* Ashikaga Yoshitsugu
Ki no Yoshiko
Kinkakuji Temple, the Golden Pavilion at
Kinkaku-ji , originated
as the villa of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.
ASHIKAGA YOSHIMITSU (足利 義満, September 25, 1358 – May 31,
1408) was the 3RD SHOGUN of the
Ashikaga shogunate , who was in power
from 1368 to 1394 during the
Muromachi period of
Japan . Yoshimitsu
born as Ashikaga Yoshiakira's third son and the oldest son who
survive, his childhood name was Haruo (春王). Yoshimitsu was
appointed shogun, hereditary head of the military estate, in 1368 at
the age of ten; at twenty he was admitted to the imperial court as
Acting Grand Counselor (Gon Dainagon 権大納言). In 1379,
Yoshimitsu reorganized the institutional framework of the Gozan Zen
五山禅 establishment before, two years later, becoming the first
person of warrior pedigree to host a reigning emperor at his private
residence. In 1392, he negotiated the end of the
schism that had plagued politics for over half a century. Two years
later he became Grand Chancellor of State (Dajō daijin 太政大臣),
the highest-ranking member of the imperial court. Retiring from that
and all public offices in 1395, Yoshimitsu took the tonsure and moved
into his Kitayama-dono (北山殿) retirement villa which, among other
things, boasted a pavilion covered in gold leaf (Kinkaku shariden
金閣舎利殿). There, he received envoys from the Ming and Joseon
courts on at least six occasions and forged the terms of a
Sino-Japanese trade agreement that endured for over a century. In
recognition for his diplomatic efforts (and overt displays of
subservience), the Chinese sovereign pronounced Yoshimitsu "King of
Japan" (Nihon kokuō 日本国王). In 1407, he set into motion a plan
to become "Dajō tenno" (太上天皇), a title customarily applied to
a retired emperor. Although unrealized due to his sudden death the
following year, this last venture was particularly audacious because
Yoshimitsu never actually sat on the Japanese throne. His buddhist
name was Rokuon'in (鹿苑院).
* 1 Timeline
* 3 Family
* 4 Eras of Yoshimitsu\'s bakufu
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 External links
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Significant events shape the period during which Yoshimitsu was
* 1368 – Yoshimitsu appointed shogun; Chōkei ascends southern
* 1369 –
Kusunoki Masanori defects to Ashikaga.
* 1370 –
Imagawa Sadayo sent to subdue Kyushu.
* 1371 – Attempts to arrange truce.
* 1373–1406 – Embassies between China and Japan.
* 1374 – En\'yū ascends northern throne.
* 1378 – Yoshimitsu builds the
Muromachi palace in Kyoto's elite
district of Kamigyo, on the site of the former residence of the
nobleman Saionji Sanekane.
* 1379 –
Shiba Yoshimasa becomes
* 1380 –
Kusunoki Masanori rejoins Kameyama ; southern army
* 1382 –
Go-Komatsu ascends northern throne; resurgence of
* 1383 – Yoshimitsu's honors; Go-Kameyama ascends southern throne.
* 1385 – Southern army defeated at Koga .
* 1387–1389 – Dissension in Toki family in Mino .
* 1389 – Yoshimitsu pacifies Kyūshū and distributes lands;
Yoshimitsu opposed by Kamakura kanrei
Ashikaga Ujimitsu .
* 1390 – Kusunoki defeated; Yamana Ujikiyo chastises Tokinaga.
* 1391 – Yamana Ujikyo attacks
* 1392 – Northern and Southern courts reconciled under Go-Komatsu
* 1394 – Yoshimitsu officially cedes his position to his son;
Ashikaga Yoshimochi appointed shogun.
* 1396 –
Imagawa Sadayo dismissed.
* 1397 – Uprising in Kyūshū suppressed.
* 1398 –
Muromachi administration organized.
* 1399 –
Ōuchi Yoshihiro and
Ashikaga Mitsukane rebel – Ōei
* 1402 – Uprising in Mutsu suppressed.
* 1404 – Yoshimitsu is recognized as Nippon Koku-Ō (King of
Japan) by Emperor of China .
* 1408 – Yoshimitsu dies.
Yoshimitsu constructed his residence in the
Muromachi section in the
Kyoto in 1378. As a result, in Japanese, the Ashikaga
shogunate and the corresponding time period are often referred to as
Muromachi shogunate and
Yoshimitsu resolved the rift between the Northern and Southern Courts
in 1392, when he persuaded Go-Kameyama of the
Southern Court to hand
over the Imperial Regalia to
Emperor Go-Komatsu of the Northern Court.
Yoshimitsu's greatest political achievement was that he managed to
bring about the end to
Nanboku-chō fighting. This event had the
effect of firmly establishing the authority of the
and suppressing the power of the regional age daimyo who might
challenge that central authority.
Although Yoshimitsu retired in 1394 and his son was confirmed as the
Ashikaga Yoshimochi , the old shogun did not abandon any
of his powers. Yoshimitsu continued to maintain authority over the
shogunate until his death.
Yoshimitsu also played a major role in the genesis of Noh theatre, as
the patron of
Zeami Motokiyo , the actor considered to be Noh's
Yoshimitsu died suddenly in 1408 at age 50. After his death, his
retirement villa (near Kyoto) became
Rokuon-ji , which today is famous
for its three-storied, gold-leaf covered reliquary known as "Kinkaku".
So famous is this single structure, in fact, that the entire temple
itself is often identified as the
Kinkaku-ji , the Temple of the
Golden Pavilion. A statue of Yoshimitsu is found there today.
* Mother: Kino Yoshiko (1336-1413) (Among others)
* Wife: Hino Nariko (1351-1405)
* Ichijo no Tsubone
* Hino Yasuko (1369-1419)
* Fujiwara no Yoshiko (1358-1399)
* Kaga no Tsubone (d.1422)
* Kasuga no Tsubone
* Nefu'in (1370-1421)
* Fujiwara no Kyoko (1369-1406)
* Fujiwara no Tomoko (d.1426)
* Takahashi-dono (d.1429)
* Ikegami-dono (d.1426)
* a daughter by Nariko
Ashikaga Yoshimochi by Yoshiko
Ashikaga Yoshinori by Yoshiko
* Ashikaga Yoshitsugu (1394-1418) by Kasuga
* Daijiin Seishou (1395-1433) by Nefu'in
* Gisho (1406-1467) by Tomoko
* Irie Juzen (1397-1415) by Yoshiko
* Sonman by Kaga
* Hodo (1385-1387) by Kaga
* a boy (1394-1436) by Kyoko
* Daijin'in Sei (1396-1453) by Kyoko
* a daughter married Rokkaku Mitsutsuna
* Kaji Yoshiaki (1406-1467) by Tomoko
* Koshoin by Keijun'in
* a daughter by Ikegami
* Kozan Eiryu (1403-1442) by Ikegami
ERAS OF YOSHIMITSU\'S BAKUFU
The years in which Yoshimitsu was shogun are more specifically
identified by more than one era name or nengō . NANBOKU-CHō
* Eras as reckoned by legitimate Court (as determined by Meiji
* Kōwa (1381–1384)
NANBOKU-CHō NORTHERN COURT
* Eras as reckoned by pretender Court (as determined by Meiji
POST-NANBOKU-CHō REUNIFIED COURT
* Eras merged as
Meitoku 3 replaced
Genchū 9 as Go-Kameyama
* ^ Stavros, Matthew, and Norika Kurioka. "Imperial Progress to the
Muromachi Palace, 1381 A Study and Annotated Translation of Sakayuku
Japan Review 28 (2015): 3–46.
* ^ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford
University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0804705259 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from
History: The "Tokushi Yoron", p. 329.
* ^ Stavros, Matthew. (2009) "Locational Pedigree and Warrior
Status in Medieval Kyoto: The Residences of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu", in
Japanese Studies (vol. 29, no. 1, May) p. 8.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Ackroyd, p. 330.
* ^ Titsingh, p. 321., p. 321, at
* ^ Morton, W. Scott et al. (2004). Japan: Its History and Culture,
p. 89., p. 89, at
* ^ Turnbull, Stephen. (2005). Samurai Commanders, p. 31., p. 31,
* ^ A B Titsingh, p. 325., p. 325, at
* ^ Turnbull, p. 32.
* ^ Pier, Garrett. (1915). Temple Treasures of Japan, pp.
228–237., p. 228, at
* ^ Titsingh, pp. 308–321., p. 308, at
* Ackroyd, Joyce I. (1982) Lessons from History: the Tokushi Yoron.
Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702214851 ; OCLC
* Morton, W. Scott and J. Kenneth Olenik. (1973). Japan: Its History
and Culture. Newton Abbot, Devon: David OCLC 462186835
* Pier, Garrett Chatfield. (1914). Temple Treasures of Japan. New
York: Frederick Fairchild Sherman. OCLC 535337
* Titsingh, Isaac. (1834).
Nihon Ōdai Ichiran
Nihon Ōdai Ichiran ; ou, Annales des
empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation
Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 585069
* Turnbull , Stephen. (2005). Samurai Commanders. Oxford: Osprey
Press. ISBN 9781841767437 ; ISBN 9781841767444 ; OCLC 60834971
* Worden, Robert L. (1994). "Kamakura and
1185–1573; Economic and Cultural Developments," A Country Study:
Japan. Washington, D.C.:
Federal Research Division , Library of
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