan Bollard

Establishment 1989

Website www.apec.org

Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies[2] that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region. It was established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world; to defuse fears that highly industrialised Japan
Japan
(a member of G8) would come to dominate economic activity in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region; and to establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe.[3] An annual APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders' Meeting is attended by the heads of government of all APEC
APEC
members except Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) (which is represented by a ministerial-level official under the name Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
as economic leader).[4] The location of the meeting rotates annually among the member economies, and a famous tradition, followed for most (but not all) summits, involves the attending leaders dressing in a national costume of the host country. APEC
APEC
has three official observers: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.[5] APEC's Host Economy of the Year is considered to be invited in the first place for geographical representation to attend G20
G20
meetings following G20 guidelines.[6][7][8][9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Meeting locations

2 Member economies 3 Possible enlargement 4 Business facilitation

4.1 Proposed FTAAP

5 APEC
APEC
Study Centre Consortium 6 APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council 7 Annual APEC
APEC
economic leaders' meetings

7.1 Meeting developments 7.2 APEC
APEC
leaders' group photo

8 Criticism 9 Current leaders of APEC
APEC
economies 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Play media

ABC news report of the first APEC
APEC
meeting in Canberra, November 1989, featuring delegates watching the Melbourne Cup.

In January 1989, Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke
Bob Hawke
called for more effective economic cooperation across the Pacific Rim
Pacific Rim
region. This led to the first meeting of APEC
APEC
in the Australian capital of Canberra
Canberra
in November, chaired by Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Gareth Evans. Attended by ministers from twelve countries, the meeting concluded with commitments for future annual meetings in Singapore
Singapore
and Korea. Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) opposed the initial proposal, instead proposing the East Asia Economic Caucus which would exclude non-Asian countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. This plan was opposed because of the member countries in the America Region, and strongly criticized by Japan
Japan
and the United States. The first APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders' Meeting occurred in 1993 when U.S. President Bill Clinton, after discussions with Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating, invited the heads of government from member economies to a summit on Blake Island.[10] He believed it would help bring the stalled Uruguay Round of trade talks back on track. At the meeting, some leaders called for continued reduction of barriers to trade and investment, envisioning a community in the Asia-Pacific region that might promote prosperity through cooperation. The APEC Secretariat, based in Singapore, was established to coordinate the activities of the organization. During the meeting in 1994 in Bogor, Indonesia, APEC
APEC
leaders adopted the Bogor
Bogor
Goals that aim for free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
by 2010 for industrialized economies and by 2020 for developing economies. In 1995, APEC
APEC
established a business advisory body named the APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council (ABAC), composed of three business executives from each member economy. In April 2001, the APEC, in collaboration with five other international organisations (Eurostat, IEA, OLADE, OPEC and the UNSD) launched the Joint Oil Data Exercise, which in 2005 became the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI). Meeting locations[edit] The location of the meeting is rotated annually among the members.

Year # Dates Country City Host Leader

1989 1st November 6–7  Australia Canberra Prime Minister Bob Hawke

1990 2nd July 29–31  Singapore Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong

1991 3rd November 12–14  South Korea Seoul President Roh Tae-woo

1992 4th September 10–11  Thailand Bangkok Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai

1993 5th November 19–20  United States Blake Island President Bill Clinton

1994 6th November 15–16  Indonesia Bogor President Suharto

1995 7th November 18–19  Japan Osaka Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama

1996 8th November 24–25  Philippines Subic President Fidel Ramos

1997 9th November 24–25  Canada Vancouver Prime Minister Jean Chretien

1998 10th November 17–18  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad

1999 11th September 12–13  New Zealand Auckland Prime Minister Jenny Shipley

2000 12th November 15–16  Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah

2001 13th October 20–21  China Shanghai President Jiang Zemin

2002 14th October 26–27  Mexico Los Cabos President Vicente Fox

2003 15th October 20–21  Thailand Bangkok Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra

2004 16th November 20–21  Chile Santiago President Ricardo Lagos

2005 17th November 18–19  South Korea Busan President Roh Moo-hyun

2006 18th November 18–19  Vietnam Hanoi President Nguyễn Minh Triết

2007 19th September 8–9  Australia Sydney Prime Minister John Howard

2008 20th November 22–23  Peru Lima President Alan Garcia Perez

2009 21st November 14–15  Singapore Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong

2010 22nd November 13–14  Japan Yokohama Prime Minister Naoto Kan

2011 23rd November 12–13  United States Honolulu President Barack Obama

2012 24th September 9–10  Russia Vladivostok President Vladimir Putin

2013 25th October 5–7  Indonesia Bali President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

2014 26th November 10–11  China Beijing President Xi Jinping

2015 27th November 18–19  Philippines Pasay President Benigno Aquino III

2016 28th November 19–20  Peru Lima President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

2017 29th November 10–11  Vietnam Da Nang President Trần Đại Quang

2018 30th November 18  Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Prime Minister Peter O'Neill

2019 31st TBA  Chile TBA President Sebastián Piñera

2020 32nd TBA  Malaysia TBA

2021 33rd TBA  New Zealand TBA

2022 34th TBA  Thailand TBA

2023 35th TBA  Mexico TBA

2024 36th TBA  Brunei TBA

2025 37th TBA  South Korea TBA

Member economies[edit]

Former South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun
Roh Moo-hyun
with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
and Former U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
at APEC 2006 in Hanoi, Vietnam.

APEC
APEC
currently has 21 members, including most countries with a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. However, the criterion for membership is that the member is a separate economy, rather than a state. As a result, APEC
APEC
uses the term member economies rather than member countries to refer to its members. One result of this criterion is that membership of the forum includes Taiwan
Taiwan
(officially the Republic of China, participating under the name "Chinese Taipei") alongside People's Republic of China
China
(see Cross-Strait relations), as well as Hong Kong, which entered APEC
APEC
as a British colony but it is now a Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. APEC also includes three official observers: ASEAN, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council.[2]

Member economie(s) Name as used in APEC Date of accession GDP (PPP) in 2017 (Millions of Int$)

 Australia Australia November 1989 1,235,297

 Brunei Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam November 1989 32,958

 Canada Canada November 1989 1,763,785

 Indonesia Indonesia November 1989 3,242,966

 Japan Japan November 1989 5,405,072

 South Korea Republic of Korea November 1989 2,026,651

 Malaysia Malaysia November 1989 926,081

 New Zealand New Zealand November 1989 185,748

 Philippines The Philippines November 1989 874,518

 Singapore Singapore November 1989 513,744

 Thailand Thailand November 1989 1,228,941

 United States The United States November 1989 19,362,129

 Taiwan Chinese Taipei[a] November 1991 1,175,308

 Hong Kong Hong Kong, China[11] November 1991 453,019

 China People's Republic of China November 1991 23,122,027

 Mexico Mexico November 1993 2,406,087

 Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea November 1993 30,839

 Chile Chile November 1994 452,095

 Peru Peru November 1998 424,639

 Russia Russia November 1998 4,000,096

 Vietnam Viet Nam November 1998 643,902

Possible enlargement[edit]

  Current members   Announced interest in membership

India
India
has requested membership in APEC, and received initial support from the United States, Japan,[12] Australia
Australia
and Papua New Guinea.[13] Officials have decided not to allow India
India
to join for various reasons, considering that India
India
does not border the Pacific Ocean, which all current members do.[14] However, India
India
was invited to be an observer for the first time in November 2011.[15] Bangladesh,[16] Pakistan,[16] Sri Lanka,[16] Macau,[16] Mongolia,[16] Laos,[16] Cambodia,[17] Costa Rica,[18] Colombia,[18][19] Panama,[18] and Ecuador,[20] are among a dozen other economies that have applied for membership in APEC. Colombia
Colombia
applied for APEC's membership as early as in 1995, but its bid was halted as the organisation stopped accepting new members from 1993 to 1996,[21] and the moratorium was further prolonged to 2007 due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Guam has also been actively seeking a separate membership, citing the example of Hong Kong, but the request is opposed by the United States, which currently represents Guam. Business facilitation[edit] APEC
APEC
has long been at the forefront of reform efforts in the area of business facilitation. Between 2002 and 2006 the costs of business transactions across the region was reduced by 6%, thanks to the APEC Trade
Trade
Facilitation Action Plan (TFAPI). Between 2007 and 2010, APEC hopes to achieve an additional 5% reduction in business transaction costs. To this end, a new Trade
Trade
Facilitation Action Plan has been endorsed. According to a 2008 research brief published by the World Bank as part of its Trade
Trade
Costs and Facilitation Project, increasing transparency in the region's trading system is critical if APEC
APEC
is to meet its Bogor
Bogor
Goal targets.[22] The APEC
APEC
Business Travel Card, a travel document for visa-free business travel within the region is one of the concrete measures to facilitate business. In May 2010 Russia
Russia
joined the scheme, thus completing the circle.[23] Proposed FTAAP[edit] APEC
APEC
first formally started discussing the concept of a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
(FTAAP) at its summit in 2006 in Hanoi. However, the proposal for such an area has been around since at least 1966 and Japanese economist Kiyoshi Kojima (ja)'s proposal for a Pacific Free Trade
Trade
agreement proposal. While it gained little traction, the idea led to the formation of Pacific Trade
Trade
and Development Conference and then the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council in 1980 and then APEC
APEC
in 1989. In the wake of the 2006 summit, economist C. Fred Bergsten
C. Fred Bergsten
advocated a Free Trade
Trade
Agreement of Asia-Pacific, including the United States amongst the proposed parties to any agreement at that time.[24] His ideas convinced the APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council to support this concept. Relatedly, ASEAN
ASEAN
and existing free trade agreement (FTA) partners are negotiating as Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), not officially including Russia.[25] The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP) without China
China
or Russia
Russia
involved has become the US-promoted trade negotiation in the region. At the APEC summit in Beijing
Beijing
in 2014, the three plans were all in discussion.[26] President Obama hosted a TPP meeting at the US Embassy in Beijing
Beijing
in advance of the APEC
APEC
gathering.[27] The proposal for a FTAAP arose due to the lack of progress in the Doha round of World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
negotiations, and as a way to overcome the "noodle bowl" effect created by overlapping and conflicting elements of the copious free trade agreements — there were approximately 60 free trade agreements in 2007, with an additional 117 in the process of negotiation in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region.[28] In 2012, ASEAN+6 countries alone had 339 free trade agreements - many of which were bilateral.[b] The FTAAP is more ambitious in scope than the Doha round, which limits itself to reducing trade restrictions. The FTAAP would create a free trade zone that would considerably expand commerce and economic growth in the region.[28][30] The economic expansion and growth in trade could exceed the expectations of other regional free trade areas such as the ASEAN
ASEAN
Plus Three ( ASEAN
ASEAN
+ China, South Korea
South Korea
and Japan).[31] Some criticisms include that the diversion of trade within APEC members would create trade imbalances, market conflicts and complications with nations of other regions.[30] The development of the FTAAP is expected to take many years, involving essential studies, evaluations and negotiations between member economies.[28] It is also affected by the absence of political will and popular agitations and lobbying against free trade in domestic politics.[28][32] At the 2014 APEC
APEC
summit in Beijing, APEC
APEC
leaders agreed to launch "a collective strategic study" on the FTAAP and instruct officials to undertake the study, consult stakeholders and report the result by the end of 2016.[33] APEC
APEC
Executive Director Alan Bollard
Alan Bollard
revealed in the Elite Talk
Talk
show that FTAAP will be APEC's big goal out into the future.[34] The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
includes 12 of the 21 APEC
APEC
members and has provisions for the accession of other APEC
APEC
members, five of which have expressed interest in membership. APEC
APEC
Study Centre Consortium[edit] In 1993, APEC
APEC
Leaders decided to establish a network of APEC
APEC
Study Centres among universities and research institutions in member economies.[35] Notable centers include:

Australian APEC
APEC
Study Centre, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia[36] Berkeley APEC
APEC
Study Center, University of California, Berkeley, United States[37] Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
APEC
APEC
Study Centre, Taiwan
Taiwan
Institute of Economic Research, Taiwan[38] HKU APEC
APEC
Study Centre, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong[39] Kobe APEC
APEC
Study Centre, Kobe University, Japan[40] Malaysia
Malaysia
APEC
APEC
Study Centre, Universiti Malaysia
Malaysia
Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia Nankai APEC
APEC
Study Centre, Nankai University, China[41] Philippines
Philippines
APEC
APEC
Study Center Network, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Philippines The Canadian APEC
APEC
Study Centre, The Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada[42] Indonesian APEC
APEC
Study Centre, APEC
APEC
Study Centre University of Indonesia, Indonesia.[43] India
India
APEC
APEC
Study Centre, Mumbai University, Jawaharlal Nehru University.

APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council[edit] The APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council (ABAC) was created by the APEC Economic Leaders in November 1995 with the aim of providing advice to the APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders on ways to achieve the Bogor
Bogor
Goals and other specific business sector priorities, and to provide the business perspective on specific areas of cooperation.[44][45] Each economy nominates up to three members from the private sector to ABAC. These business leaders represent a wide range of industry sectors. ABAC provides an annual report to APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders containing recommendations to improve the business and investment environment in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region, and outlining business views about priority regional issues. ABAC is also the only non-governmental organization that is on the official agenda of the APEC
APEC
Economic Leader's Meeting.[46]

Annual APEC
APEC
economic leaders' meetings[edit] Since its formation in 1989, APEC
APEC
has held annual meetings with representatives from all member economies. The first four annual meetings were attended by ministerial-level officials. Beginning in 1993, the annual meetings are named APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders' Meetings and are attended by the heads of government from all member economies except Taiwan, which is represented by a ministerial-level official. The annual Leaders' Meetings are not called summits. Meeting developments[edit] In 1997, the APEC
APEC
meeting was held in Vancouver. Controversy arose after officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
used pepper spray against protesters. The protesters objected to the presence of autocratic leaders such as Indonesian president Suharto.[47][48][49][50][51][52] At the 2001 Leaders' Meeting
2001 Leaders' Meeting
in Shanghai, APEC
APEC
leaders pushed for a new round of trade negotiations and support for a program of trade capacity-building assistance, leading to the launch of the Doha Development Agenda a few weeks later. The meeting also endorsed the Shanghai
Shanghai
Accord proposed by the United States, emphasising the implementation of open markets, structural reform, and capacity building. As part of the accord, the meeting committed to develop and implement APEC
APEC
transparency standards, reduce trade transaction costs in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region by 5 percent over 5 years, and pursue trade liberalisation policies relating to information technology goods and services. In 2003, Jemaah Islamiah
Jemaah Islamiah
leader Riduan Isamuddin had planned to attack the APEC
APEC
Leaders Meeting to be held in Bangkok
Bangkok
in October. He was captured in the city of Ayutthaya, Thailand
Thailand
by Thai police on August 11, 2003, before he could finish planning the attack.[citation needed] Chile
Chile
became the first South American nation to host the Leaders' Meeting in 2004. The agent of that year was focused on terrorism and commerce, small and medium enterprise development, and contemplation of free agreements and regional trade agreements. The 2005 Leaders' Meeting was held in Busan, South Korea. The meeting focused on the Doha round
Doha round
of World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) negotiations, leading up to the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2005 held in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in December. Weeks earlier, trade negotiations in Paris
Paris
were held between several WTO members, including the United States and the European Union, centred on reducing agricultural trade barriers. APEC
APEC
leaders at the summit urged the European Union
European Union
to agree to reducing farm subsidies. In a continuation of the climate information sharing initiative established by APEC
APEC
Climate Network working group, it was decided by the leaders to install the APEC Climate Center in Busan. Peaceful protests against APEC
APEC
were staged in Busan, but the meeting schedule was not affected. At the Leaders' Meeting held on November 19, 2006 in Hanoi, APEC leaders called for a new start to global free-trade negotiations while condemning terrorism and other threats to security. APEC
APEC
also criticised North Korea
Korea
for conducting a nuclear test and a missile test launch that year, urging the country to take "concrete and effective" steps toward nuclear disarmament. Concerns about nuclear proliferation in the region was discussed in addition to economic topics. The United States
United States
and Russia
Russia
signed an agreement as part of Russia's bid to join the World Trade
Trade
Organization. The APEC
APEC
Australia
Australia
2007 Leaders' Meeting was held in Sydney
Sydney
from 2–9 September 2007. The political leaders agreed to an "aspirational goal" of a 25% reduction of energy intensity correlative with economic development.[53] Extreme security measures including airborne sharpshooters and extensive steel-and-concrete barricades were deployed against anticipated protesters and potential terrorists. However, protest activities were peaceful and the security envelope was penetrated with ease by a spoof diplomatic motorcade manned by members of the Australian television program The Chaser, one of whom was dressed to resemble the Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
leader Osama bin Laden. The APEC
APEC
USA 2011 Leaders' Meeting was held on Honolulu, Hawaii 8–13 November 2011.[54] APEC
APEC
leaders' group photo[edit] At the end of the APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders' Meeting, the leaders in attendance gather for what is officially known as the APEC
APEC
Leaders' Family Photo. A long-standing tradition for this photo involved the attending leaders dressing in a costume that reflects the culture of the host member. The tradition dates back to the first such meeting in 1993 when then-U.S. President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
insisted on informal attire and gave the leaders leather bombardier jackets. However, at the 2010 meeting, Japan
Japan
opted to have the leaders dress in smart casual rather than the traditional kimono.[55] Similarly, when Honolulu
Honolulu
was selected in 2009 as the site for the 2011 APEC
APEC
meeting, U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
joked that he looked forward to seeing the leaders dressed in "flowered shirts and grass skirts". However, after viewing previous photos, and concerned that having the leaders dress in aloha shirts might give the wrong impression during a period of economic austerity, Obama decided that it might be time to end the tradition. Leaders were given a specially designed aloha shirt as a gift but were not required to wear it for the photo.[56] However at the 2013 conference in Bali, Indonesia, leaders wore a Batik outfit.

APEC
APEC
Brunei
Brunei
2000

APEC
APEC
China
China
2001

APEC
APEC
Thailand
Thailand
2003

APEC
APEC
Chile
Chile
2004

APEC
APEC
South Korea
South Korea
2005

APEC
APEC
Vietnam
Vietnam
2006

APEC
APEC
Australia
Australia
2007

APEC
APEC
Peru
Peru
2008

APEC
APEC
Singapore
Singapore
2009

APEC
APEC
Japan
Japan
2010

APEC
APEC
United States
United States
2011

APEC
APEC
Russia
Russia
2012

APEC
APEC
Indonesia
Indonesia
2013

APEC
APEC
China
China
2014

APEC
APEC
Philippines
Philippines
2015

APEC
APEC
Peru
Peru
2016

APEC
APEC
Vietnam
Vietnam
2017

Criticism[edit] APEC
APEC
has been criticised for promoting free trade agreements that would impose restrictions on national and local laws, which regulate and ensure labor rights, environmental protection and safe and affordable access to medicine.[57] According to the organization, it is "the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region" established to "further enhance economic growth and prosperity for the region and to strengthen the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
community".[58] However, whether it has accomplished anything constructive remains debatable, especially from the viewpoints of European countries that cannot take part in APEC[59] and Pacific Island nations that cannot participate but will suffer its consequences. Current leaders of APEC
APEC
economies[edit]

 Australia Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull

 Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah

 Canada Prime Minister Justin Trudeau

 Chile President Sebastián Piñera

 People's Republic of China President Xi Jinping

Chinese Taipei[a] ( Republic of China) Presidential Envoy James Soong[a]

 Hong Kong, China Chief Executive Carrie Lam

 Indonesia President Joko Widodo

 Japan Prime Minister Shinzō Abe

 South Korea President Moon Jae-in

 Malaysia Prime Minister Najib Razak

 Mexico President Enrique Peña Nieto

 New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern

 Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Peter O'Neill

 Peru President Martín Vizcarra

Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte

 Russia President Vladimir Putin

 Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong

 Thailand Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha

 United States President Donald Trump

 Vietnam President Trần Đại Quang

See also[edit]

ASEAN
ASEAN
Free Trade
Trade
Area Asia-Europe Meeting Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Trade
Trade
Agreements Database East Asia Economic Caucus East Asia Summit Pacific Alliance Pacific Economic Cooperation Council List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements

Other organisations of coastal states

Bay of Bengal Initiative Black Sea Economic Cooperation Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation Union for the Mediterranean

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Due to the complexities of the relations between it and the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China
China
(ROC or "Taiwan") is not represented under its official name "Republic of China" or as "Taiwan". Instead, it participates in APEC
APEC
under the name "Chinese Taipei". The President of the Republic of China
China
does not attend the annual APEC
APEC
Economic Leaders' Meeting in person. Instead, it is generally represented by a ministerial-level official responsible for economic affairs or someone designated by the president. See List of Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
Representatives to APEC. ^ "As of January 2012 ASEAN
ASEAN
countries have 186 FTAs implemented, signed, under negotiation or under proposal/study, which is substantial progress since… 1992. The ASEAN+6 countries have a total of 339 FTAs, including between ASEAN
ASEAN
countries and the '+6' countries."[29]

References[edit]

^ APEC. "Member Economies". Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation. Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ a b Member Economies - Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation. Apec.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-12. ^ "PECC - Back to Canberra: Founding APEC". www.pecc.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Conditions not right for APEC
APEC
attendance: Ma. The China
China
Post (2013-08-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-12. ^ " Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation -". www.apec.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ "FAQ". Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Laroche, Regine. "German Presidency 2017". Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade
Trade
and Development Canada. " Canada
Canada
and the G20". GAC. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ "Deputy PM meets US State Secretary on G20
G20
meeting sidelines - Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
in the United States". vietnamembassy-usa.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade
Trade
and Development Canada (2011-10-05). "History and Membership of APEC". GAC. Retrieved 2017-07-27.  ^ Hong Kong
Hong Kong
joined APEC
APEC
in 1991 during British administration with the name "Hong Kong." In 1997, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
became a Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
China
and took the name "Hong Kong, China." ^ 5 Minutes 10 Minutes (2007-01-12). " APEC
APEC
'too busy' for free trade deal, says Canberra". Theaustralian.news.com.au. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "Media Statement by the President of India
India
upon the conclusion of his state visit to Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
and New Zealand
New Zealand
en route from Auckland
Auckland
to New Delhi". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2016-10-08.  ^ "AFP: West worried India
India
would tip APEC
APEC
power balance: official". Afp.google.com. 2007-09-06. Archived from the original on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ Lee, Matthew (July 20, 2011). "Clinton urges India
India
to expand influence". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f "MACAU DAILY TIMES - No negotiations on APEC membership". 21 February 2013. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Bhandari, Neena. " India
India
Voice - India
India
will have to wait for APEC membership". www.india-voice.com. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ a b c Leff, Alex (2011-06-22). " Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Inches Toward Coveted APEC
APEC
Membership". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 2011-06-22.  ^ "Peru, Colombia
Colombia
seek closer Central America, APEC
APEC
trade ties –". Dominicantoday.com. 2006-08-29. Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ english@peopledaily.com.cn (2004-10-08). "People's Daily Online – Ecuador
Ecuador
seeks APEC
APEC
accession in 2007". English.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "People's Daily Online – Colombia
Colombia
seeks APEC
APEC
membership in 2007: FM". English.people.com.cn. 2006-09-06. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "Transparency Reform Could Raise Trade
Trade
by $148 Billion in APEC" Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. John S. Wilson & Benjamin Taylor; Trade
Trade
Facilitation Reform Research Brief, The World Bank. 2008. ^ " Russia
Russia
joins the APEC
APEC
Business Travel Card Scheme". apec.org. Sapporo. 29 May 2010. Retrieved 2015-08-05.  ^ Bergsten, C. Fred, "Toward a Free Trade
Trade
Area of the Asia Pacific", Peterson Institute for International Economics
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Number Pb07-2. Pdf can be found via Google. Retrieved 2014-11-09. ^ "China-led RCEP trade talks to begin in May", thebricspost.com, April 25, 2013. Retrieved 2014-11-10. ^ "China's President Xi touts ' Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
dream' ahead of APEC summit", Deutsche Welle, November 9, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-09. ^ Goodman, Lee-Anne, "Harper, Obama attend Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
trade deal meeting in Beijing", The Canadian Press, November 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-10. ^ a b c d September 2007 — (2011-09-13). "FTAAP". Brookings.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ Chia Siow Yue. "The Emerging Regional Economic Integration Architecture in East Asia". Asian Economic Papers (MIT Press). Vol. 12, No. 1 (2013): p. 1-37 ^ a b "Plan B for World Trade". Petersoninstitute.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  No reference to numbers of FTAs. ^ Policy Briefs in International Economics
Economics
(PDF) ^ The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
- FTAAP Archived 2012-05-24 at the Wayback Machine.. PECC. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ " APEC
APEC
roadmap on FTAAP a historic decision: Xi". Xinhua, November 11, 2014 ^ "Elite Talk: A talk with APEC
APEC
chief Alan Bollard
Alan Bollard
on China, FTAAP, New Silk Road". People's Daily Online, November 10, 2014 ^ APEC
APEC
Study Center Contortium Archived December 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Australian APEC
APEC
Study Centre". Apec.org.au. Archived from the original on 2011-10-26. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "Berkeley APEC
APEC
Study Center". Basc.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ " Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
APEC
APEC
Study Center". Ctasc.org.tw. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "HKU APEC
APEC
Study Center". Hku.hk. Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ " Kobe University
Kobe University
APEC
APEC
Study Center". Rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ APEC
APEC
Study Center of Nankai University
Nankai University
Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Canadian APEC
APEC
Study Centre, The Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada". Asiapacific.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ "ASC UI". ASC UI. Archived from the original on 2011-10-01. Retrieved 2011-11-04.  ^ Online, Abac. "Home - APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council". www2.abaconline.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ "National Center for APEC
APEC
- About ABAC". www.ncapec.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ " APEC
APEC
Business Advisory Council (ABAC) - China
China
APEC
APEC
Development Council". www.chinaapec.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Pue, W. Wesley (2000). Pepper in our Eyes: the APEC
APEC
Affair. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0779-2.  ^ Wallace, Bruce (September 21, 1998). " APEC
APEC
Protest Controversy". Maclean's via The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-09-06.  ^ Nuttall-Smith, Chris (November 27, 1997). " APEC
APEC
summit gets nasty at UBC". Varsity News. Sarah Galashan. Varsity Publications, Inc. Archived from the original on 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2006-09-06.  ^ Schmidt, Sarah (January 6, 1998). "Student protesters fight back for civil rights". Varsity News. Varsity Publications, Inc. Archived from the original on 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2006-09-06.  ^ "Civil rights group denounces attack on UBC students' APEC
APEC
protests" (Press release). British Columbia Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA). November 23, 1997. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-06.  ^ "Student member of BCCLA executive arrested!" (Press release). British Columbia Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA). November 25, 1997. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-06.  ^ "Apec supports nuclear, agrees climate targets". World Nuclear News. 2007-09-10. Archived from the original on 4 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-15.  ^ "Apec Honolulu
Honolulu
Schedule". November 9, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-10-13. Retrieved November 9, 2011.  ^ "No kimonos for APEC
APEC
leaders in Japan". Reuters. 2010-11-11. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-12.  ^ "No aloha for Hawaiian shirts at APEC
APEC
family photo". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. 2011-11-13. Retrieved 2011-11-13.  ^ Gerhardt, Tina (11 November 2011). "America's Pacific Century?: APEC Summit in Hawaii Seeks to Implement Free Trade
Trade
Agreement of the Asia Pacific Region". Commondreams.  ^ About APEC
APEC
Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation Archived November 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "APEC—a pretty empty chatter". The Economist. September 12, 2007. 

Further reading[edit]

Fazzone, Patrick B. (2012). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership—Towards a Free Trade
Trade
Agreement of Asia Pacific?". Georgetown Journal of International Law. 43 (3): 695–743. ISSN 1550-5200.  Alkan, Abdulkadir (2014). " APEC
APEC
2014: Better diplomatic ties for better economic relations". Daily Sabah. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation.

Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding APEC

v t e

Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Nations

 Australia  Brunei  Canada  Chile  China  Hong Kong¹  Indonesia  Japan  South Korea  Malaysia  Mexico  New Zealand  Papua New Guinea  Peru  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  Chinese Taipei²  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

Summits

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Other

APEC
APEC
Business Travel Card APEC
APEC
blue APEC
APEC
Climate Center APEC
APEC
Youth Science Festival

1. A special administrative region of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China"; 2. Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Chinese Taipei"

v t e

Current leaders of the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation

Turnbull Bolkiah Trudeau Piñera Xi Lam Jokowi Abe Moon Najib Peña Nieto

Ardern O'Neill Vizcarra Duterte Putin Lee Tsai Prayut Trump Quang

v t e

Current Foreign Ministers of the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation

Bishop Bolkiah / Erywan Freeland Ampuero Wang Marsudi Kōno Kang Anifah Videgaray

Peters Pato Aljovín Cayetano Lavrov Balakrishnan Wu Pramudwinai Sullivan Minh

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Emerging Small Middle Regional Great Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai
Shanghai
Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa (BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil–South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

v t e

Economics

Economic theory Econometrics Applied economics

Macroeconomics

Adaptive expectations Aggregate demand Balance of payments Business cycle Capacity utilization Capital flight Central bank Consumer confidence Currency Demand shock Depression (Great Depression) DSGE Economic growth Economic indicator Economic rent Effective demand General Theory of Keynes Hyperinflation Inflation Interest Interest
Interest
rate Investment IS–LM model Microfoundations Monetary policy Money NAIRU National accounts PPP Rate of profit Rational expectations Recession Saving Shrinkflation Stagflation Supply shock Unemployment Macroeconomics
Macroeconomics
publications

Microeconomics

Aggregation problem Budget set Consumer choice Convexity Cost–benefit analysis Deadweight loss Distribution Duopoly Economic equilibrium Economic shortage Economic surplus Economies of scale Economies of scope Elasticity Expected utility hypothesis Externality General equilibrium theory Indifference curve Intertemporal choice Marginal cost Market failure Market structure Monopoly Monopsony Non-convexity Oligopoly Opportunity cost Preference Production set Profit Public good Returns to scale Risk aversion Scarcity Social choice theory Sunk costs Supply and demand Theory of the firm Trade Transaction cost Value Uncertainty Utility Microeconomics
Microeconomics
publications

Applied fields

Agricultural Business Demographic Development Economic history Education Engineering Environmental Financial Health Industrial organization International Knowledge Labour Law and economics Monetary Natural resource Public Service Transportation Urban Welfare

Methodology

Behavioral economics Computational economics Econometrics Economic systems Experimental economics Mathematical economics Methodological publications

Economic thought

Ancient economic thought Austrian school of economics Chicago school of economics Classical economics Feminist economics Heterodox economics Institutional economics Keynesian economics Mainstream economics Marxian economics Neoclassical economics Post-Keynesian economics Schools overview

Notable economists and thinkers within economics

Kenneth Arrow Gary Becker Francis Ysidro Edgeworth Milton Friedman Ragnar Frisch Friedrich Hayek Harold Hotelling John Maynard Keynes Tjalling Koopmans Paul Krugman Robert Lucas Jr. Jacob Marschak Alfred Marshall Karl Marx John von Neumann Vilfredo Pareto David Ricardo Paul Samuelson Joseph Schumpeter Amartya Sen Herbert A. Simon Adam Smith Robert Solow Léon Walras more

International organizations

Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation Economic Cooperation Organization European Free Trade
Trade
Association International Monetary Fund Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development World Bank World Trade
Trade
Organization

Category Index Lists Outline Publications Business and economics portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127740032 ISNI: 0000 0001 2248 4526 GND: 5194860-6 SUDOC: 033468567 BNF:

.