ĀRYADEVA (3rd century CE), was a disciple of
Nagarjuna and author of
Madhyamaka Buddhist texts. He is also known
as Kanadeva, the 15th patriarch in Chan
Buddhism , and as "Bodhisattva
Sri Lanka .
* 1 Biography
* 2 Works
* 3 Texts attributed to
* 4 References
* 5 Bibliography
* 6 External links
Aryadeva was born as the son of a Sinhalese king and is considered
the cofounder of
Mahayana philosophy. According to
Dakpa of Sera Je Monastery ,
Aryadeva was an Ayurvedic medicine doctor monk just like Aśvaghoṣa
and Nāgārjuna ".
Aryadeva was a student of
Nagarjuna and contributed significantly to
Madhyamaka school. According to the
Drikung Kagyu school of
Garchen Rinpoche is the current incarnation of
Most of Aryadeva's works were not preserved in the original Sanskrit,
but they mainly survived in Tibetan and Chinese translations.
His best-known text is probably the Catusataka (400 verses), in
sixteen chapters of twenty-five stanzas each.
Several important works of esoteric
Buddhism (most notably the
Caryamelapakapradipa or "Lamp that Integrates the Practices") are
attributed to Aryadeva. Contemporary research suggests that these
works are datable to a significantly later period in Buddhist history
(late ninth or early tenth century), but the tradition of which they
are a part maintains that they are (at least in some measure) the work
Madhyamaka Aryadeva. Traditional historians (for example, the
17th century Tibetan
Tāranātha ), aware of the chronological
difficulties involved, account for the anachronism via a variety of
theories, such as the propagation of later writings via mystical
revelation. A useful summary of this tradition, its literature, and
historiography may be found in Wedemeyer 2007.
TEXTS ATTRIBUTED TO ARYADEVA
* Catuhsataka-shastra-nama-karika (the Four Hundred Verses) was
translated into English by Karen Lang as Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On
the Bodhisattva's Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge. Snow Lion
Publications published the Four Hundred Verses as The Yogic Deeds of
Bodhisattvas: Gyeltsap on Aryadeva's Four Hundred, Commentary by Geshe
Sonam Rinchen, translated and edited by Ruth Sonam (which also
includes an English translation of bzhi brgya pa'i rnam bshad legs
bshad snying po, a commentary by rgyal tshab dar ma rin chen,
1364–1432). A republished version thereof (Shambhala/Snow Lion,
2008) is Ruth Sonam (tr.), Āryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas on the
Middle Way: with Commentary by Gyel-tsap—Additional Commentary by
Geshe Sonam Rinchen ISBN 9781559393027 .
* Sata(ka)shastra (Treatise on the One Hundred Songs)
* Aksarasataka (One Hundred Syllables) is sometimes attributed to
* Hastavalaprakarana (Hair in the Hand) is sometimes attributed to
Dignaga and was translated to English as On Voidness. A Study on
Buddhist Nihilism by Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti.
* ^ Women of Wisdom by Tsultrim Allione, p. 186
* Lang, Karen (1986). Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On the Bodhisattva's
Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge. Narayana Press, Copenhagen.
* Wedemeyer, Christian K. (2007). Aryadeva's Lamp that Integrates
the Practices: The Gradual Path of
Buddhism according to the
Esoteric Community Noble Tradition. New York: AIBS/Columbia University
Press. ISBN 978-0-9753734-5-3
* Wedemeyer, Christian K. (2005).
Aryadeva\'s Lamp that Integrates the Practices: The Gradual Path of
Buddhism according to the Esoteric Community Noble
Tradition, part II: annotated English translation, University of
* Young, Stuart H. (2015). Conceiving the Indian Buddhist Patriarchs
in China, Honolulu : University of Hawaiʻi Press, pp. 265-282