Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
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Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An ...
to the throne of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
. His
assassination in Sarajevo The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; , ; ''see Names of European cities ...
is considered the most immediate cause of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. Franz Ferdinand was the eldest son of
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria en, Charles Louis Joseph Maria , house = House of Habsburg-Lorraine, Habsburg-Lorraine , burial_place = Imperial Crypt, Vienna , father = Archduke Franz Karl of Austria , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria , spouse = , issue = Archduke Ka ...

Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria
, the younger brother of
Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria en, Francis Joseph Charles , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria , religion = Roman Catholicism , signature = Franz joseph signature.png Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Josef Karl, hu, Ferenc József; 18 Augus ...

Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
. Following the death of
Crown Prince Rudolf en, Rudolph Francis Charles Joseph , caption = Rudolf in 1887 , spouse = , issue = Elisabeth Marie, Princess Otto of Windisch-Graetz , house = Habsburg-Lorraine The House of Habsburg-Lorraine (german: Haus Habsbu ...

Crown Prince Rudolf
in 1889 and the death of Karl Ludwig in 1896, Franz Ferdinand became the heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His courtship of
Sophie Chotek
Sophie Chotek
, a
lady-in-waiting A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily bu ...
, caused conflict within the imperial household, and their
morganatic marriage Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights an ...
in 1900 was only allowed after he renounced his descendants' rights to the throne. Franz Ferdinand held significant influence over the military, and in 1913 he was appointed inspector general of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces. On 28 June 1914, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were
assassinated Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of state ...
in Sarajevo by the 19-year-old
Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip ( sr-Cyrl, Гаврило Принцип, ; 25 July 189428 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia who sought an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the age of 19, he assassinated Archduke ...
, a member of
Young Bosnia Young Bosnia () was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted f ...
. Franz Ferdinand's assassination led to the
July Crisis The July Crisis, a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914, led to the outbreak of World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1 ...
and precipitated Austria-Hungary's
declaration of war A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (ne ...
against
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
, which in turn triggered a series of events that eventually led to Austria-Hungary's allies and Serbia's allies declaring war on each other, starting World War I.


Early life

Franz Ferdinand was born in
Graz Graz ( , ; sl, Gradec) is the capital city of the Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of A ...

Graz
,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...
, the eldest son of
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria en, Charles Louis Joseph Maria , house = House of Habsburg-Lorraine, Habsburg-Lorraine , burial_place = Imperial Crypt, Vienna , father = Archduke Franz Karl of Austria , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria , spouse = , issue = Archduke Ka ...

Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria
(the younger brother of
Franz Joseph en, Francis Joseph Charles , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria Princess Sophie of Bavaria (Sophie Friederike Dorothea Wilhelmine; 27 January 1805 – 28 May 1872) was born to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his second wife Ca ...

Franz Joseph
and
Maximilian Maximilian, Maximillian or Maximiliaan (Maximilien in French) is a male given name. It was coined by Friedrich III for his son in 1459, explaining it as a combination of the names of two Roman generals, Maximus Maximus (Hellenised as Maximos) is t ...
) and of his second wife,
Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Princess ''Maria Annunciata'' Isabella Filomena Sabasia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, full Italian name: ''Maria Annunziata Isabella Filomena Sabasia, Principessa di Borbone delle Due Sicilie'' (24 March 1843 – 4 May 1871) was the mother of A ...

Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
. In 1875, when he was eleven years old, his cousin
Francis V, Duke of Modena , house = Habsburg-Este , father = Francis IV of Modena , mother = Maria Beatrice of Savoy , religion = Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Chr ...
died, naming Franz Ferdinand his heir on condition that he add the name "Este" to his own. Franz Ferdinand thus became one of the wealthiest men in Austria.


Heir presumptive

In 1889, Franz Ferdinand's life changed dramatically. His cousin
Crown Prince Rudolf en, Rudolph Francis Charles Joseph , caption = Rudolf in 1887 , spouse = , issue = Elisabeth Marie, Princess Otto of Windisch-Graetz , house = Habsburg-Lorraine The House of Habsburg-Lorraine (german: Haus Habsbu ...

Crown Prince Rudolf
committed suicide at his hunting lodge in
Mayerling Mayerling is a small village (pop. 200) in Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian: ''Niedaöstareich'', ''Niedaestareich'') is one of the nine states of Austria, located in the northeastern corn ...
. This left Franz Ferdinand's father, Karl Ludwig, as first in line to the throne. Karl Ludwig died of
typhoid fever Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a disease caused by ''Salmonella'' serotype Typhi bacteria. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several ...
in 1896. Henceforth, Franz Ferdinand was groomed to succeed to the throne.


Travels

Despite this burden, he did manage to find time for travel and personal pursuits, such as his circumnavigation of the world between 1892 and 1893. After visiting India he spent time hunting
kangaroo The kangaroo is a marsupial Marsupials are any members of the mammalian Class (biology), infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia, Wallacea and the Americas. A distinctive characteristic common to most of t ...

kangaroo
s and
emu The emu (''Dromaius novaehollandiae'') is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. It is endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological c ...

emu
s in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
in 1893, then travelled on to
Nouméa Nouméa () is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map ...

Nouméa
,
New Hebrides New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (french: link=no, Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides, Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island ...
,
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign country A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, in ...
,
New Guinea New Guinea (; : ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the , and with an area of , the largest island in the . Located in in the southwestern , it is separated by the wide from . Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east ...

New Guinea
,
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Sarawak
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japan is a part of the , and spans of coveri ...

Japan
. After sailing across the Pacific on the RMS ''Empress of China'' from
Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the capital city and the most populous city in Kanagawa Prefecture, with a 2020 population ...

Yokohama
to
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in , located in the region of . As the in the province, the recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the . Vancouver has the highe ...

Vancouver
he crossed the United States and returned to Europe. The Archduke and his wife visited England in the autumn of 1913, spending a week with
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A co ...

George V
and Queen Mary at
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
before going to stay for another week with the
Duke of Portland A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the f ...
at
Welbeck Abbey Welbeck Abbey in the Dukeries in North Nottinghamshire Nottinghamshire (pronounced ; abbreviated Notts.) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicesters ...
,
Nottinghamshire Nottinghamshire (; abbreviated Notts.) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county ...

Nottinghamshire
, where they arrived on 22 November. He attended a service at the local Catholic church in
Worksop Worksop ( ) is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to ...
and the Duke and Archduke went game shooting on the Welbeck estate when, according to the Duke's memoirs, ''Men, Women and Things'': Franz Ferdinand had a fondness for trophy hunting that was excessive even by the standards of European nobility of this time.Wladimir Aichelburg, ''Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este und Artstetten'', Vienna: Lehner, 2000, , p. 31 : – "It is a fact that Franz Ferdinand was an unusually passionate hunter." In his diaries he kept track of 272,511 game kills, 5,000 of which were deer. About 100,000 trophies were on exhibit at his Bohemian castle at KonopištěMichael Hainisch, ed. Friedrich Weissensteiner, ''75 Jahre aus bewegter Zeit: Lebenserinnerungen eines österreichischen Staatsmannes'', Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für neuere Geschichte Österreichs 64, Vienna: Böhlau, 1978, , p. 367 : ''"Konopischt ... das einst dem Erzherzoge Franz Ferdinand gehört hatte. Das Schloß ist voller Jagdtrophäen"'' - "Konopiště ... which once belonged to Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The castle is full of hunting trophies."Neil Wilson and Mark Baker, ''Prague: City Guide'', Lonely Planet City Guide, 9th ed. Footscray, Victoria / Oakland, California / London: Lonely Planet, 2010,
p. 237
which he also stuffed with various antiquities, his other great passion.Thomas Veszelits, ''Prag'', HB-Bildatlas 248, Ostfildern: HB, 2003, , p. 106. : ''"Jagdtrophäen, Waffen aus drei Jahrhunderten und Kunstschätze füllten die Räume"'' – "Hunting trophies, weapons dating to three centuries, and art treasures filled the rooms."


Military career

Franz Ferdinand, like most males in the ruling Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg line, entered the Austro-Hungarian Army at a young age. He was frequently and rapidly promoted, given the rank of lieutenant at age fourteen, Captain (armed forces), captain at twenty-two, colonel at twenty-seven, and major general at thirty-one. While never receiving formal staff training, he was considered eligible for command and at one point briefly led the primarily Hungarian 9th Hussar Regiment. In 1898 he was given a commission "at the special disposition of His Majesty" to make inquiries into all aspects of the military services and military agencies were commanded to share their papers with him. He also held honorary ranks in the Austro-Hungarian Navy, and received the rank of Admiral at the close of the Austro-Hungarian naval maneuvers in September 1902. Franz Ferdinand exerted influence on the armed forces even when he did not hold a specific command through a military chancery (diplomacy), chancery that produced and received documents and papers on military affairs. This was headed by Alexander Brosch von Aarenau and eventually employed a staff of sixteen. His authority was reinforced in 1907 when he secured the retirement of the Emperor's confidant Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky as Chief of the General Staff. Beck's successor, Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, was personally selected by Franz Ferdinand. Franz in 1913, as heir-presumptive to the elderly emperor, had been appointed inspector general of all the armed forces of Austria-Hungary (''Generalinspektor der gesamten bewaffneten Macht''), a position superior to that previously held by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, Archduke Albrecht and including presumed command in wartime.


Marriage and family

In 1894 Franz Ferdinand met Countess
Sophie Chotek
Sophie Chotek
, a
lady-in-waiting A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily bu ...
to Princess Isabella of Croy, Archduchess Isabella, wife of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen. Franz began to visit Archduke Friedrich's villa in Pressburg (now Bratislava), and in turn Sophie wrote to Franz Ferdinand during his convalescence from tuberculosis on the island of Lošinj in the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic. They kept their relationship a secret, until it was discovered by Isabella herself. To be eligible to marry a member of the imperial House of Habsburg, one had to be a member of one of the reigning or formerly reigning dynasties of Europe. The Choteks were not one of these families. Deeply in love, Franz Ferdinand refused to consider marrying anyone else. Finally, in 1899, Emperor Franz Joseph agreed to permit Franz Ferdinand to marry Sophie, on the condition that the marriage would be morganatic and that their descendants would not have succession rights to the throne. Sophie would not share her husband's rank, title, Order of precedence, precedence, or privileges; as such, she would not normally appear in public beside him. She would not be allowed to ride in the royal carriage or sit in the royal box in theaters. The wedding took place on 1 July 1900, at Reichstadt (now Zákupy) in Bohemia; Franz Joseph did not attend the affair, nor did any archduke including Franz Ferdinand's brothers. The only members of the imperial family who were present were Franz Ferdinand's stepmother, Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal, Princess Maria Theresa of Braganza; and her two daughters. Upon the marriage, Sophie was given the title "Princess of Hohenberg" () with the style "Her Serene Highness" (). In 1909, she was given the more senior title "Duchess of Hohenberg" () with the style "Her Highness" (). This raised her status considerably, but she still yielded precedence at court to all the archduchesses. Whenever a function required the couple to assemble with the other members of the imperial family, Sophie was forced to stand far down the line, separated from her husband. Franz Ferdinand's children were: * Princess Sophie of Hohenberg (1901–1990), married Count Friedrich von Nostitz-Rieneck (1891–1973) * Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902–1962), married Countess Elisabeth von Waldburg zu Wolfegg und Waldsee (1904–1993) * Prince Ernst of Hohenberg (1904–1954), married Marie-Therese Wood (1910–1985) * Stillborn son (1908), buried in Artstetten Castle, near his parents


Character

The German historian Michael Freund described Franz Ferdinand as "a man of uninspired energy, dark in appearance and emotion, who radiated an aura of strangeness and cast a shadow of violence and recklessness ... a true personality amidst the amiable inanity that characterized Austrian society at this time." As his sometime admirer Karl Kraus (writer), Karl Kraus put it, "he was not one who would greet you ... he felt no compulsion to reach out for the unexplored region which the Viennese call their heart." His relations with Emperor Franz Joseph were tense; the emperor's personal servant recalled in his memoirs that "thunder and lightning always raged when they had their discussions." The commentaries and orders which the heir to the throne wrote as margin notes to the documents of the Imperial central commission for architectural conservation (where he was Protector) reveal what can be described as "choleric conservatism." The Italian historian Leo Valiani provided the following description.


Political views

Historians have disagreed on how to characterize the political philosophies of Franz Ferdinand, some attributing generally liberal views on the empire's nationalities while others have emphasized his dynastic centralism, Catholic conservatism, and tendency to clash with other leaders. He advocated granting greater autonomy to ethnic groups within the Empire and addressing their grievances, especially the Czechs in Bohemia and the south Slavic peoples in Croatia and Bosnia, who had been left out of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Yet his feelings towards the Hungarians were less generous, often described as antipathy. For example, in 1904 he wrote that "The Hungarians are all rabble, regardless of whether they are minister or duke, cardinal or burgher, peasant, hussar, domestic servant, or revolutionary", and he regarded even István Tisza as a revolutionary and "patented traitor". He regarded Hungarian nationalism as a revolutionary threat to the Habsburg dynasty and reportedly became angry when officers of the 9th Hussars Regiment (which he commanded) spoke Hungarian in his presence – despite the fact that it was the official regimental language. He further regarded the Hungarian branch of the Dual Monarchy's army, the Royal Hungarian Honvéd, Honvédség, as an unreliable and potentially threatening force within the empire, complaining at the Hungarians' failure to provide funds for the joint army and opposing the formation of artillery units within the Hungarian forces. He also advocated a cautious approach towards
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
 – repeatedly locking horns with Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Vienna's hard-line Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff, warning that harsh treatment of Serbia would bring Austria-Hungary into open conflict with Russian Empire, Russia, to the ruin of both empires. He was disappointed when Austria-Hungary failed to act as a great power, such as during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Other nations, including, in his description, "dwarf states like Belgium and Portugal", had soldiers stationed in China, but Austria-Hungary did not. However, Austria-Hungary did participate in the Eight-Nation Alliance to suppress the Boxers, and sent soldiers as part of the "international relief force". Franz Ferdinand was a prominent and influential supporter of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in a time when sea power was not a priority in Austrian foreign policy and the Navy was relatively little known and supported by the public. After his assassination in 1914, the Navy honoured Franz Ferdinand and his wife with a lying in state aboard SMS Viribus Unitis, SMS ''Viribus Unitis''.


Assassination

On Sunday, 28 June 1914, at about 10:45 am, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The perpetrator was 19-year-old
Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip ( sr-Cyrl, Гаврило Принцип, ; 25 July 189428 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia who sought an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the age of 19, he assassinated Archduke ...
, a member of
Young Bosnia Young Bosnia () was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted f ...
and one of a group of assassins organized and armed by the Black Hand (Serbia), Black Hand. Earlier in the day, the couple had been attacked by Nedeljko Čabrinović, who had thrown a grenade at their car. However, the bomb detonated behind them, injuring the occupants in the following car. On arriving at the Governor's residence, Franz angrily shouted, "So this is how you welcome your guests – with bombs!"Beyer, Rick, ''The Greatest Stories Never Told'', A&E Television Networks / The History Channel, . p. 146–147 After a short rest at the Governor's residence, the royal couple insisted on seeing all those who had been injured by the bomb at the local hospital. However, no one told the drivers that the itinerary had been changed. When the error was discovered, the drivers had to turn around. As the cars backed down the street and onto a side street, the line of cars stalled. At this same time, Princip was sitting at a cafe across the street. He instantly seized his opportunity and walked across the street and shot the royal couple. He first shot Sophie in the abdomen and then shot Franz Ferdinand in the neck. Franz leaned over his crying wife. He was still alive when witnesses arrived to render aid. His dying words to Sophie were, "Don't die darling, live for our children." Princip's weapon was the pocket-sized FN Model 1910 pistol chambered for the .380 ACP cartridge provided him by Serbian Army Colonel and Black Hand (Serbia), Black Hand member Dragutin Dimitrijević. The archduke's aides attempted to undo his coat but realized they needed scissors to cut it open: the outer lapel had been sewn to the inner front of the jacket for a smoother fit to improve the Archduke's appearance to the public. Whether or not as a result of this obstacle, the Archduke's wound could not be attended to in time to save him, and he died within minutes. Sophie also died en route to the hospital. A detailed account of the shooting can be found in ''Sarajevo'' by Joachim Remak:
One bullet pierced Franz Ferdinand's neck while the other pierced Sophie's abdomen. ... As the car was reversing (to go back to the Governor's residence because the entourage thought the Imperial couple were unhurt) a thin streak of blood shot from the Archduke's mouth onto Count Harrach's right cheek (he was standing on the car's running board). Harrach drew out a handkerchief to still the gushing blood. The Duchess, seeing this, called: "For Heaven's sake! What happened to you?" and sank from her seat, her face falling between her husband's knees. Harrach and Potoriek ... thought she had fainted ... only her husband seemed to have an instinct for what was happening. Turning to his wife despite the bullet in his neck, Franz Ferdinand pleaded: "''Sopherl! Sopherl! Sterbe nicht! Bleibe am Leben für unsere Kinder!'' – Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!" Having said this, he seemed to sag down himself. His plumed hat ... fell off; many of its green feathers were found all over the car floor. Count Harrach seized the Archduke by the uniform collar to hold him up. He asked "''Leiden Eure Kaiserliche Hoheit sehr?'' – Is Your Imperial Highness suffering very badly?" "''Es ist nichts.'' – It is nothing." said the Archduke in a weak but audible voice. He seemed to be losing consciousness during his last few minutes, but, his voice growing steadily weaker, he repeated the phrase perhaps six or seven times more. A Death rattle, rattle began to issue from his throat, which subsided as the car drew in front of the Konak bersibin (Town Hall). Despite several doctors' efforts, the Archduke died shortly after being carried into the building while his beloved wife was almost certainly dead from internal bleeding before the motorcade reached the Konak.
The assassinations, along with the arms race, nationalism, imperialism, militarism of German Empire, Imperial Germany and the alliance system all contributed to the origins of World War I, which began a month after Franz Ferdinand's death, with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. The assassination of Ferdinand is considered the most immediate cause of World War I. After his death, Charles I of Austria, Archduke Karl became the Heir presumptive of Austria-Hugary. Franz Ferdinand is interred with his wife Sophie in Artstetten Castle, Austria.


Commemorations

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his Artstetten Castle, Castle of Artstetten were selected as a main motif for the Austrian 10 euro Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2004 coinage, The Castle of Artstetten commemorative coin, minted on 13 October 2004. The reverse shows the entrance to the crypt of the Hohenberg family. There are two portraits below, showing Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg. The Scottish band Franz Ferdinand (band), Franz Ferdinand named themselves after him.


Titles, styles, honours and arms


Titles and styles

* 18 December 1863 – 20 November 1875: ''His Imperial and Royal Highness'' Archduke and Prince Francis Ferdinand of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia Since 1780 official title used for princes ("''zu Ungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slawonien, Königlicher Erbprinz''") * 20 November 1875 – 28 June 1914: ''His Imperial and Royal Highness'' The Archduke of Austria-Este
Hof- und Staatshandbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie
' (1914), Genealogy p. 2


Honours and awards

Domestic * Order of the Golden Fleece, Knight of the Golden Fleece, ''1878'' * Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Grand Cross of St. Stephen, ''1893'' * Military Merit Cross (Austria-Hungary), Military Merit Cross, in Diamonds * Silver Military Merit Medal (Austria-Hungary), Military Merit Medal on Red Ribbon * Long Service Cross for Officers, 2nd Class * Bronze Jubilee Medal for the Armed Forces Foreign


See also

*
July Crisis The July Crisis, a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914, led to the outbreak of World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1 ...
* List of heirs to the Austrian throne


References


Further reading

* * Fomenko, A. "There Was an Alternative! The Legacy of Franz Ferdinand" ''International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy & International Relations'' (2009) 55#3 p177-184. * * *


External links

*
Newsreels about Franz Ferdinand's assassination at www.europeanfilmgateway.eu
* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Franz Ferdinand Of Austria, Archduke 1863 births 1914 deaths 1914 crimes Austrian Roman Catholics Hungarian Roman Catholics Austria-Este Austrian princes House of Habsburg-Lorraine Assassinated royalty Austro-Hungarian generals Austro-Hungarian admirals People from Graz Adoptees adopted by relations Austrian people murdered abroad Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Deaths by firearm in Bosnia and Herzegovina People murdered in Bosnia and Herzegovina Assassinated Austrian people Knights of the Golden Fleece of Austria Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Grand Crosses of the Order of the Star of Romania Grand Crosses of the Order of the White Eagle (Serbia) Grand Commanders of the House Order of Hohenzollern Knights of the Order of Saint Hubert Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), 2 Grand Crosses of the Order of Aviz, 2 Knights of the Supreme Order of Christ Knights of the Holy Sepulchre Extra Knights Companion of the Garter Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Recipients of the Order of St. Andrew Knights of the Order of Saint Joseph