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ARGYLL (/ɑːrˈɡaɪl/ ), archaically ARGYLE (Earra-Ghàidheal in modern Gaelic pronounced ), is an ancient shire of western Scotland
Scotland
. Its area corresponds with most of the modern council area of Argyll and Bute , excluding the island of Bute and the Helensburgh area, but including the Morvern and Ardnamurchan areas of the Highland council area . At present, Argyll
Argyll
(sometimes anglicised as ARGYLLSHIRE) is one of the registration counties of Scotland.

Argyll
Argyll
is of ancient origin, and corresponds to most of the ancient kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
. Argyll
Argyll
was also a medieval bishopric with its cathedral at Lismore , as well as an early modern earldom and dukedom , the Dukedom of Argyll
Argyll
.

Between 1890 and 1975, Argyll
Argyll
was a county with a county council.

There was an Argyllshire constituency of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 until 1983.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Shire, county and district * 3 Constituency * 4 Civil parishes * 5 Notable residents * 6 Clans * 7 Surnames * 8 In fiction * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name derives from Old Gaelic airer Goídel (border region of the Gaels). The early 13th-century author of De Situ Albanie explains that "the name Arregathel means margin (i.e., border region) of the Scots or Irish, because all Scots and Irish are generally called Gattheli (i.e. Gaels), from their ancient warleader known as Gaithelglas ."

However, the word airer naturally carries the meaning of the word 'coast' when applied to maritime regions, so the placename can also be translated as "Coast of Gaels". Woolf has suggested that the name Airer Goídel replaced the name Dál Riata
Dál Riata
when the 9th-century Norse conquest split Irish Dál Riata
Dál Riata
and the islands of Alban Dál Riata off from mainland Alban Dál Riata. The mainland area, renamed Airer Goídel, would have contrasted with the offshore islands of Innse Gall, literally "islands of the foreigners." They were referred to this way because during the 9th to 12th centuries, they were ruled by Old Norse
Old Norse
-speaking Norse–Gaels
Norse–Gaels
.

SHIRE, COUNTY AND DISTRICT

The first record of Argyll
Argyll
as a shire dates from 1326, when a sheriff was appointed. At that time the shire covered a much larger area than the later county. It included the islands which later formed Buteshire , which became a separate shire by 1388, when a heritable sheriff was appointed. It also included the area of Ross-shire , which was separated from Argyll
Argyll
by an act of 1503.

The heritable sheriffdom of Argyll
Argyll
was abolished by the Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act 1746 , and the governance of Scottish shires was brought into line with that of counties in the rest of Great Britain.

HISTORICAL ARGYLL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1801 81,277 —

1811 86,541 +6.5%

1821 97,316 +12.5%

1831 100,973 +3.8%

1841 97,371 −3.6%

1851 89,298 −8.3%

1901 73,642 −17.5%

1911 70,902 −3.7%

1921 76,862 +8.4%

1931 63,050 −18.0%

1951 63,361 +0.5%

Source:

Between 1890 and 1975, Argyll
Argyll
had a county council. Argyll's neighbouring counties were Inverness-shire , Perthshire, Dunbartonshire
Dunbartonshire
, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire
Ayrshire
and Bute . Renfrewshire and Ayrshire
Ayrshire
are on the other side of the Firth of Clyde . Bute is a county of islands in the firth . The county town of Argyll
Argyll
was historically Inveraray
Inveraray
, which is still the seat of the Duke
Duke
of Argyll . Lochgilphead
Lochgilphead
later claimed to be the county town, as the seat of local government for the county from the 19th century. Neither town was the largest settlement geographically, nor in terms of population, however. Argyll's largest towns were (and are) Oban , Dunoon and Campbeltown
Campbeltown
.

The Small Isles of Muck or Muick , Rhum or Rùm , Canna and Sanday were part of the county until they were transferred to Inverness-shire in 1891 by the boundary commission appointed under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 . The island of Egg or Eigg
Eigg
was already in Inverness-shire.

The use of the County of Argyll
Argyll
for local government purposes ceased in 1975 with its area being split between Highland and Strathclyde Regions. A local government district called ARGYLL AND BUTE was formed in the Strathclyde
Strathclyde
region , including most of Argyll
Argyll
and the Isle of Bute . The Ardnamurchan , Ardgour , Ballachulish , Duror, Glencoe , Kinlochleven and Morvern areas of Argyll
Argyll
were detached to become parts of Lochaber
Lochaber
District, in Highland. They remained in Highland following the 1996 revision. Oronsay Priory, Oronsay, Inner Hebrides was recently 'improved' in anticipation of Queen Elizabeth 's visit. Coast of Colonsay

In 1996 a new unitary council area of Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute
was created, with a change in boundaries to include part of the former Strathclyde district of Dumbarton
Dumbarton
.

CONSTITUENCY

There was an Argyllshire constituency of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1983 (renamed Argyll
Argyll
in 1950). The Argyll
Argyll
and Bute constituency was created when the Argyll
Argyll
constituency was abolished.

CIVIL PARISHES

Civil parishes are still used for some statistical purposes, and separate census figures are published for them. As their areas have been largely unchanged since the 19th century, this allows for comparison of population figures over an extended period of time.

* Ardchattan and Muckairn * Ardgour * Ardrishaig * Ardnamurchan * Campbeltown
Campbeltown
* Coll
Coll
* Colonsay and Oronsay * Craignish * Dunoon and Kilmun
Kilmun
* Gigha and Cara Island
Cara Island
* Glassary * Glen Orchy and Inishail * Inveraray
Inveraray
* Inverchaolain * Jura * Kilbrandon and Kilchattan * Kilcalmonell * Kilchoman * Kilchrenan and Dalavich * Kildalton * Kilfinan * Kilfinichen and Kilvickeon * Killarow and Kilmeny * Killean and Kilchenzie * Kilmallie (part) * Kilmartin
Kilmartin
* Kilmodan * Kilmore and Kilbride * Kilninian and Kilmore * Kilninver and Kilmelford * Lismore and Appin * Lochgilphead
Lochgilphead
* Lochgoilhead
Lochgoilhead
and Kilmorich * Morvern * North Knapdale * Saddell and Skipness
Skipness
* South Knapdale * Southend, Argyll * Strachur
Strachur
* Strathlachlan * Tiree * Torosay, Mull
Mull

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

* Patrick MacKellar , (1717–1778), born in Argyll, military engineer, achieved his reputation on projects in the United States of America. * Baron Robertson of Port Ellen KT, GCMG, FRSA, FRSE, PC (born 12 April 1946, George Islay
Islay
MacNeill Robertson), British Labour politician and tenth Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation * Frances Ruth Shand Kydd (née Roche; 20 January 1936 – 3 June 2004) was the mother of Diana, Princess of Wales. She was resident at Ardencaple House on the Island of Seil. She was buried in Pennyfuir Cemetery on the outskirts of Oban.

CLANS

* Clan Campbell was the main clan of this region. The Campbell clan hosted the long line of the Dukes of Argyll
Argyll
. * Clan Gregor historically held a great deal of lands in this region prior to the proscription of their name in April 1603, the result of a power struggle with the Campbells. * Clan Lamont historically both allied and feuded with the Campbell clan, culminating in the Dunoon Massacre . In the 19th century, the clan chief sold his lands and relocated to Australia, where the current chief lives. * Clan Malcolm Also known as MacCallum. The Malcolm clan seat is Duntrune Castle on the banks of Loch Crinan * Clan MacLean Historically held lands on the Isle of Mull
Isle of Mull
with its seat at Duart Castle
Duart Castle

SURNAMES

Most common surnames in Argyll
Argyll
at the time of the United Kingdom Census of 1881 , by order of incidence:

* Campbell * McDonald * Cameron * McLean * McMillan * McIntyre * McDougall * McCallum * McKinnon * McArthur

IN FICTION

* Rosemary Sutcliff 's novel The Mark of the Horse Lord (1965) is set in Earra Gael, i.e. the Coast of the Gael, wherein the Dal Riada undergo an internal struggle for control of royal succession, and an external conflict to defend their frontiers against the Caledones . * The highlands above the village of Lochgoilhead
Lochgoilhead
were used for a scene in the 1963 film From Russia with Love, starring Sean Connery
Sean Connery
as James Bond. He killed two villains in a helicopter by firing gunshots at them. * The main focus of the song The Queen of Argyll
Argyll
is that of a beautiful woman, from Argyll. The song was sung by the band Silly Wizard. * The 1985 Scottish movie Restless Natives also used Lochgoilhead
Lochgoilhead
to film a chase scene, as well as some roads just outside the village. * The housekeeper Elsie Hughes in Julian Fellowes' television drama Downton Abbey is from Argyll.

SEE ALSO

* List of counties of Scotland
Scotland
1890–1975 * Medieval Diocese of Argyll * Argyle pattern * Duke
Duke
of Argyll
Argyll

NOTES

* ^ Woolf, Alex. "The Age of the Sea-Kings: 900–1300," in Omand (2006) pp. 94–95 * ^ MacNair, Peter (1914). Argyllshire and Buteshire. Cambridge County Geographies. London: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. pp. 1, 69. * ^ Vision of Britain * ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963. * ^ Most Common Surnames in Argyll

REFERENCES

* Omand, Donald (ed.) (2006) The Argyll
Argyll
Book. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-480-0

FURTHER READING

* The Imperial gazetteer of Scotland
Scotland
Vol. I. page 78, by Rev. John Marius Wilson.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* "Filming locations",

.