Coordinates : 7°56′S 14°22′W / 7.933°S 14.367°W /
Flag Coat of arms
God Save the Queen "
and largest settlement Georgetown
7°56′S 14°25′W / 7.933°S 14.417°W / -7.933; -14.417
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
TERRITORY UNDER UNITED KINGDOM
• FIRST INHABITED
• DEPENDENCY OF ST HELENA
12 September 1922
• CURRENT CONSTITUTION
1 September 2009
88 km2 (34 sq mi) (219th )
• WATER (%)
• FEBRUARY 2016 CENSUS
Saint Helena pound
(US$ accepted) (SHP )
GMT (UTC )
DRIVES ON THE
ISO 3166 CODE
UK Postcode: ASCN 1ZZ
ASCENSION ISLAND is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial
waters of the South
Atlantic Ocean , around 1,600 kilometres (1,000
mi) from the coast of Africa and 2,250 kilometres (1,400 mi) from the
Brazil , which is roughly midway between the horn of South
America and Africa. It lies 7°56' South of the
Equator . It is
governed as part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena,
Tristan da Cunha , of which the main island, Saint
Helena , is around 1,300 kilometres (800 mi) to the southeast. The
territory also includes the sparsely populated Tristan da Cunha
archipelago, some 3,730 kilometres (2,300 mi) to the south, about
halfway to the
Antarctic Circle .
The island is named after the day of its recorded discovery,
Ascension Day . It played a role as an important safe haven and
coaling station to mariners and for commercial airliners during the
days of international air travel by flying boats . During World War II
it was an important naval and air station, especially providing
antisubmarine warfare bases in the
Battle of the Atlantic . Ascension
Island was garrisoned by the British
Admiralty from 22 October 1815 to
The island is the location of
RAF Ascension Island , which is a Royal
Air Force station, a
European Space Agency rocket tracking station, an
Anglo-American signals intelligence facility and the
BBC World Service
Atlantic Relay Station. The island was used extensively by the British
military during the
Falklands War .
Ascension Island hosts one of four
ground antennas (others are on
Kwajalein Island ,
Diego Garcia , and
Cape Canaveral ) that assist in the operation of the Global
Positioning System (GPS) navigational system.
NASA operates a Meter
Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on
Ascension Island for tracking
orbital debris , which is potentially hazardous to operating
spacecraft and astronauts, at a facility called the John Africano
NASA/AFRL Orbital Debris Observatory.
* 1 Geology
* 2 History
* 3 Politics
* 4 Environment
* 4.1 Flora and fauna
* 4.1.1 Plants
* 4.1.2 Animals
Important Bird Area
* 4.3 Climate
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Society and culture
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Tourism and related industries
* 6.2 Communications
* 6.3 Banking and currency
* 7 Transport
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
Ascension is a geologically young formation, the tip of an undersea
volcano which rose above the waves only a million years ago. It is
associated both with the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge plate boundary 80 km to
the west and with a hotspot 25–300 km to the south east. Its last
eruption may have occurred in the sixteenth century. Due to its short
above-water history, its soil consists mostly of clinker .
Ascension Island in the British South Atlantic
In 1501, the Portuguese navigator
Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque sighted the
Ascension Day (which fell on 21 May that year) and named it
_Ilha da Ascensão_ after this feast day. Dry and barren, the island
had little appeal for passing ships except for collecting fresh meat,
and was not claimed for the Portuguese Crown. Mariners could hunt for
the numerous seabirds and the enormous female green turtles that laid
their eggs on the sandy beaches. The Portuguese also introduced goats
as a potential source of meat for future mariners.
In February 1701, HMS _Roebuck_ , commanded by
William Dampier , sank
in the common anchoring spot in
Clarence Bay to the northwest of the
island. Sixty men survived for two months until they were rescued.
Almost certainly, after a few days they found the strong water spring
in the high interior of the island, in what is now called Breakneck
Valley (there is a much smaller water source, lower on the mountain,
which was named Dampier's Drip by people who probably misinterpreted
It is possible that the island was sometimes used as an open prison
for criminal mariners, although there is only one documented case of
such an exile, a Dutch ship's officer,
Leendert Hasenbosch , set
Clarence Bay as a punishment for sodomy in May 1725. British
mariners found the Dutchman's tent, belongings and diary in January
1726; the man's remains were not found.
Organised settlement of
Ascension Island began in 1815, when the
British garrisoned it as a precaution after imprisoning
Napoleon I on
Saint Helena to the southeast. On 22 October the _Cruizer_ class
brig-sloops _Zenobia_ and _Peruvian_ claimed the island for His
Britannic Majesty King George III . The
Royal Navy designated the
island as a stone frigate , HMS _Ascension_, with the classification
of "Sloop of War of the smaller class". Royal Marine barracks
(1830) in the former Royal Dockyard, Georgetown
The location of the island made it a useful stopping-point for ships
and communications. The
Royal Navy used the island as a victualling
station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron
working against the slave trade . A garrison of
Royal Marines was
based at Ascension from 1823.
In 1836 the _Beagle_ voyage visited Ascension. Charles Darwin
described it as an arid treeless island, with nothing growing near the
coast. Sparse vegetation inland supported "about six hundred sheep,
many goats, a few cows he agreed with the saying attributed to the
St Helena that "We know we live on a rock, but the poor
people at Ascension live on a cinder". He noted the care taken to
sustain "houses, gardens any other people would have held it as a mere
fortress in the ocean."
Ascension Island viewed from the south
In 1843, botanist and explorer Joseph Hooker visited the island. Four
years later, Hooker, with much encouragement from Darwin, advised the
Royal Navy that with the help of
Kew Gardens , they should institute a
long-term plan of shipping trees to Ascension. The planted trees would
capture more rain and improve the soil, allowing the barren island to
become a garden. So, from 1850 and continuing year on year, ships came
with an assortment of plants from botanical gardens in Argentina,
Europe and South Africa. By the late 1870s Norfolk pines , eucalyptus
, bamboo , and banana trees grew in profusion at the highest point of
Green Mountain , creating a tropical cloud forest .
In 1899, the Eastern Telegraph Company installed the first underwater
cable from the island, connecting the UK with its colonies in South
Africa. In 1922, letters patent made Ascension a dependency of Saint
Helena. The island was managed by the head of the Eastern Telegraph
Company on the island until 1964 when the British Government appointed
an Administrator to represent the Governor of
Saint Helena on
World War II
World War II , to supply and augment extensive amphibious
aircraft antisubmarine patrol operations ongoing from the early days
of the war, the United States built an airbase on Ascension Island,
known as "Wideawake", after a nearby colony of sooty terns (locally
called 'wideawake' birds because of their loud, distinctive constant
(day-and-night) cawing chatter. The airbase, which was under
construction by the 38th Combat Engineer Battalion of the Army Corps
of Engineers, was unexpectedly visited by two British Fairey Swordfish
torpedo planes on 15 June 1942. According to one of the pilots, Peter
Jinks, the planes were fired upon before being recognised as allies.
The Swordfish had to land on the unfinished airstrip, thus becoming
the first aircraft to land on
Ascension Island proper — which had
long served as an ASW base for Catalina (PBY Catalina) flying boats .
The event was commemorated with a postage stamp 15 June 1982.
The airfield was used by the US military as a stopping point for
American aircraft crossing the
Atlantic Ocean on the way to theatres
of operation in Europe and Africa. American bombers based at Wideawake
were engaged in the
Laconia incident . After the end of World War II,
and American departure, the airbase fell into disuse. The island
viewed from atop Green Mountain, looking south towards Two Boats
Village and Georgetown
The only local military action during
World War II
World War II occurred on 9
December 1941. At around mid-day, the German submarine _U-124_
approached Georgetown on the surface with the intention of sinking any
ships at anchor or shelling the cable station. Fort Bedford, a two-gun
shore battery at Cross Hill, above Georgetown, fired on the submarine.
The guns scored no hits but the U-boat submerged and retreated. The
battery remains largely intact to this day, together with its guns, BL
5.5 inch Mark I naval guns removed from HMS _Hood_ during a refit in
Malta in 1938.
Space Race and the
Cold War , the Americans returned in
Wideawake Airfield expanded in the mid-1960s. The runway, with
its strange hump, was extended, widened, and improved to allow its use
by large aircraft, and later to act as an emergency runway for the
Space Shuttle , although the Shuttle never had to use it. At the
time, it was the world's longest airport runway. The United States
Air Force used the island as part of its
Eastern Range . NASA
established a tracking station on the island in 1967, which it
operated for more than 20 years before closing it down in 1990. A
Government Communications Headquarters and National Security
Agency signals intercept station was also established on Ascension
during the Cold War. The island retains a role in space exploration:
European Space Agency now operates an Ariane monitoring facility
BBC Atlantic Relay Station was installed in 1966 for
short-wave broadcasts to Africa and South America.
In 1982 the British task force used
Ascension Island as a staging
post during the
Falklands War . The
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force deployed a fleet
of Vulcan bombers and Victor tankers at the airfield. Vulcans launched
the opening shots of the British offensive from Ascension in Operation
Black Buck . The RAF also used the base to supply the task force.
Because of the increase in air traffic during the war, Wideawake, with
up to 400 movements of all types each day, was one of the busiest
airfields in the world for a short period. The Royal Navy's fleet
stopped at Ascension for refuelling on the way. Following the war, the
British retained an increased presence on the island, establishing RAF
Ascension Island , and providing a refuelling stop for the regular
RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, and RAF Mount
Pleasant in the
Falkland Islands .
As of 2004 , it was reported that the Composite Signals Organisation
, an arm of GCHQ, continued to operate a signals interception facility
on Ascension. As of 2007
NASA continued to list
Ascension Island as
a "downrange site" used for range safety instrumentation. In
particular, the Post-Detect
Telemetry System used to acquire launch
vehicle telemetry includes a station on Ascension.
In 2008 British diplomats at the United Nations Commission on the
Limits of the Continental Shelf (UN CLCS), requested sovereignty over
77,220 square miles (200,000 km2) of submarine territory around the
island. This would enable exploration into new reserves of oil, gas
and minerals, though none are thought to exist.
In 2016, the United States Department of Energy started operating a
mobile climate research facility on the island. It is operated by the
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) near
the South East Crater, south of the
Green Mountain summit. The field
campaign requires the mobile facility to be operational for
approximately 17 months, until October 2017.
Ascension forms part of a
British overseas territory together with
Saint Helena and
Tristan da Cunha . Executive authority is vested in
Elizabeth II , who is represented by the Governor of Saint Helena,
Tristan da Cunha . As the Governor resides in Jamestown,
Saint Helena , an Administrator is appointed to represent the Governor
on Ascension Island. Ascension Government House
As a result of changes in the constitutional arrangements for
Ascension Island, the first Island Council of seven members was
elected, and took office on 1 November 2002. This Council was
dissolved by order of the Governor of
Saint Helena on 24 October 2005,
and a new election was held on 16 November 2005. 697 electors chose
among ten candidates contesting the seven seats.
Six of the seven members resigned in January 2007 in the belief that
they were "assisting to legitimise a democracy that doesn't really
exist on Ascension Island". Consequently, a general election was
called, but by the close of nominations, there were only two
candidates. As a result of the boycott, the election was abandoned,
and the governor suspended the Island Council for 12 months. It was
stated that an election would take place in April 2008 but following
consultations this was extended to October. With eight nominations
the elections were duly held and seven candidates were elected to form
a new Island Council, which was sworn in on 28 October.
Ascension Island has its own local system of law, much of which is
based on the laws of
Saint Helena and some parts of English law with
modifications. The Island Council advises on new or revised laws.
Where local legislation does not exist,
Saint Helena law may be used
where appropriate and suitable for local adaptation, or specific
Ascension Island law is enacted. Employment legislation is a mixture
of contract law and the Workmen's Protection Ordinance, which
guarantees a contract, and obliges employers to provide free
accommodation, medical cover, food (or a food allowance), and travel.
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order
2009 was made by HM the Queen and the Privy Council on 8 July and came
into operation in September 2009. The new constitution replaced the
1988 version and among other changes limited the Governor's powers,
included a Bill of Rights, established independence of the judiciary
and the public service, and designated the Governor of
St Helena as,
concurrently, the Governor for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It
ended the "dependency" status of Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha on
Saint Helena that had been in place, for administrative convenience,
See also: List of mountains and hills of Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha Comfortless Cove
The main island has an area of approximately 88 km². A volcanic peak
rising from only 100 km (62 mi) west of the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge , much
of the island is a wasteland of lava flows and cinder cones ; no fewer
than forty-four distinct dormant craters have been identified.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Ascension scrub and grasslands Black volcanic
The endemic flora includes plants like _
Pteris adscensionis _,
Asplenium ascensionis _, _
Euphorbia origanoides _ as well as the
extinct species _
Oldenlandia adscenionis _, _
Sporobolus durus _ and
_Dryopteris ascensionis _. _
Anogramma ascensionis _ (Ascension Island
parsley fern) was thought to have become extinct due to habitat loss ,
until four plants were found on the island in 2010. Over 60 specimens
were then successfully cultivated. Portuguese explorers released
goats in the 1500s which ate many species to extinction. The later
introduction of rabbits, sheep, rats and donkeys, and over 200
imported species further marginalised the original flora.
By 1843 the island was barren with few plants. However, due to the
introduction of species by the British, Ascension Island's Green
Mountain is now one of the few large-scale planned forests, and is
gradually growing with each year. Its highest point is at 859 m.
Non-indigenous plants teem there, and the crown of
Green Mountain is a
lush halo of bamboo . Flanking one side is a large stand of tall
Norfolk pine , trees planted by British mariners, which were to have
been used as replacement masts for sailing ships . In June 2005 the
first National Park on Ascension Island, the
Green Mountain National
Park , was opened.
Prosopis juliflora _, a type of mesquite known as Mexican thorn, was
BBC engineers to bind the dry top soil when they arrived
in 1966 to construct a shortwave relay station. It has thrived on the
barren lava of the island - an estimated 38,000 bushes existed by
2016. Its spread has been destructive to other species, and current
encroachment on the edges of beaches threatens those that use this
space, such as the green turtle . Its hardy taproots can extend to 30
meters deep. Local authorities are considering means of controlling or
A variety of mammals have been introduced: donkeys , sheep, cats and
rats among others. Reptiles consist of two species of lizards .
Endemic insect species include the minute, wingless Psocopteran
Troglotroctes ashmolearum _, that has been found in caves and between
lava blocks. In summer, flies are known to be a problem.
The largest native land animal is the land crab _Johngarthia
lagostoma _ (formerly _Gecarcinus lagostoma_). Offshore, there is a
variety of open-ocean fish, including sharks , wahoo , tuna , bonito ,
barracuda , marlin , blackfish and sailfish . The protected green
turtle is perhaps the most notable of the endemic fauna, coming ashore
to lay their eggs on the beaches from November to May. Turtles were
regularly harvested until 1930, when the practice was banned. By 1970
the turtle population had begun to rebound. From the 1970s, when
records began, to 2014, green turtle nesting increased by 500 percent,
resulting in some 24,000 nests being laid on the Island's main beaches
On land are found such non-native birds such as canaries , francolins
, mynas , sparrows , and waxbills . Sooty terns or "wideawake birds"
nest in great seashore lava "fairs". Other seabirds include some types
of boobies , petrels and tropicbirds (named boatswain (pronounced
BO-sun) birds by the inhabitants of the island), white tern , brown
noddy , black noddy and
Ascension frigatebird . The Ascension crake
became extinct around the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Off the east coast of Ascension is the islet of Boatswain Bird Island
. It is a haven for sea birds providing refuge from the rats, cats and
people that came to
Ascension Island from Europe and Africa. Following
a successful campaign headed by the Royal Society for the Protection
of Birds , the main island was in 2006 declared free of feral cats ,
and sea birds are now once again nesting on Ascension Island.
Important Bird Area
Ascension Island, including fourteen inshore stacks and marine
habitat extending out for three nautical miles from the coastline, has
been identified as an
Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife
International as a breeding site for seabirds . Birds for which the
IBA is significant include red-billed tropicbirds , Ascension
frigatebirds (an endemic breeder), sooty terns and black noddies .
The island was formerly home to the endemic
Ascension crake , but the
species has been extinct since the early nineteenth century.
In January 2016 the UK Government announced that an area around
Ascension Island was to become a huge marine reserve , to protect its
varied and unique ecosystem, including some of the largest marlin in
the world, large populations of green turtle, and the island's own
species of frigate bird. With an area of 234,291 square kilometres
(90,460 sq mi), slightly more than half of the reserve will be closed
to fishing while the remainder will be policed thanks to a grant from
Louis Bacon Foundation. The reserve should be ready for formal
designation by 2017.
Ascension has a hot desert climate (_BWh_, according to the Köppen
climate classification ). The temperatures at the coast average from
22.7 to 27.8 °C (72.9 to 82.0 °F), and about 5 to 6 °C (9 to 11
°F) cooler at the highest point. Rain showers may occur at any time
during the year, but tend to be heavier between June and September.
Although the Island is located in the tropical zone, average annual
rainfall is very low. The cause of this might be the relatively low
temperature of the ocean water, as the
Benguela Current and South
Equatorial Current flow northward west of Africa. These currents bring
cooling effects around the eastern South Atlantic Ocean. Tropical
cyclones also occur only rarely in the South
Atlantic Ocean which
might be caused by the same phenomenon, and by strong vertical wind
CLIMATE DATA FOR GEORGETOWN, ASCENSION ISLAND
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.3 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Danish Meteorological Institute
Georgetown seen here is the primary settlement on the island and
comprises the post office, police station, court, government house and
the island's supermarket. It also boasts the island's port: a small
pier where supplies are off-loaded and a connection exists for a
pipeline hose for fuel.
In the February 2016 census, 806 people were recorded living on
Ascension Island, 556 from
Saint Helena (nicknamed the "Saints" ) and
250 people of other nationalities.
RAF Ascension Island is made up of
There are five settlements:
* Georgetown (the main civilian settlement and capital of the
* Two Boats (a civilian village, with its school )
* Cat Hill (the United States' main base on the island)
* Traveller\'s Hill (
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force base)
Wideawake Airfield (with the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force station).
Additionally, there are some cottages on Green Mountain, occasionally
occupied by visitors, and the Residency, the official residence of the
To enter Ascension Island, individuals need the Administrator's
written permission. There is no permanent residence. A contract of
employment is a requirement to stay on the island, though short term
visits by tourists are possible with prior approval. The British
government has asserted that there is no "right of abode " on
Ascension Island. As the local newspaper _The Islander_ reported at
the time, it is an issue that was disputed by some former Council
members and some of the long-time expatriate employees.
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Scouting and Guiding on Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan
Scouting and Guiding groups on
Saint Helena and Ascension
Scouting was established on
Ascension Island in November 1973,
having been established on
St Helena island in 1912.
Two Boats School is the only school on the island and provides
education to all resident children aged 3–16.
View of "The Pier" (1938)
The main economic activity on the island is centred on the military
Wideawake Airfield , and the
BBC World Service's Atlantic
Relay station. The Ministry of Defence estate and facilities are
managed by the infrastructure support provider
Serco runs the airport services and
Sodexo provides catering and
domestic facilities. A former feature of Ascension was a 70,000 tonne
tanker permanently moored offshore that was operated by Maersk as a
bulk fuel facility. In December 2002, this was replaced by an on-shore
Petroleum Supply Depot under military management, with fuel still
being delivered by a chartered tanker, the Maersk Rapier, which
operates on an MOD resupply contract for both Ascension and the
Falkland Islands every two months. Fuel for the island is transferred
via a floating hose, which is connected to the on-shore depot at the
island's pier head and to the ship at anchor.
The main export items are
Ascension Island postage stamps , first
issued in 1922, and, since 2010, commemorative coins (which are legal
tender but non-circulating) and commercial fishing licences for
long-line tuna fishing vessels operating to ICCAT quotas.
A secondary export is the international internet domain code
which small UK educational colleges and science museums are favouring
due to its similarity to .ac.uk , the domain code reserved for
well-established UK educational institutions. In December 2013, Pirate
Bay (one of the most well-known file piracy websites in the world)
.ac following the seizure of their .sx website.
TOURISM AND RELATED INDUSTRIES
Until 2002, tourism was virtually non-existent because of the
inaccessibility of the island to transport, the absence of guest
accommodation and the need for a sponsor. Limited air travel has,
however, been made available in recent years to the public by the RAF,
and the Georgetown Obsidian Hotel and a number of guest cottages have
been opened. All visitors are required to obtain an entry permit
before travelling. Sport fishing is the main attraction for many of
the visitors. The island also boasts what is sometimes called the
worst golf course in the world.
See also: Communications in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da
The island hosts many communications and relay stations, exploiting
its mid-Atlantic position. Both the
BBC and Cable it holds an account
with the UK's
Lloyds Bank for the purposes of conducting money
transfers with the rest of the world. The currency on Ascension
Island is the
Saint Helena pound .
Tristan da Cunha however uses the
pound sterling rather than the
Saint Helena pound. The coins of the
Saint Helena pound specify that they are for use on both Saint Helena
and Ascension Island, but with no mention of Tristan da Cunha. For
more information on currency in the wider region, see Pound sterling
in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic .
In 2003 the British and US governments signed the Wideawake agreement
designed to allow a limited number of non-scheduled civilian aircraft
to land on Ascension Island, under responsibility of the British
Poor runway conditions at
RAF Ascension Island led in April 2017 to
the cancellation of twice-weekly flights from there to the UK (RAF
Brize Norton ) and to the
Falkland Islands (
RAF Mount Pleasant
RAF Mount Pleasant ).
Airbus A330 aircraft operated by
AirTanker Services on behalf of
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) carried out those flights,
called the South Atlantic Air Bridge, although a limited number of
commercial passenger tickets were available. Those flights now travel
Cape Verde .
RMS St. Helena ship is for now the only available option for
civilians to travel to and from the island. The vessel calls
approximately once a month and links the island with
St Helena and
Cape Town .
While A330s are for now unable to land at the airport, the United
States military continues to maintain a weekly flight between the
Patrick Air Force Base in
Florida for the use of its
personnel only, while the (MV _Ascension_ ) supply ship regularly
services US facilities.
A C17 for the UK's MoD lands there at Ascension once a month for its
There is no taxi service on the island and most visitors requiring
transport hire a car. There are around 40 kilometres (25 mi) of roads
on the island, all hard-surfaced. Some of the surfacing used surplus
tarmac from construction of the airstrip. Traffic drives on the left.
* Geography portal
* Africa portal
United Kingdom portal
British Empire portal
Outline of Ascension Island
Index of Ascension Island-related articles
* Diocese of
Tristan da Cunha
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Census 2016 – summary report" (PDF). St Helena
Government. June 2016. p. 9. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
* ^ "The St Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha Constitution
* ^ Victory at Sea (Series title), _Volume-10 "Beneath the Southern
Cross"_ 1952 production of
NBC , (Disc 2 of DVD collection
reproduction ca. 2007-2008)
* ^ Garcia, Mark (2016-08-11). "Searching for "Space Junk" in
Paradise". Retrieved 2016-08-14.
* ^ Mather, Kathy. "The Volcanology of Ascension Island".
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_
BBC News, _The island where nothing
makes sense_, 19 April 2016
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ "Ascension History".
_mysterra.org_. Mysterra Magazine. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
* ^ Duff Hart-Davis, _Ascension, the story of a South Atlantic
* ^ see Carl Friedrich Behrens, _Reise durch die Sued-Laender und
um die Welt_ (1737), p. 250, who wrote that various criminal mariners
had been exiled to the island; also in Alex Ritsema _A Dutch Castaway
Ascension Island in 1725_ (2010), pp. 26, 115-117.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "Saint Helena, Ascension,
and Tristan da Cunha". _
The World Factbook _. Central Intelligence
Agency. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 3
* ^ Keynes 2001 , pp. 431–432
* ^ "Charles Darwin\'s ecological experiment on Ascension isle".
BBC News_. 1 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1
September 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
The parable of Green Mountain: Ascension Island, ecosystem
construction and ecological fitting, David M. Wilkinson, Journal of
Biogeography, 22 December 2003 doi :10.1046/j.0305-0270.2003.01010.x
* ^ Aldrich, Richard (2010). _GCHQ: The Uncensored Story of
Britain's Most Secret Intelligence Agency_. London: HarperPress. ISBN
* ^ Bamford, James (2008). _Body Of Secrets_. New York: Random
House. p. 168. ISBN 9781407009209 .
* ^ "Settlers wanted for a quiet life. No rush". _The Telegraph_. 5
April 2004. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
* ^ "
NASA Range Safety Program – 2007 Annual Report" (PDF). NASA.
* ^ "
NASA Range Safety Program – 2007 Annual Report" (PDF). NASA.
* ^ Lewis, Paul (28 August 2008). "Ascension Island. Barren, 4,044
miles (6,508 km) from Land\'s End, but ours says the FO". _The
Guardian_. London. p. 1. Archived from the original on 31 August 2008.
Retrieved 28 August 2008.
* ^ "ARM - Field Campaign - LASIC: Layered Atlantic Smoke
Interactions with Clouds". _www.arm.gov_. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
* ^ Juanita Brock, Ascension:
Ascension Island Votes for
* ^ "
Ascension Island News for October 2015 from The Islander
Newspaper". Retrieved 3 January 2016.
Ascension Island Council
* ^ See http://www.the-islander.org.ac/
* ^ "
Ascension Island News for October 2015 from The Islander
Newspaper". Retrieved 3 January 2016.
* ^ Gill, Victoria (24 June 2010). "Experts rediscover plant
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