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The Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga shogunate
(足利幕府, Ashikaga bakufu, 1336–1573), also known as the Muromachi shogunate (室町幕府, Muromachi bakufu),[1] was a dynasty originating from one of the plethora of Japanese daimyōs which governed Japan from 1338 to 1573, the year in which Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
deposed Ashikaga Yoshiaki. The heads of government were the shōguns.[2] Each was a member of the Ashikaga clan.[3] This period is also known as the Muromachi period. It gets its name from the Muromachi district of Kyoto.[1] The third shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, established his residence on Muromachi Street. This residence, constructed in 1379, is nicknamed "Flower Palace" (花の御所, Hana no Gosho) because of the abundance of flowers in its landscaping.

Contents

1 Beginning 2 North and South Court 3 Government structure

3.1 Foreign relations

4 Fall of the shogunate 5 Palace remains 6 List of Ashikaga shōguns 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

9 External links

Beginning[edit] During the preceding Kamakura period
Kamakura period
(1185–1333), the Hōjō clan enjoyed absolute power in the governing of Japan. This monopoly of power, as well as the lack of a reward of lands after the defeat of the Mongol invasions, led to simmering resentment among Hōjō vassals. Finally, in 1333, the Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
ordered local governing vassals to oppose Hōjō rule, in favor of Imperial restoration, in the Kenmu Restoration. To counter this revolt, the Kamakura shogunate
Kamakura shogunate
ordered Ashikaga Takauji to quash the uprising. For reasons that are unclear, possibly because Ashikaga was the de facto leader of the powerless Minamoto clan, while the Hōjō clan
Hōjō clan
were from the Taira clan
Taira clan
the Minamoto had previously defeated, Ashikaga turned against Kamakura, and fought on behalf of the Imperial court. After the successful overthrow of the Kamakura regime in 1336, Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
set up his own military government in Kyoto. North and South Court[edit] After Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
established himself as the shōgun, a dispute arose with Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
on the subject of how to govern the country. That dispute led Takauji to cause Prince Yutahito, the second son of Emperor Go-Fushimi, to be installed as Emperor Kōmyō. Go-Daigō fled, and Japan was divided between a northern imperial court (in favor of Kōmyō), and a southern imperial court (in favor of Go-Daigō). This period of "Northern and Southern Courts" continued for 56 years, until 1392, when the South Court gave up during the reign of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Government structure[edit]

Structure of the bakufu

The Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga shogunate
was the weakest of the three Japanese military governments. Unlike its predecessor, the Kamakura shogunate, or its successor, the Tokugawa shogunate, when Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
established his government he had little personal territory with which to support his rule. The Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga shogunate
was thus heavily reliant on the prestige and personal authority of its shōguns. The centralized master-vassal system used in the Kamakura system was replaced with the highly de-centralized daimyōs (local lord) system, and because of the lack of direct territories, the military power of the shōguns depended heavily on the loyalty of the daimyōs. On the other hand, the Imperial court was no longer a credible threat to military rule. The failure of the Kenmu Restoration
Kenmu Restoration
had rendered the court weak and subservient, a situation the Ashikaga Takauji reinforced by establishing within close proximity of the Emperor at Kyoto. The authority of the local daimyōs greatly expanded from its Kamakura times. In addition to military and policing responsibilities, the shogunate appointed shugos now absorbed the justice, economical and taxation powers of the local Imperial governors, while the government holdings in each province were rapidly absorbed into the personal holdings of the daimyōs or their vassals. The loss of both political clout and economic base deprived the Imperial court of much of its power, which were then assumed by the Ashikaga shōguns. This situation reached its peak under the rule of the third shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. After Yoshimitsu however, the structural weakness of the Ashikaga shogunate were exposed by numerous succession troubles and early deaths. This became dramatically more acute after the Ōnin War, after which the shogunate itself became reduced to little more than a local political force in Kyoto. Foreign relations[edit] The Ashikaga shogunate's foreign relations policy choices were played out in evolving contacts with Joseon
Joseon
on the Korean Peninsula[4][5] and with imperial China.[6][7] Fall of the shogunate[edit] As the daimyōs increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power in the Ōnin War, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare in the late Muromachi period, also known as the Sengoku period. When the shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru
Ashikaga Yoshiteru
was assassinated in 1565, an ambitious daimyō, Oda Nobunaga, seized the opportunity and installed Yoshiteru's brother Yoshiaki as the 15th Ashikaga shōgun. However, Yoshiaki was only a puppet of Nobunaga. The Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga shogunate
was finally destroyed in 1573 when Nobunaga drove Ashikaga Yoshiaki
Ashikaga Yoshiaki
out of Kyoto. Initially, Yoshiaki fled to Shikoku. Afterwards, he sought and received protection from the Mōri clan in western Japan. Later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
requested that Yoshiaki accept him as an adopted son and the 16th Ashikaga shōgun, but Yoshiaki refused. The Ashikaga family survived the 16th century, and a branch of it became the daimyō family of the Kitsuregawa domain.[8] Palace remains[edit]

Marker for the site of the Flower Palace, Kyoto

The shogunal residence, also known as the "Flower Palace", was in Kyoto
Kyoto
on the block now bounded by Karasuma Street
Karasuma Street
(to the east), Imadegawa Street (to the south), Muromachi Street
Muromachi Street
(to the west, giving the name), and Kamidachiuri Street (to the north). The location is commemorated by a stone marker at the southwest corner, and the Kanbai-kan (寒梅館, Winter Plum Hall) of Dōshisha University contains relics and excavations of the area. List of Ashikaga shōguns[edit]

Ashikaga Takauji, ruled 1338–1357[9] Ashikaga Yoshiakira, r. 1359–1368[9] Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, r. 1368–1394[10] Ashikaga Yoshimochi, r. 1395–1423[10] Ashikaga Yoshikazu, r. 1423–1425[10] Ashikaga Yoshinori, r. 1429–1441[10] Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, r. 1442–1443[10] Ashikaga Yoshimasa, r. 1449–1473[10][11] Ashikaga Yoshihisa, r. 1474–1489[10] Ashikaga Yoshitane, r. 1490–1493, 1508–1521[12][13] Ashikaga Yoshizumi, r. 1494–1508[12] Ashikaga Yoshiharu, r. 1521–1546[9] Ashikaga Yoshiteru, r. 1546–1565[12] Ashikaga Yoshihide, r. 1568[10] Ashikaga Yoshiaki, r. 1568–1573[9]

See also[edit]

History of Japan Kamakura period Muromachi period Nanboku-chō period Ashikaga clan Japanese missions to Imperial China Ōban (Great Watch)

References[edit]

^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Muromachi-jidai" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 669. ^ Roth 2002, p. 878. ^ Roth 2002, p. 53. ^ von Klaproth 1834, p. 320. ^ Kang 1997, p. 275. ^ Ackroyd 1982, p. 329. ^ von Klaproth 1834, pp. 322–324. ^ With the end of the Kitsuregawa line following the death of Ashikaga Atsuuji in 1983, the current de facto head of the family is Ashikaga Yoshihiro, of the Hirashima Kubō line. ^ a b c d Roth 2002, p. 55. ^ a b c d e f g h Roth 2002, p. 56. ^ Ackroyd, p. 298; n.b., shōgun Yoshimasa was succeeded by shōgun Yoshihisa (Yoshimasa's natural son), then by Shogun Yoshitane (Yoshimasa's first adopted son), and then by Shogun Yoshizumi (Yoshimasa's second adopted son) ^ a b c Roth 2002, p. 57. ^ Ackroyd, p. 385 n104; excerpt, "Some apparent contradictions exist in various versions of the pedigree owing to adoptions and name-changes. Yoshitsuna (sometimes also read Yoshikore) changed his name and was adopted by Yoshitane. Some pedigrees show Yoshitsuna as Yoshizumi's son, and Yoshifuyu as Yoshizumi's son."

Bibliography[edit]

新井 Arai, 白石 Hakuseki; Ackroyd, Joyce Irene (1982). Lessons from history: the Tokushi yoron. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 978-0-7022-1485-1.  Kang, Etsuko Hae-Jin (1997). Diplomacy and Ideology in Japanese-Korean Relations: From the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-17370-8.  Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric; Roth, Käthe (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.  von Klaproth, Julius (1834). Nipon o daï itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. 

External links[edit]

Ashikaga Bakufu from Washington State University website Kyoto
Kyoto
City Web

v t e

Ashikaga family tree

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Takauji (1) 1305–1338–1358

Yoshiakira(2) 1330–1358-1367–1368

Yoshimitsu(3) 1358–1367-1395–1408

Yoshimochi(4) 1386–1395-1423–1428

Yoshikazu(5) 1407–1423–1425

Yoshinori(6) 1394–1428–1441

Yoshikatsu(7) 1433–1442–1443

Masatomo 1435–1491

Yoshimasa(8)[i][ii] 1435–1449-1474–1490

Yoshimi 1439–1491

Yoshizumi(11)[i] 1478–1493-1508–1513

Yoshihisa(9)[i] 1465–1474–1489

Yoshitane(10)[i] 1465–1490-1493+1508-1521–1522

Yoshiharu(12) 1510–1521-1545–1550

Yoshitsuna 1509–1573

Yoshiteru(13) 1535–1545–1565

Yoshiaki(15) 1537–1568-1573–1597

Yoshihide(14) 1538–1564–1568

Notes:

^ a b c d Yoshimasa's successors were Yoshihisa (son), Yoshitane (first adopted son) and Yoshizumi (second adopted son) ^ The broken lines indicate adoptions within the shogunal clan

v t e

Chronology, dates and paternity of the Ashikaga shōguns

Name

Lived

Reigned

Son of

1st Takauji 1305–1358 1338–1358 Sadauji

2nd Yoshiakira 1330–1368 1358–1367 Takauji

3rd Yoshimitsu 1358–1408 1367–1395 Yoshiakira

4th Yoshimochi 1386–1428 1395–1423 Yoshimitsu

5th Yoshikazu 1407–1425 1423–1425 Yoshimochi

6th Yoshinori 1394–1441 1428–1441 Yoshimitsu

7th Yoshikatsu 1433–1443 1442–1443 Yoshinori

8th Yoshimasa 1435–1490 1449–1474 Yoshinori

Name

Lived

Reigned

Son of

  9th Yoshihisa 1465–1489 1474–1489 Yoshimasa

10th Yoshitane 1465–1522

1490–1493 1508–1521

Yoshimi

11th Yoshizumi 1478–1513 1493–1508 Masatomo

12th Yoshiharu 1510–1550 1521–1545 Yoshizumi

13th Yoshiteru 1535–1565 1545–1565 Yoshiharu

14th Yosihide 1538–1568 1564–1568 Yoshitsuna

15th Yoshiaki 1537–1597 1568–1573 Yoshiharu

Related topics: Muromachi period Hana-no Gosho Nijō Castle Ashikaga cla

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