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An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing Home video game console
Home video game console
such as the Sony PlayStation
PlayStation
and Microsoft
Microsoft
Xbox
Xbox
increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Electro-mechanical games 1.2 Arcade video games

1.2.1 Golden age 1.2.2 Late 1980s 1.2.3 Renaissance 1.2.4 Decline 1.2.5 2000s–2010s 1.2.6 Japan

2 Technology 3 Arcade genre

3.1 Arcade action games

4 Emulation 5 Industry 6 List of highest-grossing games

6.1 Best-selling arcade video game franchises

7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] The first popular "arcade games" included early amusement-park midway games such as shooting galleries, ball-toss games, and the earliest coin-operated machines, such as those that claimed to tell a person's fortune or that played mechanical music. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks (such as Coney Island
Coney Island
in New York) provided the inspiration and atmosphere for later arcade games. In the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. These early amusement machines differed from their later electronic cousins in that they were made of wood. They lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, and used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring.[1] Electro-mechanical games[edit] In 1966, Sega
Sega
introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope[2] - an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter[3] which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine.[4] It became an instant success in Japan, Europe, and North America,[5] where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play,[2] which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come.[5] In 1967 Taito
Taito
released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, Crown Soccer Special, a two-player sports game that simulated association football, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers.[6] Sega
Sega
later produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but which were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen.[7] The first of these, the light-gun game Duck Hunt,[8] appeared in 1969;[9] it featured animated moving targets on a screen, printed out the player's score on a ticket, and had volume-controllable sound-effects.[8] That same year, Sega
Sega
released an electro-mechanical arcade racing game, Grand Prix, which had a first-person view, electronic sound, a dashboard with a racing wheel and accelerator,[10] and a forward-scrolling road projected on a screen.[11] Another Sega
Sega
1969 release, Missile, a shooter and vehicle-combat simulation, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen. It was the earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button, which formed part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move the player's tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen; when a plane is hit, an animated explosion appears on screen, accompanied by the sound of an explosion.[12] In 1970 Midway released the game in North America as S.A.M.I..[12][13] In the same year, Sega
Sega
released Jet Rocket, a combat flight-simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit.[14] In the course of the 1970s, following the release of Pong
Pong
in 1972, electronic video-games gradually replaced electro-mechanical arcade games.[15] In 1972, Sega
Sega
released an electro-mechanical game called Killer Shark, a first-person light-gun shooter known for appearing in the 1975 film Jaws.[7] In 1974, Nintendo
Nintendo
released Wild Gunman, a light-gun shooter that used full-motion video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen.[16] One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was F-1, a racing game developed by Namco
Namco
and distributed by Atari
Atari
in 1976;[17] this game appeared in the films Dawn of the Dead (1978)[18] and Midnight Madness (1980), as did Sega's Jet Rocket in the latter film. The 1978 video game Space Invaders, however, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games.[19] Arcade video games[edit] See also: Timeline of arcade video game history

Part of a series on the

History of video games

General

Early history of video games Early mainframe games Golden age of arcade video games Video game
Video game
crash of 1983

Consoles

1st generation (1972–1980) 2nd generation (1976–1992) 3rd generation (1983–2003) 4th generation (1987–2004) 5th generation (1993–2005) 6th generation (1998–2013) 7th generation (2005–2017) 8th generation (2012–)

Genres

History of Eastern role-playing video games History of Western role-playing video games History of online games History of massively multiplayer online games

Lists

List of video games in development Timeline of arcade video game history

v t e

In 1971 students at Stanford University
Stanford University
set up the Galaxy Game, a coin-operated version of the Spacewar video game. This ranks as the earliest known instance of a coin-operated video game. Later in the same year, Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
created the first mass-manufactured game, Computer Space, for Nutting Associates. In 1972, Atari
Atari
was formed by Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
and Ted Dabney. Atari essentially created the coin-operated video game industry with the game Pong, the first successful electronic ping pong video game. Pong proved to be popular, but imitators helped keep Atari
Atari
from dominating the fledgling coin-operated video game market. Golden age[edit] Main article: Golden age of arcade video games Taito's Space Invaders, in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game.[20] Its success marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games. Video game
Video game
arcades sprang up in shopping malls, and small "corner arcades" appeared in restaurants, grocery stores, bars and movie theaters all over the United States, Japan and other countries during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Space Invaders (1978), Galaxian
Galaxian
(1979), Pac-Man
Pac-Man
(1980), Battlezone (1980), Defender (1980), and Bosconian
Bosconian
(1981) were especially popular. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth $8 billion[21] ($21.5 billion in 2017). During the late 1970s and 1980s, chains such as Chuck E. Cheese's, Ground Round, Dave and Busters, ShowBiz Pizza Place
ShowBiz Pizza Place
and Gatti's Pizza combined the traditional restaurant or bar environment with arcades.[22] By the late 1980s, the arcade video game craze was beginning to fade due to advances in home video game console technology. By 1991, US arcade video game revenues had fallen to $2.1 billion.[23] Late 1980s[edit] Sega
Sega
AM2's Hang-On, designed by Yu Suzuki
Yu Suzuki
and running on the Sega Space Harrier
Space Harrier
hardware, was the first of Sega's "Super Scaler" arcade system boards that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates.[24] The pseudo-3D sprite/tile scaling was handled in a similar manner to textures in later texture-mapped polygonal 3D games of the 1990s.[25] Designed by Sega
Sega
AM2's Yu Suzuki, he stated that his "designs were always 3D from the beginning. All the calculations in the system were 3D, even from Hang-On. I calculated the position, scale, and zoom rate in 3D and converted it backwards to 2D. So I was always thinking in 3D."[26] It was controlled using a video game arcade cabinet resembling a motorbike, which the player moves with their body. This began the "Taikan" trend, the use of motion-controlled hydraulic arcade cabinets in many arcade games of the late 1980s, two decades before motion controls became popular on video game consoles.[27] Renaissance[edit] In the early 1990s, the arcades experienced a major resurgence with the 1991 release of Capcom's Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II,[28] which popularized competitive fighting games and revived the arcade industry to a level of popularity not seen since the days of Pac-Man,[29] setting off a renaissance for the arcade game industry in the early 1990s.[30] Its success led to a wave of other popular games which mostly were in the fighting genre, such as Pit-Fighter
Pit-Fighter
(1990) by Atari, Mortal Kombat
Mortal Kombat
by Midway Games,[31] Fatal Fury: King of Fighters (1992) by SNK, Virtua Fighter (1993) by SEGA, Killer Instinct (1994) by Rare, and The King of Fighters (1994–2005) by SNK. In 1993, Electronic Games
Electronic Games
noted that when "historians look back at the world of coin-op during the early 1990s, one of the defining highlights of the video game art form will undoubtedly focus on fighting/martial arts themes" which it described as "the backbone of the industry" at the time.[32] 3D polygon graphics were popularized by the Sega
Sega
Model 1 games Virtua Racing (1992) and Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
(1993),[33] followed by racing games[29] like the Namco
Namco
System 22 title Ridge Racer
Ridge Racer
(1993) and Sega Model 2 title Daytona USA, and light gun shooters like Sega's Virtua Cop (1994)[34] and Mesa Logic's Area 51 (1995), gaining considerable popularity in the arcades.[29] By 1994, arcade games in the United States were generating revenues of $7 billion[35] in quarters (equivalent to $11.6 billion in 2017),[36] in comparison to home console game sales of $6 billion,[35] with many of the best-selling home video games in the early 1990s often being arcade ports.[37] Combined, total US arcade and console game revenues of $13 billion in 1994 ($21.5 billion in 2017) was nearly two and a half times the $5 billion revenue grossed by movies in the United States at the time.[35] Around the mid-1990s, the fifth-generation home consoles, Sega
Sega
Saturn, PlayStation, and Nintendo
Nintendo
64, began offering true 3D graphics, improved sound, and better 2D graphics, than the previous generation. By 1995, personal computers followed, with 3D accelerator
3D accelerator
cards. While arcade systems such as the Sega
Sega
Model 3 remained considerably more advanced than home systems in the late 1990s,[38][39] the technological advantage that arcade games had, in their ability to customize and use the latest graphics and sound chips, slowly began narrowing, and the convenience of home games eventually caused a decline in arcade gaming. Sega's sixth generation console, the Dreamcast, could produce 3D graphics comparable to the Sega
Sega
NAOMI arcade system in 1998, after which Sega
Sega
produced more powerful arcade systems such as the Sega
Sega
NAOMI Multiboard and Sega
Sega
Hikaru in 1999 and the Sega
Sega
NAOMI 2 in 2000, before Sega
Sega
eventually stopped manufacturing expensive proprietary arcade system boards, with their subsequent arcade boards being based on more affordable commercial console or PC components. Decline[edit] Arcade video games had declined in popularity so much by the late 1990s, that revenues in the United States dropped to $1.33 billion in 1999,[40] and reached a low of $866 million in 2004.[41] The gap in release dates and quality between console ports and the arcade games they were ported from dramatically narrowed, thus setting up home consoles as a major competitor with arcades.[42] Furthermore, by the early 2000s, networked gaming via computers and then consoles across the Internet had also appeared,[43] replacing the venue of head-to-head competition and social atmosphere once provided solely by arcades.[44] The arcades also lost their status as the forefront of new game releases. Given the choice between playing a game at an arcade three or four times (perhaps 15 minutes of play for a typical arcade game), and renting, at about the same price, exactly the same game—for a video game console—the console became the preferred choice. Fighting games were the most attractive feature for arcades, since they offered the prospect of face-to-face competition and tournaments, which correspondingly led players to practice more (and spend more money in the arcade), but they could not support the business all by themselves.

A 20th anniversary arcade machine, combining the two classic games Ms Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and Galaga.

To remain viable, arcades added other elements to complement the video games such as redemption games, merchandiser games, and food service, typically snacks and fast food. Referred to as "fun centers" or "family fun centers",[45] some of the longstanding chains such as Chuck E. Cheese's
Chuck E. Cheese's
and Gatti's Pizza
Gatti's Pizza
("GattiTowns")[46] also changed to this format. Many 1980s-era video game arcades have long since closed, and classic coin-operated games have become largely the province of dedicated gamers and hobbyists. In the 2010s, some movie theaters and family fun centers still have small arcades. 2000s–2010s[edit] In the 2000s and 2010s, arcades have found a niche market by providing games that use special controllers largely inaccessible to home users, such as dance games that have a floor that senses the user's dancing. An alternative interpretation[by whom?] (one that includes fighting games, which continue to thrive and require no special controller) is that the arcade is now a more socially-oriented hangout, with games that focus on an individual's performance, rather than the game's content, as the primary form of novelty. Examples of today's popular genres are rhythm games such as Dance Dance Revolution
Dance Dance Revolution
(1998) and DrumMania
DrumMania
(1999), and rail shooters such as Virtua Cop
Virtua Cop
(1994), Time Crisis (1995) and House of the Dead (1996).[citation needed] In the Western world, the arcade video game industry still exists, but in a greatly reduced form. Video arcade game hardware is often based on home game consoles to reduce development costs; there are video arcade versions of Dreamcast
Dreamcast
(NAOMI, Atomiswave), PlayStation
PlayStation
2 (System 246), Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube
GameCube
(Triforce), and Microsoft
Microsoft
Xbox
Xbox
(Chihiro) home consoles and PC (e.g. Taito
Taito
Type X). Some arcades have survived by expanding into ticket-based prize redemption and more physical games with no home console equivalent, such as skee ball and Whac-A-Mole. Some genres, particularly dancing and rhythm games (such as Konami's Dance Dance Revolution), continue to be popular in arcades. Worldwide, arcade game revenues gradually increased from $1.8 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2002, rivalling PC game
PC game
sales of $3.2 billion that same year.[47] In particular, arcade video games are a thriving industry in China, where arcades are widespread across the country.[48] The US market has also experienced a slight resurgence, with the number of video game arcades across the nation increasing from 2,500 in 2003 to 3,500 in 2008, though this is significantly less than the 10,000 arcades in the early 1980s. As of 2009, a successful arcade game usually sells around 4000 to 6000 units worldwide.[49] The relative simplicity yet solid gameplay of many of these early games has inspired a new generation of fans who can play them on mobile phones or with emulators such as MAME. Some classic arcade games are reappearing in commercial settings, such as Namco's Ms. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
20 Year Reunion / Galaga
Galaga
Class of 1981 two-in-one game,[50] or integrated directly into controller hardware (joysticks) with replaceable flash drives storing game ROMs. Arcade classics have also been reappearing as mobile games, with Pac-Man
Pac-Man
in particular selling over 30 million downloads in the United States by 2010.[51] Arcade classics have also begun to appear on multi-game arcade machines for home users.[52] Japan[edit] Main article: Video gaming in Japan

A man playing a drumming arcade game (Drummania) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2005.

Girls playing The House of the Dead III
The House of the Dead III
in an amusement arcade in Japan, 2005.

In the Japanese gaming industry, arcades have remained popular through to the present day. As of 2009, out of Japan's $20 billion gaming market, $6 billion of that amount is generated from arcades, which represent the largest sector of the Japanese video game market, followed by home console games and mobile games at $3.5 billion and $2 billion, respectively.[53] In 2005, arcade ownership and operation accounted for a majority of Namco's for example.[54] With considerable withdrawal from the arcade market from companies such as Capcom, Sega became the strongest player in the arcade market with 60% marketshare in 2006.[55] Despite the global decline of arcades, Japanese companies hit record revenue for three consecutive years during this period.[56] However, due to the country's economic recession, the Japanese arcade industry has also been steadily declining, from ¥702.9 billion (US$8.7 billion) in 2007 to ¥504.3 billion ($6.2 billion) in 2010.[57] In 2013, estimation of revenue is ¥470 billion.[57] In the Japanese market, network and card features introduced by Virtua Fighter 4 and World Club Champion Football, and novelty cabinets such as Gundam Pod machines have caused revitalizations in arcade profitability in Japan. The reason for the continued popularity of arcades in comparison to the west, are heavy population density and an infrastructure similar to casino facilities. Former rivals in the Japanese arcade industry, Konami, Taito, Bandai Namco
Namco
Entertainment and Sega, are now working together to keep the arcade industry vibrant. This is evidenced in the sharing of arcade networks, and venues having games from all major companies rather than only games from their own company.[58] Technology[edit] See also: Arcade system board, List of Sega
Sega
arcade system boards, and Sprite (computer graphics)

Inside of a Neo Geo

Virtually all modern arcade games (other than the very traditional Midway-type games at county fairs) make extensive use of solid state electronics, integrated circuits and Cathode Ray Tube
Cathode Ray Tube
screens. In the past, coin-operated arcade video games generally used custom per-game hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips, and the latest in expensive computer graphics display technology. This allowed arcade system boards to produce more complex graphics and sound than what was then possible on video game consoles or personal computers, which is no longer the case in the 2010s. Arcade game
Arcade game
hardware in the 2010s is often based on modified video game console hardware or high-end PC components. Arcade games frequently have more immersive and realistic game controls than either PC or console games, including specialized ambiance or control accessories: fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated lightguns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of automobile or airplane cockpits, motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or highly dedicated controllers such as dancing mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually what set modern video games apart from other games, as they are usually too bulky, expensive, and specialized to be used with typical home PCs and consoles. Arcade genre[edit]

A man playing World Combat
World Combat
(here known by its alternate name Warzaid) in Jakarta, Indonesia

Arcade games often have short levels, simple and intuitive control schemes, and rapidly increasing difficulty. This is due to the environment of the Arcade, where the player is essentially renting the game for as long as their in-game avatar can stay alive (or until they run out of tokens). Games on consoles or PCs can be referred to as "arcade games" if they share these qualities or are direct ports of arcade titles. Many independent developers are now producing games in the arcade genre that are designed specifically for use on the Internet. These games are usually designed with Flash/Java/ DHTML and run directly in web-browsers. Arcade racing games have a simplified physics engine and do not require much learning time when compared with racing simulators. Cars can turn sharply without braking or understeer, and the AI rivals are sometimes programmed so they are always near the player (rubberband effect). Arcade flight games also use simplified physics and controls in comparison to flight simulators. These are meant to have an easy learning curve, in order to preserve their action component. Increasing numbers of console flight video games, from Crimson Skies to Ace Combat
Ace Combat
and Secret Weapons Over Normandy
Secret Weapons Over Normandy
indicate the falling of manual-heavy flight sim popularity in favor of instant arcade flight action.[59] Other types of arcade-style games include fighting games (often played with an arcade controller), beat 'em up games (including fast-paced hack and slash games), light gun rail shooters and "bullet hell" shooters (intuitive controls and rapidly increasing difficulty), music games (particularly rhythm games), and mobile/casual games (intuitive controls and often played in short sessions). Arcade action games[edit] The term "arcade game" is also used to refer to an action video game that was designed to play similarly to an arcade game with frantic, addictive gameplay.[60] The focus of arcade action games is on the user's reflexes, and the games usually feature very little puzzle-solving, complex thinking, or strategy skills. Games with complex thinking are called strategy video games or puzzle video games. Emulation[edit] Main article: List of video game emulators § Arcade Emulators such as MAME, which can be run on modern computers and a number of other devices, aim to preserve the games of the past. Emulators enable game enthusiasts to play old video games using the actual code from the 1970s or 1980s, which is translated by a modern software system. Legitimate emulated titles started to appear on the Macintosh
Macintosh
(1994) [61][62] with Williams floppy disks, Sony
Sony
PlayStation (1996) and Sega
Sega
Saturn (1997), with CD-ROM compilations such as Williams Arcade's Greatest Hits
Williams Arcade's Greatest Hits
and Arcade's Greatest Hits: The Atari Collection 1, and on the PlayStation
PlayStation
2 and GameCube
GameCube
with DVD-ROM titles such as Midway Arcade Treasures. Arcade games are currently being downloaded and emulated through the Nintendo
Nintendo
Wii
Wii
Virtual Console Service starting in 2009 with Gaplus, Mappy, Space Harrier, Star Force, The Tower of Druaga, Tecmo Bowl, Altered Beast
Altered Beast
and many more. Other classic arcade games such as Asteroids, Tron, Discs of Tron, Yie Ar Kung-Fu, Pac-Man, Joust, Battlezone, Dig Dug, Robotron: 2084, and Missile Command
Missile Command
are emulated on PlayStation
PlayStation
Network and Xbox
Xbox
Live Arcade. Industry[edit] In addition to restaurants and video arcades, arcade games are also found in bowling alleys, college campuses, video rental shops, dormitories, laundromats, movie theaters, supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, ice rinks, corner shops, truck stops, bars/pubs, hotels, and even bakeries. In short, arcade games are popular in places open to the public where people are likely to have free time.[63] The American Amusement Machine Association (AAMA) is a trade association established in 1981[64] that represents the coin-operated amusement machine industry,[65] including 120 arcade game distributors and manufacturers.[66] List of highest-grossing games[edit] See also: List of best-selling video games and Golden age of arcade video games For arcade games, success was usually judged by either the number of arcade hardware units sold to operators, or the amount of revenue generated, from the number of coins (such as quarters or 100 yen coins) inserted into machines,[67] or the hardware sales (with arcade hardware prices often ranging from $1000 to $4000 or more). This list only includes arcade games that have either sold more than 1000 hardware units or generated a revenue of more than US$1 million. Most of the games in this list date back to the golden age of arcade video games, though some are also from before and after the golden age.

Game Release year Hardware units sold Estimated gross revenue (US$ without inflation) Estimated gross revenue (US$ with 2017 inflation)[36]

Space Invaders 1978 360,000 (up to 1980)[68] 2600 !$2.702 billion (up to 1982)[n 1] $10.1 billion

Pac-Man 1980 400,000 (up to 1982)[69] 2500 !$2.5 billion (up to 1999)[n 2] $7.43 billion

Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II 1991 200,000 (up to 1992) (The World Warrior: 60,000 Champion Edition: 140,000)[n 3] 2312 !$2.312 billion (up to 1995) (The World Warrior Champion Edition)[72] $4.15 billion (The World Warrior Champion Edition)

Donkey Kong 1981 132,000 (up to 1982)[n 4] 0280 !$280 million (up to 1982) (US hardware sales)[74] $754 million (US hardware sales)

Ms. Pac-Man 1981 125,000 (up to 1988)[75][76]

Asteroids 1979 100 !100,000 (up to 2001)[76][77] 0800 !$800 million (up to 1991)[78][79] $1.44 billion

Defender 1981 060 !60,000 (up to 2002)[80][81] 1000 !$1 billion (up to 2002)[82][83] $1.36 billion

Galaxian 1979 040 !40,000 (in the US up to 1982)[84][85]

Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
Jr. 1982 030 !30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[86]

Mr. Do! 1982 030 !30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[87]

Popeye 1982 020 !20,000 (in the US up to 1982)[73]

Out Run 1986 020 !20,000 (up to 1987)[88]

Pump It Up 1999 020 !20,000 (up to 2005)[89]

NBA Jam 1993 020 !20,000 (up to 2013)[90] 1000 !$1 billion (up to 2010)[91] $1.12 billion

Gun Fight 1975 008 !8,000 (up to 1976)[92][93]

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ3 2005 007.608 !7,608 (up to 2006)[94]

Hang-On 1985 007.5 !7,500 (up to 1985)[95]

Dinosaur King 2005 007 !7,000 (up to 2006)[96]

Wheels (Speed Race) 1974 007 !7,000 (up to 1975)[97][98]

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ2 2003 005.486 !5,486 (up to 2005)[101]

Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
3 1983 005 !5,000 (in the US up to 1982)[n 4]

Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
2 2006 004.041 !4,041 (up to 2007)[n 5]

Initial D Arcade Stage 4 2007 003.904 !3,904 (up to 2007)[n 6]

Mario Bros. 1983 003.8 !3,800 (in the US up to 1983)[104]

Dance Dance Revolution 1998 003.5 !3,500 (in Japan as of 1999)[105]

Zoo Keeper 1982 003 !3,000 (in the US up to 1983)[106]

Initial D Arcade Stage 2001 002.534 !2,534 (up to 2004)[107]

World Club Champion Football 2002 002.479 !2,479 (up to 2009)[n 8] 0706.014 !$706.014 million (up to 2012)[112] $961 million

Mortal Kombat 1992 24,000 (up to 2002)[31] 0570 !$570 million (up to 2002)[31] $776 million

Jungle Hunt 1982 018 !18,000 (in the US up to 1983)[106]

Scramble 1981 015.136 !15,136 (up to 1981)[113]

Mushiking: King of the Beetles 2003 013.5 !13,500 (up to 2005)[114] 0530 !$530 million (up to 2007)[n 10] $705 million

Mahjong Fight Club 3 2004 013 !13,000 (up to 2004)[117]

Super Cobra 1981 012.337 !12,337 (up to 1981)[113]

Oshare Majo: Love and Berry 2004 010.3 !10,300 (up to 2006)[118][119] 0302.68 !$302.68 million (up to 2007)[n 11] $392 million

Centipede 1981 055 !55,988 (up to 1991)[120] 0115 !$115.65 million (up to 1991)[120] $208 million

Shining Force Cross 2009 002.289 !2,389 (up to 2009)[121]

Pengo 1982 002 !2,000 (in the US up to 1983)[106]

Sangokushi Taisen 2005 001.942 !1,942 (up to 2006)[122]

World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008 001.689 !1,689 (up to 2009)[n 7] 0150.1 !$150.1 million (up to 2012)[n 9] $171 million

Dragon's Lair 1983 016 !16,000 (up to 1983)[129][130] 0048 !$68.8 million (up to 1983)[129][131] $169 million

Mortal Kombat
Mortal Kombat
II 1993 27,000 (up to 2002)[31] 0100 !$100 million (up to 1994)[132] $165 million

Pole Position 1982 021 !21,000 (in the US up to 1983)[104] 0062 !$60.933 million (up to 1983)[104][120] (US hardware sales) $155 million (US hardware sales)

StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins 2011

0132.18 !$132.18 million (up to 2012)[n 12] $144 million

Border Break 2009 002.998 !2,998 (up to 2009)[121] 0107 !$107 million (up to 2012)[n 13] $122 million

Dig Dug 1982 022.228 !22,228[120] (in the US up to 1983)[106] 0046.3 !$46.3 million (up to 1983)[120] (US hardware sales) $117 million (US hardware sales)

Tempest 1981 030 !29,000 (up to 1983)[104] 0062 !$62.408 million (up to 1991)[120] $112 million

TV Basketball (Basketball) 1974 001.4 !1,400 (up to 1974)[134]

The House of the Dead 4 2005 001.008 !1,008 (up to 2005)[135]

Radar Scope 1980 001 !1,000 (in the US up to 1980)[136]

Tron 1982 000.8 !800 (in the US up to 1982)[137] 0045 !$45 million (up to 1983)[138] 0102 !$102 million

Sengoku Taisen 2010

0094.04 !$94.04 million (up to 2012)[n 14] $106 million

Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007

0078.2 !$78.2 million (up to 2008)[n 15] $92.3 million

StarHorse2 2005 038.614 !38,614 (up to 2009)[n 16] 0059.321 !$59.321 million (up to 2011) (Fifth Expansion)[n 17] $74.3 million (Fifth Expansion)

Q*bert 1982 025 !25,000 (up to 2001)[142]

Robotron: 2084 1982 023 !23,000 (up to 1983)[104]

Samba de Amigo 1999 003 !3,000 (up to 2000)[143] 0047.11 !$47.11 million (up to 2000)[144] $69.2 million

Asteroids Deluxe 1981 022.399 !22,399 (up to 1999)[145] 0046.1 !$46.1 million (up to 1999)[145] $67.7 million

Missile Command 1980 019.9 !19,999 (up to 2010)[146] 0036.8 !$36.8 million (up to 1991)[145] $66.1 million

Berzerk 1980 015.78 !15,780 (up to 1981)[113]

Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
3 2007

0054.4 !$54.4 million (up to 2011)[n 18] $64.2 million

Pong 1972 010 !8,500–19,000[147][148] 0011 !$11 million (up to 1973)[149] $60.6 million

Lord of Vermilion 2008

0050.443 !$50.443 million (up to 2008)[n 19] $57.3 million

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ4 2008 012.892 !12,892 (up to 2009)[150] 0047 !$47 million (up to 2010)[n 20] $53.4 million

Kangaroo 1982 009.803 !9,803[120] (up to 1983)[106] 0020.58 !$20.58 million (up to 1983) (US hardware sales)[120] $52.2 million (US hardware sales)

Battlezone 1980 015.122 !15,122 (up to 1999)[145] 0031.2 !$31.2 million (up to 1999)[145] $45.8 million

Stargate 1983 015 !15,000 (up to 1983)[104]

Space Duel 1982 012.038 !12,038 (up to 1991)[120]

Big Buck Hunter Pro 2006 010 !10,000 (up to 2009)[151][152]

Snake Pit 1983 009 !9,000 (up to 1983)[153]

Bagman 1983 005 !5,000 (in the US up to 1983)[106]

Big Buck Safari 2008 005.5 !5,500 (up to 2009)[151]

Hard Drivin' 1989 003.118 !3,318 (up to 1989)[120] 0022.9 !$22.9 million (up to 1989)[120] $45.2 million

Gauntlet 1985 007.848 !7,848 (up to 1985)[120] 0018.01 !$18.01 million (up to 1985)[120] $41 million

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ5 2011

0034.87 !$34.87 million (up to 2012)[n 21] $37.9 million

Millipede 1982 009.99 !9,990 (up to 1991)[120] 0020 !$20.669 million (up to 1991)[120] $37.1 million

Race Drivin' 1990 003.525 !3,525 (up to 1991)[120] 0020.03 !$20.03 million (up to 1991)[120] $36 million

Time Traveler 1991

0018 !$18 million (up to 1991)[131] $32.3 million

Space Ace 1984

0013 !$13 million (up to 1984)[131] $30.6 million

Xevious 1982 005.295 !5,295 (in the US up to 1983)[120] 0011.1 !$11.1 million (up to 1983)[120] (US hardware sales) $28.1 million (US hardware sales)

Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season 2009 003 !3,000 (up to 2010)[154]

Silver Strike Live 2010 003 !3,000 (up to 2010)[155]

H2Overdrive 2009 002 !2,000 (up to 2010)[156]

Atari
Atari
Football 1978 011.306 !11,306 (up to 1999)[145] 0017.266 !$17.266 million (up to 1999)[145] $25.4 million

Final Lap 1987 001.15 !1,150 (in the US up to 1988)[120] 0009.5 !$9.5 million (up to 1988)[120] (US hardware sales) $20.5 million (US hardware sales)

Paperboy 1984 003.442 !3,442 (up to 1991)[120] 0008.6 !$8.6 million (up to 1991)[120] $15.5 million

Star Wars 1983 012.695 !12,695 (up to 1991)[120] 0007.595 !$7.595 million (up to 1991)[120] $13.6 million

Beatmania 1997 025 !25,000 (up to 2000)[157] 0012.4 !$12.4 million (up to 1998) (Japan hardware sales)[n 22] $18.9 million (Japan hardware sales)

Sprint 2 1976 008.2 !8,200 (up to 1999)[145] 0012.669 !$12.669 million (up to 1999)[145] $18.6 million

Championship Sprint 1986 003.595 !3,595 (up to 1991)[120] 0008.26 !$8.26 million (up to 1991)[120] $14.8 million

Pole Position II 1983 002.4 !2,400 (in the US up to 1983)[120] 0007.43 !$7.43 million (up to 1983)[120] (US hardware sales) $18.3 million (US hardware sales)

Breakout 1976 011 !11,000 (up to 1999)[145] 0012.045 !$12.045 million (up to 1999)[145] $17.7 million

Sea Wolf 1976 010 !10,000 (up to 2000)[158]

Lunar Lander 1979 004.830 !4,830 (up to 1999)[145] 0008.19 !$8.19 million (up to 1999)[145] $12 million

Super Sprint 1986 008.2 !2,232 (up to 1999)[145] 0007.8 !$7.8 million (up to 1999)[145] $11.5 million

Marble Madness 1984 004 !4,000 (up to 1985)[159] 0006.3 !$6.3 million (up to 1991)[120] $11.3 million

Sea Wolf II 1978 004 !4,000 (up to 2000)[160]

Rolling Thunder 1986 002.406 !2,406 (in the US up to 1987)[120] 0004.8 !$4.8 million (up to 1987)[120] (US hardware sales) $10.7 million (US hardware sales)

Tetris 1989 005.771 !5,771 (in the US up to 1991)[120] 0005.2 !$5.2 million (up to 1991)[120] (US hardware sales) $9.34 million (US hardware sales)

Arabian 1983 001.95 !1,950 (in the US up to 1983)[106] 0003.9 !$3.9 million (up to 1983)[120] (US hardware sales) $9.58 million (US hardware sales)

Terminator Salvation 2010 001 !1,000 (up to 2010)[161] 0008 !$8 million (up to 2010)[161] $8.98 million

Blasteroids 1987 002 !2,000 (up to 1991)[120] 0004.69 !$4.69 million (up to 1991)[120] $8.43 million

Super Breakout 1978 004.805 !4,805 (up to 1999)[145] 0005.7 !$5.7 million (up to 1999)[145] $8.37 million

Pac-Mania 1987 001.412 !1,412 (in the US up to 1987)[120] 0002.82 !$2.82 million (up to 1987)[120] (US hardware sales) $6.07 million (US hardware sales)

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 1985 002.825 !2,825 (up to 1991)[120] 0003.2 !$3.2 million (up to 1991)[120] $5.75 million

Four Trax 1989 000.205 !205 (in the US & EU as of 1989)[120] 0002.9 !$2.9 million (up to 1989)[120] (US & EU hardware sales) $5.73 million (US & EU hardware sales)

Assault 1988 001.079 !1,079 (in the US up to 1988)[120] 0002.5 !$2.5 million (up to 1988)[120] (US hardware sales) $5.17 million (US hardware sales)

Gauntlet II 1986 003.52 !3,520 (up to 1991)[120] 0002.4 !$2.4 million (up to 1991)[120] $4.31 million

Guitar Hero Arcade 2009 002 !2,000 (up to 2009)[162]

Drag Race 1977 001.9 !1,900 (up to 1999)[145] 0002.8 !$2.8 million (up to 1999)[145] $4.11 million

Night Driver 1976 002.1 !2,100 (up to 1999)[145] 0011.165 !$2.4675 million (up to 1999)[145] $3.62 million

I, Robot 1984 000.7 !750-1,000[120][163] 0001.5 !$1.5 million (up to 1984)[120] $3.53 million

R.B.I. Baseball 1987 003.945 !3,945 (in the US up to 1987)[120] 0001.4 !$1.6 million (up to 1987)[120] (US hardware sales) $3.45 million (US hardware sales)

Computer Space 1971 001.5 !1,500–2,000 (up to 1984)[164][165]

Death Race 1976 001 !1,000 (up to 1976)[93]

Dunk Shot 1986 000.556 !556 (in the US up to 1987)[120] 0001.4 !$1.4 million (up to 1987)[120] (US hardware sales) $3.13 million (US hardware sales)

Star Wars: Return of the Jedi 1984 000.8 !800 (up to 1991)[120] 0001.68 !$1.68 million (up to 1991)[120] $3.02 million

Dragon Spirit 1987 000.6 !600 (in the US up to 1987)[120] 0001.2 !$1.2 million (up to 1987)[120] (US hardware sales) $2.58 million (US hardware sales)

Triple Hunt 1977 000.865 !865 (up to 1999)[145] 0001.2 !$1.2 million (up to 1999)[145] $1.76 million

Best-selling arcade video game franchises[edit] See also: List of best-selling video game franchises These are the combined hardware sales of at least two or more arcade games that are part of the same franchise. This list only includes franchises that have sold at least 5,000 hardware units or grossed at least $10 million revenues.

Franchise Original release year Total hardware units sold Gross revenue (US$ without inflation) Gross revenue (US$ with 2017 inflation)[36]

Pac-Man 1980 526,412 (up to 1988)[n 23] 3853 !$3.853 billion (up to 1999)[n 24] $11.4 billion

Street Fighter 1987 500,000 (up to 2002)[167][168] 2312 !$2.312 billion (up to 1993) ( Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II: The World Warrior Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II′: Champion Edition)[72] $4.98 billion ( Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II: The World Warrior Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II': Champion Edition)

Space Invaders 1978 360,000 (up to 1980)[68] 2600 !$2.702 billion (up to 1982)[169] $10.1 billion

Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Clones 1980 300,000 (up to 2002)[170]

Mario 1981 170,800 (up to 1983)[n 25] 0280 !$280 million (up to 1982) (US hardware sales)[74] $754 million (US hardware sales)

Donkey Kong 1981 167,000 (up to 1983)[n 4] 0280 !$280 million (up to 1982) (US hardware sales)[74] $754 million (US hardware sales)

Asteroids 1979 136,437 (up to 1999)[n 26] 0850 !$850.79 million (up to 1999)[n 27] $1.25 billion

Golden Tee Golf 1989 100,000 (up to 2011)[171]

Defender 1981 075 !75,000 (up to 2002)[n 28] 1000 !$1 billion (up to 2002)[82] $1.36 billion

Centipede 1981 0 !65,978 (up to 1991)[n 29] 0136.3 !$136.3 million (up to 1991)[n 30] $245 million

Mortal Kombat 1992 0 !51,000 (up to 2002)[31] 1000 !$1 billion (up to 1995)[172] $1.36 billion

Galaxian 1979 040 !40,986 (in the US up to 1988)[n 31]

Starhorse 2000 038.734 !38,734 (up to 2009)[n 32] 0191.501 !$191.501 million (up to 2012)[n 33] $272 million

Big Buck 2000 033.5 !33,500 (up to 2010)[n 34]

Mr. Do! 1982 030 !30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[87]

Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007

0078.2 !$78.2 million (up to 2008)[n 15] $92.3 million

Lord of Vermilion 2008

0050.443 !$50.443 million (up to 2008)[n 19] $57.3 million

Bemani 1997 045 !28,500 (up to 2000)[n 35] 0012.4 !$12.4 million (up to 1998) (Japan hardware sales)[n 22] $18.9 million (Japan hardware sales)

Scramble 1981 027.473 !27,473 (up to 1981)[113]

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong 2000 025.986 !25,986 (up to 2006)[n 38] 0081.87 !$81.87 million (up to 2012)[n 39] $116 million

Pole Position 1982 0 !24,550 (in the US up to 1983)[n 40] 0077.9 !$77.9 million (up to 1988) (US hardware sales)[n 41] $198 million (US hardware sales)

Dig Dug 1982 022.228 !22,228[120] (in the US up to 1983)[106] 0046.3 !$46.3 million (up to 1983)[120] (US hardware sales) $117 million (US hardware sales)

Pump It Up 1999 020 !20,000 (up to 2005)[89]

Breakout 1976 015.805 !15,805 (up to 1999)[145] 0017.745 !$17.745 million (up to 1999)[145] $26.1 million

Star Wars 1983 0 !14,039 (up to 1991)[120] 0009.275 !$9.275 million (up to 1983)[120] $16.7 million

Sprint 1976 014.027 !14,027 (up to 1999)[145] 0028.729 !$28.729 million (up to 1999)[145] $42.2 million

Mushiking 2003 013.5 !13,500 (up to 2005)[114] 0530 !$530 million (up to 2007)[n 10] $705 million

Sea Wolf 1976 0 !14,000 (up to 2000)[158]

Mahjong Fight Club 2002 013 !13,000 (up to 2004)[117]

Gauntlet 1985 0 !11,368 (up to 1991)[120] 0020.41 !$20.41 million (up to 1991)[120] $36.7 million

Love and Berry 2004 010.3 !10,300 (up to 2006)[118] 0302.68 !$302.68 million (up to 2007)[n 11] $392 million

Sangokushi Taisen 2005 009.929 !9,929 (up to 2008)[n 43] 0148.44 !$148.44 million (up to 2012)[n 44] $186 million

Pong 1972 010 !8500–19,000[147][148] 0011 !$11 million (up to 1973)[149] $60.6 million

Hang-On 1985 007.5 !7,500 (up to 1985)[95]

Initial D Arcade Stage 2001 007.111 !7,111 (up to 2005)[173]

Dinosaur King 2005 007 !7,000 (up to 2006)[96]

Hard Drivin' 1989 006.843 !6,843 (up to 1991)[120] 0022.9 !$42.93 million (up to 1991)[120] 0075.48 !$75.48 million

Xevious 1982 005.295 !5,295 (in the US up to 1983)[120]

Samba de Amigo 1999 003 !3,000 (up to 2000)[143] 0047.11 !$47.11 million (up to 2000)[n 45] $69.2 million

Border Break 2009 002.998 !2,998 (up to 2009)[121] 0107 !$107 million (up to 2012)[n 13] $122 million

World Club Champion Football 2002 002.479 !2,479 (up to 2009)[n 8] 0706.014 !$706.014 million (up to 2012)[n 46] $961 million

See also[edit]

Video games portal

Claw crane Money booth Medal game JAMMA Killer List of Videogames List of arcade video games Neo-Geo Winners Don't Use Drugs

Footnotes[edit]

^ Space Invaders:

$2 billion (4 billion quarters) by 1982: "Making millions, 25 cents at a time". The Fifth Estate. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 23 November 1982. Retrieved 30 April 2011.  $1 billion (8 billion quarters) by 1981: Glinert, Ephraim P. (1990). Visual Programming Environments: Applications and Issues. IEEE Computer Society Press. p. 321. ISBN 0-8186-8974-9. Retrieved 10 April 2011. As of mid-1981, according to Steve Bloom, author of Video Invaders, more than four billion quarters had been dropped into Space Invaders
Space Invaders
games around the world  $600 million Japan cabinet sales in 1978: "Can Asteroids Conquer Space Invaders?" (PDF). Electronic Games. 1 (1): 30–33 [31]. Winter 1981. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  $102 million US cabinet sales by 1979.[31]

^ a b Pac-Man:

Estimated 10 billion quarters ($2.5 billion) by 1999:

Chris Morris (10 May 2005). "Pac Man turns 25: A pizza dinner yields a cultural phenomenon – and millions of dollars in quarters". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. In the late 1990s, Twin Galaxies, which tracks video game world record scores, visited used game auctions and counted how many times the average Pac Man machine had been played. Based on those findings and the total number of machines that were manufactured, the organization said it believed the game had been played more than 10 billion times in the 20th century.  Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 73. ISBN 0-313-33868-X. Retrieved 10 April 2011. It would go on to become arguably the most famous video game of all time, with the arcade game alone taking in more than a billion dollars, and one study estimated that it had been played more than 10 billion times during the twentieth century. 

Estimated 7 billion coins (7 billion quarters / $1.75 billion) by 1982.[69] $1 billion cabinet sales by 1982:

Marlene Targ Brill (2009). America in the 1980s. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 120. ISBN 0-8225-7602-3. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 

$1 billion revenue in 1980:

Kline, Stephen; Nick Dyer-Witheford; Greig de Peuter (2003). Digital play: the interaction of technology, culture, and marketing (Reprint ed.). Montréal, Quebec: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-7735-2591-2. Retrieved 25 February 2012. The game produced one billion dollars in 1980 alone 

^ Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II:

Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II′: Champion Edition: 140,000[70] Street Fighter
Street Fighter
II: The World Warrior: 60,000[71]

^ a b c d Donkey Kong:

Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong Ashcraft, Brian; Snow, Jean (2008). "sixty-five+thousand" Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4-7700-3078-9. Retrieved 12 February 2012. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo
Nintendo
and laying the groundwork for Nintendo
Nintendo
and Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond.  United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong

Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Retrieved 8 April 2012. Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and Ms. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States. 

United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr.
Donkey Kong Jr.
and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3.[73]

^ Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
2:

3,211 units during April–September 2006.[96] 830 units during April–September 2007.[102]

^ a b Initial D Arcade Stage 4:

3,056 units in fiscal year ending March 2007.[103] 848 units during April–September 2007.[102]

^ a b World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs

World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006-2007 - 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009[123] World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 - 858 units from April 2009 to December 2009[121]

^ a b World Club Champion Football
World Club Champion Football
series, unit sales:

World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 - 514 units in fiscal year ending March 2006[94] World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 Ver. 2 - 276 units during April–September 2006 (240 satellite units during April–June 2006,[108] and 36 body units during April–September 2006)[96] World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 - 1,689 units from June 2008 to December 2009[n 7]

^ a b c World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs

Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥4.2 billion[124] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥3.8 billion[125] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥3.6 billion[126][127] 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[128] Currency conversion:[111]

¥4.2 billion = $51.9159 million ¥3.8 billion = $46.9716 million ¥3.6 billion = $44.8253 million ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million

^ a b Mushiking:

420 million[115] 100 yen coins[116] = ¥42 billion Currency conversion: $530 million[111]

^ a b Love and Berry:

240 million[115] 100 yen coins[116] = ¥24 billion Currency conversion: $302.68 million[111]

^ a b StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins

Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥10.1 billion[126] 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[128] Currency conversion:[111]

¥10.1 billion = $125.8 million ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million

^ a b Border Break:

Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.3 billion[124] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.5 billion[125] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥2.3 billion[126][133] 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[128] Currency conversion:[111]

¥3.3 billion = $40.7317 million ¥2.5 billion = $30.8542 million ¥2.3 billion = $28.6371 million ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million

^ a b Sengoku Taisen:

Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥6.4 billion[125] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥1.2 billion[126]

Currency conversion:[111]

¥6.4 billion = $79.1 million ¥1.2 billion = $14.94 million

^ a b Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road

¥4.5 billion from June 2007 to March 2008[139]

Currency conversion: $56.731 million[111]

¥1.7 billion from April 2008 to September 2008[140]

Currency conversion: $21.4317 million[111]

^ a b StarHorse2:

From April 2005 to March 2007: 18,079 units

StarHorse2: New Generation – 7,819 units from April 2005 to June 2006 (6,020 units in fiscal year ended March 2006,[94] and 1,799 units during April–June 2006)[96] StarHorse2: Second Fusion - 10,260 units from April 2006 to March 2007 (8,105 conversion kits during April–December 2006,[118] and 2,155 body and satellite units in fiscal year ending March 2007)[103]

From April 2007 to March 2008: 10,275 units (756 body and satellite units of StarHorse2: Second Fusion during April–September 2007,[102] and 9,519 conversion kits in fiscal year ended March 2008)[141] From April 2009 to December 2009: 10,657 units of StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion[121]

^ a b StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion:

Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥2.8 billion[124] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2 billion[125] Currency conversion:[111]

¥2.8 billion = $34.6039 million ¥2 billion = $24.7171 million

^ a b Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
3:

Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥1.8 billion[124] Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.6 billion[125] Currency conversion:[111]

¥1.8 billion = $22.2401 million ¥2.6 billion = $32.1248 million

^ a b Lord of Vermilion: ¥4 billion[140]

Currency conversion: $50.443 million[111]

^ a b Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.8 billion[124]

Currency conversion: $47 million[111]

^ a b Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥2.8 billion[126]

Currency conversion: $34.87 million[111]

^ a b Beatmania:

¥1 billion in May 1998[105] Yen-Dollar currency conversion: $12.4 million[111]

^ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
series:

Pac-Man: 400,000[69] Ms. Pac-Man: 125,000[75] Pac-Mania: 1,412[120]

^ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
series:

Pac-Man: $3.5 billion in 1999[n 2] Ms. Pac-Man: $350 million in 1988[166] Pac-Mania: $2.82 million in the US in 1987[120]

^ Mario series:

Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
series: 167,000[n 4] Mario Bros.: 3,800[104]

^ Asteroids series:

Asteroids: 100,000[77] Asteroids sequels:[145]

Asteroids Deluxe: 22,399 Space Duel: 12,038 Blasteroids: 2,000

^ Asteroids series:

Asteroids: $800 million in 1991[78] Asteroids sequels:

Asteroids Deluxe: $46.1 million in 1999[145] Blasteroids: $4.69 million in 1991[120]

^ Defender series:

Defender: 60,000[80] Stargate: 15,000[104]

^ Centipede series:[104][120]

Centipede: 55,988

Millipede: 9,990 ^ Centipede series:[120]

Centipede: $115.65 million

Millipede: $20.669 million ^ Galaxian
Galaxian
series:

Galaxian: 40,000 in the US[84][85] Galaga
Galaga
'88: 986 in the US[120]

^ StarHorse series:

Starhorse Progress – 120 in fiscal year ended March 2005[99] StarHorse2 – 38,614 up to 2009[n 16]

^ Starhorse series, 2009–2011:

Starhorse2 – $59.321 million[n 17] StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins – $132.18 million[n 12]

^ Big Buck series:

Big Buck Hunter series sales up until April 2007: 22,500 units, including 7,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units.[152] Series sales after April 2007 until September 2009: additional 2,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units and 5,500 Big Buck Safari units.[151] Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season sales from September 2009 to January 2010: 3,000 units[154]

^ Bemani series, sales:

Beatmania
Beatmania
as of 2000: 25,000[157] Dance Dance Revolution
Dance Dance Revolution
in Japan as of May 1999: 3,500[105]

^ Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ2:

April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984[99] April 2005 to June 2005: 502[100]

^ Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ4:

Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[141] Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[123]

^ Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ series:

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ2 from April 2004 to June 2005: 5,486 units[n 36] Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ3 from April 2005 to March 2006: 7,608 units[94] Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ4 from April 2007 to March 2009: 12,892[n 37]

^ Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ series, 2009–2012:

Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ4: $47 million in fiscal year 2010[n 20] Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ5: $34.87 million in fiscal year 2012[n 21]

^ Pole Position series US sales:

Pole Position: 21,000[104] Pole Position sequels:[120]

Pole Position II: 2,400 Final Lap: 1,150

^ Pole Position series US sales:[104][120]

Pole Position: $60.933 million in 1983 Pole Position II: $7.43 million in 1983 Final Lap: $9.5 million in 1988

^ Sangokushi Taisen:

As of March 2005: 421[99] April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521[94]

^ Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
series:

Sales from January 2005 to September 2006: 5,153 units

Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
from January 2005 to March 2006: 1,942 units[n 42] Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
2 during April–September 2006: 3,211 units[96]

Sales from April 2007 to March 2008: 4,776

166 body units of Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
2 during April–September 2007[102] 4,610 satellite units of Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
from April 2007 to March 2008[141]

^ Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
series, 2009–2011:

Sangokushi Taisen
Sangokushi Taisen
3: $54.4 million[n 18] Sengoku Taisen: $94.04 million[n 14]

^ Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion

Currency conversion: $47.11 million[111]

^ World Club Champion Football
World Club Champion Football
series, revenue:

Series revenues up until March 2009 - $552.3 million

480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack.[109] A ¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each.[110] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion.[111] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.

World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 - $150.1 million[n 9]

References[edit]

^ Vintage Coin Operated Fortune Tellers, Arcade Games, Digger/Cranes, Gun Games and other Penny Arcade games, pre-1977 from Marvin's Marvelous Mechanical Museum ^ a b Steven L. Kent (2000), The First Quarter: A 25-Year History of Video Games, p. 83, BWD Press, ISBN 0-9704755-0-0 ^ Brian Ashcraft (2008) Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's Game Centers, p. 133, Kodansha
Kodansha
International ^ Steve L. Kent (2001), The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond: the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world, p. 102, Prima, ISBN 0-7615-3643-4 ^ a b Mark J. P. Wolf (2008), The video game explosion: a history from PONG to PlayStation
PlayStation
and beyond, p. 149, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-313-33868-X ^ Crown Soccer Special
Special
at the Killer List of Videogames ^ a b D.S. Cohen. "Killer Shark: The Undersea Horror Arcade Game from Jaws". About.com. Retrieved 3 May 2011.  ^ a b "1969 Sega
Sega
Duck Hunt (Arcade Flyer)". pinrepair.com. Retrieved 3 May 2011.  ^ Duck Hunt (1969) at the Killer List of Videogames ^ Grand Prix at the Killer List of Videogames ^ Bill Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009), Vintage games: an insider look at the history of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most influential games of all time, p. 198, Focal Press, ISBN 0-240-81146-1 ^ a b Missile at the Killer List of Videogames ^ S.A.M.I. at the Killer List of Videogames ^ Jet Rocket at the Killer List of Videogames ^ Brian Ashcraft (2008) Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's Game Centers, p. 134, Kodansha
Kodansha
International ^ Wild Gunman
Wild Gunman
(1974) at the Killer List of Videogames ^ F-1 at the Killer List of Videogames ^ Mall Arcade (Dawn Of The Dead) on YouTube ^ Brian Ashcraft (2008) Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's Game Centers, p. 136, Kodansha
Kodansha
International ^ Chris Kohler (2005). Power-up: how Japanese video games gave the world an extra life. BradyGames. p. 18. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "Can Lasers Save VIdeo Arcades?". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 3 February 1984. Retrieved 13 March 2012. Last year, arcade game revenues were approximately $5 billion, compared to $8 billion in 1981 and $7 billion in 1982.  ^ "Dave and Buster's About Page". Retrieved 20 September 2007.  ^ Johnson, Tracy (3 April 1992). "Are Arcades Archaic? Business down, owners add zip and zap to lure players". The Boston Globe. p. 89. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  ^ IGN
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Presents the History of SEGA: World War, IGN ^ "Extentofthejam.com". Extentofthejam.com. 2013-05-03. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ "Web.archive.org". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Web.archive.org". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Shanna Compton (2004). Gamers: writers, artists & programmers on the pleasures of pixels. Soft Skull Press. p. 119. ISBN 1-932360-57-3.  ^ a b c Spencer, Spanner, The Tao of Beat-'em-ups (part 2), EuroGamer, 12 February 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2009 ^ June, Laura (2013-01-16). "For Amusement Only: the life and death of the American arcade". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ a b c d e f g Horwitz, Jeremy (8 July 2002). "Technology: Mortal Apathy?". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2012.  ^ Jay Carter (July 1993). "Insert Coin Here: Getting a Fighting Chance". Electronic Games. Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ " Virtua Racing
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– Arcade (1992)". 15 Most Influential Games of All Time. GameSpot. 14 March 2001. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2014.  ^ Virtua Cop
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Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine., IGN, 7 July 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2009 ^ a b c "Business Week". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg (3392–3405): 58. 1994. Retrieved 25 January 2012. Hollywood's aim, of course, is to tap into the $7 billion that Americans pour into arcade games each year – and the $6 billion they spend on home versions for Nintendo
Nintendo
and Sega
Sega
game machines. Combined, it is a market nearly 2 ½ times the size of the $5 billion movie box office.  ^ a b c "CPI Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 22 February 2012.  ^ Mark Stephen Pierce (1998). "Coin-Op: The Life (Arcade Videogames)" (PDF). Digital illusion: entertaining the future with high technology (PDF). ACM Press. p. 444. ISBN 0-201-84780-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ "News: Virtua Fighter
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3". Computer and Video Games
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(174): 10–1. May 1996.  ^ THG.RU (2000-01-01). "Second Hand Smoke - One up, two down". THG.RU. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ Henry, Lydia (26 April 2001). "Skee-ball Mania". Reading Eagle. p. 36. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ "Video killed the arcade star". East Valley Tribune. 20 April 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2012.  ^ Webb, Marcus (September 1996). "Arcade Games Down 40% in Five Years". Next Generation. No. 21. Imagine Media. p. 22.  ^ Mabry, Donald J. "Evolution of Online Games". Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ Fuller, Brad. "Awakening the Arcade". Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ "Bullwinkles Family Fun Center". Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.  ^ "Gatti's Pizza: About Us". Archived from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2007.  ^ Chou, Yuntsai (Fall 2003). "G-commerce in East Asia: Evidence and Prospects". Journal of Interactive Advertising. 4 (1). Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2012.  ^ Jou, Eric (19 March 2012). "The Wonderful and Seedy World of Chinese Arcades". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.  ^ Nigel K. Li Pope; Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn; John J.H. Forster, eds. (2009). Digital sport for performance enhancement and competitive evolution : intelligent gaming technologies. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. p. 260. ISBN 1-60566-406-5. Retrieved 14 March 2012.  ^ "Ms. Pac-Man/Galaga — Class Of 1981". KLOV. Retrieved 10 September 2006.  ^ " Namco
Namco
Networks' Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Franchise Surpasses 30 Million Paid Transactions in the United States on Brew". AllBusiness.com. 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2012. [dead link]bot=medic ^ "Arcade Machines of the highest quality". Bespoke Arcades. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ Sambe, Yukiharu (2009). "Japan's Arcade Games and Their Technology". Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Entertainment Computing– ICEC 2009. 5709: 338. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04052-8_62. Retrieved 25 January 2012.  ^ Carless, Simon (2 May 2005). "Namco, Bandai To Merge". Gamasutra. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ "Video Games Daily Yu Suzuki: The Kikizo Interview (Page 2)". archive.videogamesdaily.com. Retrieved 28 June 2015.  ^ https://www.segasammy.co.jp/english/ir/library/pdf/printing_annual/2008/e_2008_annual.pdf Page 16: " The domestic market has continued to expand for five years and has set new records for three consecutive years." ^ a b "Market Data". Capcom
Capcom
Investor Relations. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2012.  ^ Russell, Danny. "Interview: Takenobu Mitsuyoshi". TSSZ News. Retrieved 28 June 2015.  ^ Butts, Steve (2003). "Secret Weapon Over Normandy Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2007.  ^ "Genre Definitions". Mobygames. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ "Joust for Macintosh
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(1994) - MobyGames". MobyGames. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ "Digital Eclipse Software, Inc. - MobyGames". MobyGames. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ [Tricks of the Podcasting Masters p. 38] ^ "American Amusement Machine Association". www.gamingregulation.com. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ "AAMA mission statement". AAMA. 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ Kushner, David (1999-09-23). "Care for a Latte With That, Mr. Nukem?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 275. ISBN 0-313-33868-X. Retrieved 10 April 2011. What are the best-selling video games? There are a number of factors to consider when attempting to answer this question. First, there are several different types of video games, which makes comparisons difficult, or perhaps unfair. Arcade games are played for a quarter a play (although some are 50 cents, or even more), while home games are bought outright, and their systems must be purchased as well.  ^ a b

Jiji Gaho Sha, inc. (2003). "Asia Pacific perspectives, Japan". University of Virginia. p. 57. Retrieved 9 April 2011. At that time, a game for use in entertainment arcades was considered a hit if it sold 1000 units; sales of Space Invaders
Space Invaders
topped 300,000 units in Japan and 60,000 units overseas.  Dale Peterson
Dale Peterson
(1983). Genesis II, creation and recreation with computers. Reston Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 0-8359-2434-3. Retrieved 1 May 2011. By 1980, some 300,000 Space Invader video arcade games were in use in Japan, and an additional 60,000 in the United States.  Kohler, Chris (2004). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames. p. "represented+a+significant+portion+of+the+cost" 19. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. Within one year of its US release, an additional 60,000 machines had been sold. One arcade owner said of Space Invaders
Space Invaders
that it was the first arcade game whose intake "represented a significant portion of the cost of [buying] the game in any one week." That is, it was the first video game that paid for itself within about a month. 

^ a b c Kao, John J. (1989). Entrepreneurship, creativity & organization: text, cases & readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 45. ISBN 0-13-283011-6. Retrieved 12 February 2012. Estimates counted 7 billion coins that by 1982 had been inserted into some 400,000 Pac Man machines worldwide, equal to one game of Pac Man for every person on earth. US domestic revenues from games and licensing of the Pac Man image for T-shirts, pop songs, to wastepaper baskets, etc. exceeded $1 billion.  ^ Ste Curran (2004). Game plan: great designs that changed the face of computer gaming. Rotovision. p. 38. ISBN 2-88046-696-2. Retrieved 11 April 2011. When Street Fighter II′
Street Fighter II′
(pronounced street fighter two dash) was released just a short time later, it sold around 140,000 units, at ¥160.000 (c. US $1300 / £820) each. The figures were beyond massive – they were simply unheard of. Capcom's Titanic wasn't sinking. Anything but. The game was a runaway success in its territory of choice, bringing Western gamers as much joy as it had in the East.  ^ Steven L. Kent (2001). "The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World". Prima. p. 446. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Capcom
Capcom
will not release the final numbers, but some outsiders have estimated that more than 60,000 Street Fighter II
Street Fighter II
arcade machines were sold worldwide.  ^ a b top-10-biggest-grossing-arcade-games-of-all-time. 2013. p. 228. ISBN 0-7619-2976-2. Retrieved 23 April 2011. Due to the relative ease of making illegal versions of Capcom's CP System boards, many pirated copies of the arcade game also existed, which would likely boost its revenue number considerably. But for obvious reasons, the actual sum will never be known.  ^ a b c Steven L. Kent (2001). "The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World". Prima. p. 352. Retrieved 9 April 2011. With more than 60,000 units sold in the United States, Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
was Nintendo's biggest arcade hit. The arcade industry began its long collapse the year after Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
was released, and Nintendo's arcade fortunes eroded quickly. Nintendo
Nintendo
released Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
Junior in 1982 and sold only 30,000 machines, 20,000 Popeye machines (also 1982), and a mere 5000 copies of Donkey Kong 3
Donkey Kong 3
(1983).  ^ a b c Jörg Ziesak (2009). Wii
Wii
Innovate – How Nintendo
Nintendo
Created a New Market Through the Strategic Innovation Wii. GRIN Verlag. p. 50. ISBN 3640497740. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Donkey Kong was Nintendo's first international smash hit and the main reason behind the company's breakthrough in the Northern American market. In the first year of its publication, it earned Nintendo
Nintendo
180 million US dollars, continuing with a return of 100 million dollars in the second year.  ^ a b "Bally Will Quit Making Pinball, Video Machines". Toledo Blade. 11 July 1988. p. 22. Retrieved 9 March 2012.  ^ a b Mark J. P. Wolf (2001). The medium of the video game. University of Texas Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-292-79150-X. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong
Pong
to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 132. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Atari
Atari
sold more than 70,000 Asteroids machines in the United States. The game did not do as well in Europe and Asia, however. Only about 30,000 units were sold overseas.  ^ a b Gottschalk, S. (1995). "Videology: Video-Games as Postmodern Sites/Sights of Ideological Reproduction". Symbolic Interaction. 18 (1). Retrieved 26 February 2012.  ^ "Forbes, Volume 127". Forbes: 102. 1981. Retrieved 25 February 2012. At $2000 a unit, Atari
Atari
has made about $140 million from that game alone.  ^ a b Sellers, John (2001). Arcade fever: the fan's guide to the golden age of video games. Philadelphia: Running Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-7624-0937-1. Retrieved 25 February 2012. Williams sold around 60,000 units of Defender, easily the company's most successful game.  ^ Steven L. Kent (2001). "The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World". Prima. p. 147. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Defender was Williams Electronics' biggest seller. More than 55,000 units were placed worldwide.  ^ a b Morrison, Michael (2002). Sams teach yourself game programming in 24 hours (1. printing. ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Sams Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 0-672-32461-X. Retrieved 23 February 2012.  ^ Mark J. P. Wolf. The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 0-313-33868-X. Retrieved 19 April 2011.  ^ a b "MIDWAY MFG. CO. v. ARTIC INTERN." 10 March 1982. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ a b Bureau of National Affairs
Bureau of National Affairs
(1983). "United States Patents Quarterly, Volume 216". United States Patents Quarterly. Associated Industry Publications. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Since February 1980, Midway has sold in excess of 40,000 Galaxian
Galaxian
games  ^ Donkey Kong:

Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong

Brian Ashcraft; with Jean Snow; forewords by Kevin Williams; Crecente, Brian (2008). "sixty-five+thousand" Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4-7700-3078-9. Retrieved 12 February 2012. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo
Nintendo
and laying the groundwork for Nintendo
Nintendo
and Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond. 

United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong

Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Retrieved 8 April 2012. Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong
sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and Ms. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States. 

United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr.
Donkey Kong Jr.
and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3.[73]

^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong
Pong
to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 352. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. In 1982, Universal Sales made arcade history with a game called Mr Do! Instead of selling dedicated Mr Do! machines, Universal sold the game as a kit. The kit came with a customized control panel, a computer board with Mr Do! read-only memory (ROM) chips, stickers that could be placed on the side of stand-up arcade machines for art, and a plastic marquee. It was the first game ever sold as a conversion only. According to former Universal Sales western regional sales manager Joe Morici, the company sold approximately 30,000 copies of the game in the United States alone.  ^ Out Run: ZX Spectrum Instructions. U.S. Gold. 1987. Retrieved 23 February 2012.  ^ a b "Pump It Up: Exceed drops to PS2 / Xbox". Punch Jump Crew. 8 September 2005.  ^ "The Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. 2013-09-26. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ "Computerandvideogames.com". Computerandvideogames.com. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ Arcade-history.com ^ a b Steven L. Kent (2001). "The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World". Prima. p. 91. Retrieved 9 April 2011. According to Kauffman, Exidy sold only 1,000 Death Race machines, just a fraction of the number of Sea Wolf and Gun Fight
Gun Fight
machines Midway placed that same year, but Death Race stirred up protests and was even discussed on CBS's 60 Minutes.  ^ a b c d e f "FY Ending March 2006: Full Year Results Presentation" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 16 May 2006. p. 11. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b "Motorcycle game to Atari". NewsBytes. 1 October 1985. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2012. So far, Sega
Sega
has shipped approx. 7,000 Hang-ons to the Japanese and overseas market. ATARI IRELAND gets 500 sets for the initial shipment, a report says.  ^ a b c d e f "FY 2007: Interim Results (April-September 2006)" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 10 November 2006. pp. 11–13. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ Arcade-history.com ^ Keith Smith (2012-08-30). "Allincolorforaquarter.blogspot.co.uk". Allincolorforaquarter.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ a b c d e f "FY2004 Financial Results (for the year ended March 31, 2005)" (PDF). Tokyo: Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 25 May 2005. p. 11. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b "FY2005 1Q Results: Amusement Machine Sales" (PDF). FY2005 1Q Business Results (April–June 2005). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 4 August 2005. p. 6. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ2:

April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984[99] April 2005 to June 2005: 502[100]

^ a b c d "Fiscal Year 2008: Interim Results" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 12 November 2007. p. 11. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ a b "Fiscal Year Ended March 2007: Full Year Results" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 14 May 2007. p. 11. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fujihara, Mary (2 November 1983). "Inter Office Memo". Atari. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  ^ a b c (" Special
Special
Feature: Music Simulation Games Rock the Market". Annual Report. Konami. 1999. p. 2. Archived from the original on 25 June 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2012. ) ^ a b c d e f g h Fujihara, Mary (25 July 1983). "Inter Office Memo". Atari. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  ^ a b "First Half Business Results (April–September 2004)" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 11 November 2004. p. 4. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Segment Results: Amusement Machines" (PDF). FY 2007: 1st Quarter Results (April–June 2006). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 28 July 2006. p. 10. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ a b "AOU 2009 - Sega
Sega
World Club Champion Football
World Club Champion Football
Intercontinental Clubs 2007-2008". AOU Amusement Expo 2009. DigInfo TV. 2 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ a b "Sports Gaming in Japan: World Club Champion Football". GameSpot. 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Currency Conversion". XE.com. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ World Club Champion Football
World Club Champion Football
series, revenue:

Series revenues up until March 2009 - $552.3 million

480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack.[109] A ¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each.[110] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion.[111] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.

World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 - $150.1 million[n 9]

^ a b c d "Stern Production Numbers and More CCI Photos". 1 May 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ a b "FY Ending March 2006: Interim Results Presentation (April–September 2005)" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 22 November 2005. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b c d Carless, Simon (29 March 2007). "Uemura – Sega's Hidden Game Design Power?". GameSetWatch. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b c d Ashcraft, Brian (14 October 2005). "How Sega
Sega
Reels in Girls". Kotaku. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b "FY2005 Third quarter Financial Results (April–December 2004)" (PDF). Konami. 27 January 2005. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2012.  ^ a b c "Fiscal Year Ending March 2007: 3rd Quarter Results (April-December 2006)" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 7 February 2007. pp. 11–13. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ "Fiscal Year Ending March 2006: 3rd quarter Results (April–December 2005)" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 8 February 2006. p. 8. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv "Atari Production Numbers Memo". Atari
Atari
Games. 4 January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  ^ a b c d e "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: 9 Months Ended December 31, 2009" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 5 February 2010. p. 3. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Sangokushi Taisen:

As of March 2005: 421[99] April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521[94]

^ a b c "Segment Results: Amusement Machine" (PDF). Fiscal Year 2009: Full Year Results (Ending March 2009). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 14 May 2009. p. 15. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: Year Ended March 31, 2010" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 14 May 2010. p. 3. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: Year Ended March 31, 2011" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 13 May 2011. p. 3. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: Year Ended March 31, 2012" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 11 May 2012. p. 3. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ a b "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: 9 Months Ended December 31, 2011" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 3 February 2012. p. 3. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ a b c d e f "FY Ending March 2013: 1st Quarter Results Presentation (Ended June 2012)" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 1 August 2012. p. 11. Retrieved 2 September 2012.  ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong
Pong
to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 225. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Cinematronics sold more than 16,000 Dragon's Lair machines in 1983, for an average price of $4300. Coleco purchased the home rights to the game, giving Cinematronics an additional $2 million.  ^ Harmetz, Aljean (13 August 1983). "Daring Dirk Perk For Arcades". Ottawa Citizen. p. 29. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ a b c "Rick Dyer: Biography". Allgame. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ "VIDEO ARCADES: HANGOUT CHOICE OF A NEW GENERATION". DeseretNews.com. 1994-04-12. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ a b "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements 6 Months Ended September 30, 2011" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 31 October 2011. p. 3. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Smith, Keith (2013-11-22). "The Golden Age Arcade Historian: Video Game Firsts??". Allincolorforaquarter.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ "Amusement Machine: 3Q Principle Titles" (PDF). Fiscal Year Ending March 2006: 3rd Quarter Appendix (April–December 2005). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 8 February 2006. p. 4. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ Radar Scope
Radar Scope
at the Killer List of Videogames ^ Harmetz, Aljean (3 July 1982). "Movie Themes Come To Video Games". Star-News. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ Jack B. Rochester; John Gantz (1983). The naked computer: a layperson's almanac of computer lore, wizardry, personalities, memorabilia, world records, mind blowers, and tomfoolery. William Morrow and Company. p. 164. ISBN 0-688-02450-5. Retrieved 20 April 2011. Although the Disney Studios expected to make over $400 million from this siliconic extravaganza, our source at Variety tells us that its North American rentals were $15 million and estimated total gross, $30 million. The arcade game Tron, made by Bally, grossed more.  ^ "Outline of Results Briefing" (PDF). Square Enix. 23 May 2008. p. 4. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ a b "Outline of Results Briefing by SQUARE ENIX HOLDINGS held on November 7, 2008" (PDF). Square-Enix.com. Retrieved 20 December 2008.  ^ a b c d "Segment Results: Amusement Machines" (PDF). FY 2008: Full Year Results (Ending March 2008). Sega
Sega
Sammy Holdings. 15 May 2008. p. 13. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 224. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Gottlieb sold approximately 25,000 Q*Bert arcade machines.  ^ a b "Japanese gamers shake it, shake it!". South Africa: Independent Online (South Africa). 14 August 2000. Retrieved 19 April 2012.  ^ Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion

Currency conversion: $47.11 million[111]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "Production Numbers" (PDF). Atari. 1999. Retrieved 19 March 2012.  ^ Fulton, Jeff (2010). "A short history of Missile Command". The essential guide to Flash games : building interactive entertainment with ActionScript 3.0 (New ed.). [Berkeley, Calif.]: Friends of ED. p. 138. ISBN 1-4302-2614-5. Retrieved 7 February 2012. While certainly not the size of Asteroids, the game was still a huge hit with almost 20,000 units sold.  ^ a b "Business 1974: Industry: Space Age Pinball, Atari's PONG". Time. 5 October 1983. Retrieved 21 April 2011. Typical of the new games is Pong, a popular version of electronic table tennis manufactured by two-year-old Atari, Inc. (estimated fiscal 1974 revenue: $14 million) of Los Gatos, Calif. Atari
Atari
sold some 8,500 games to U.S. amusement parlors and other businesses last year.  ^ a b Ashley S. Lipson; Robert D. Brain (2009). Computer and Video Game Law: Cases and Materials. Carolina Academic Press. p. 9. ISBN 1-59460-488-6. Retrieved 11 April 2011. Atari
Atari
eventually sold more than 19,000 Pong
Pong
machines, giving rise to many imitations. Pong
Pong
made its first appearance in 1972 at "Andy Capp's," a small bar in Sunnyvale, California, where the video game was literally "overplayed" as eager customers tried to cram quarters into an already heavily overloaded coin slot.  ^ a b Barack, Lauren (8 May 2003). "In Blast From the Past, Atari Video Games Plan a Return". New York Post. p. 34. Retrieved 28 February 2012. Its first hit game, "Pong," launched in 1972, made $11 million in revenue in just one year.  ^ Sega
Sega
Network Mahjong MJ4:

Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[141] Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[123]

^ a b c "Big Buck Safari® Reaches Two Milestones!". Raw Thrills. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2012. [dead link] ^ a b Strang, Katie (24 April 2007). "Shootout at the local pub: Big Buck Hunter is a hit". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  ^ "Entering The Snakepit – A Winner". NewsBytes. 20 December 1983. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2012.  ^ a b Shaggy (7 January 2010). " Big Buck Hunter Open Season pushes 3000 units in 90 days". Arcade Heroes. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ Shaggy (11 February 2010). "Silver Strike LIVE starts shipping next week". Arcade Heroes. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ "Operator bowled over by H2Overdrive". Namco
Namco
Bandai Games. 5 March 2010. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ a b Beals, Gregory (11 December 2000). "Kings of Cool". Newsweek. Retrieved 19 April 2012. Konami
Konami
has sold 25,000 Beatmania
Beatmania
machines in three years. In the arcade industry, selling 1000 units is considered a success.  ^ a b Steven L. Kent (2000). The first quarter: a 25-year history of video games. BWD Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-9704755-0-0. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Sea Wolf, which was another creation of Dave Nutting, did solid business, selling more than 10,000 machines.  ^ Orland, Kyle (4 March 2011). "GDC 2011: Mark Cerny Discusses Marble Madness' Turbulent Development". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ Steven L. Kent (2000). The first quarter: a 25-year history of video games. BWD Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-9704755-0-0. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ a b Shaggy (3 May 2010). "Initial sales numbers for Terminator Salvation arcade". Arcade Heroes. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ Shaggy (10 June 2009). "Betson: 2000 Guitar Hero units have been sold in three months". Arcade Heroes. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ Buchanan, Levi (28 August 2008). The Revolution of I, Robot, IGN. ^ "Atari: From Starting Block To Auction Block". InfoWorld. InfoWorld Media Group. 6 (32): 52. 6 August 1984. ISSN 0199-6649. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ Modine, Austin (13 December 2008). "Before Pong, there was Computer Space". The Register. Retrieved 23 February 2012.  ^ Ms. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
revenue: 125,000 units, [1] $2800 each [2] ^ "Call-it Entertainment, Inc. Partners with Capcom
Capcom
to Launch Street Fighter Wireless Game Series". Business Wire. 16 May 2002. Archived from the original on 24 June 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  ^ Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition
Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition
2008. Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition. Guinness World Records. 2008. p. 77. ISBN 1-904994-21-0. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Street Fighter
Street Fighter
has sold over 25 million console games and 500,000 arcade units generating more than a billion dollars in revenue.  ^ Space Invaders:

$2 billion (4 billion quarters) by 1982: "Making millions, 25 cents at a time". The Fifth Estate. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 23 November 1982. Retrieved 30 April 2011.  $1 billion (8 billion quarters) by 1981: Glinert, Ephraim P. (1990). Visual Programming Environments: Applications and Issues. IEEE Computer Society Press. p. 321. ISBN 0-8186-8974-9. Retrieved 10 April 2011. As of mid-1981, according to Steve Bloom, author of Video Invaders, more than four billion quarters had been dropped into Space Invaders
Space Invaders
games around the world  $600 million Japan cabinet sales in 1978: "Can Asteroids Conquer Space Invaders?" (PDF). Electronic Games. 1 (1): 30–33 [31]. Winter 1981. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  $102 million US cabinet sales by 1979.[31]

^ Leonard Herman; Jer Horwitz; Steve Kent; Skyler Miller (2002). "The History of Video Games" (PDF). GameSpot. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.  ^ "What is Golden Tee?". Incredible Technologies. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013.  ^ Sickinger, Ted (6 November 1995). "The year of Mortal Kombat". The Kansas City Star. p. 1. Retrieved 4 March 2012. More than 1 billion quarters have dropped through its slots since 1992. The first two home versions sold more than 10 million copies at $50 and $60 apiece.  ^ Initial D series:

Initial D Arcade Stage: 2,534 units from April 2004 to September 2004[107] Initial D Arcade Stage Ver. 3: 673 units from April 2004 to March 2005[99] Initial D Arcade Stage 4: 3,904 units from April 2006 to September 2007[n 6]

External links[edit]

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The Video Arcade Preservation Society Online collection of Automatic Age trade journals, 1925-1945 System 16 – The Arcade Museum Arcade History (Coin-Op Database) The Museum of Soviet Arcade Ga

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