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Low-level ongoing:

Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty Oslo Accords Israel– Jordan
Jordan
Peace Treaty UNSC 1701 (Israel- Lebanon
Lebanon
ceasefire treaty)

Territorial changes

Establishment of Israel
Israel
and All-Palestine Protectorate
All-Palestine Protectorate
(1948); Jordanian annexation of the West Bank; Dissolution of All- Palestine
Palestine
Government and Egyptian occupation of the Gaza Strip Israeli occupation (1967–82) of the Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights Israeli-Egyptian peace and formation of the Israeli Civil Administration (1982) Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
and formation of the Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
in areas A, B of the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza in 1994. Israel- Jordan
Jordan
peace treaty (1994)

Belligerents

 Israel Mahal volunteers (1947–49)   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1956 only)   France
France
(1956 only) Kataeb Party
Kataeb Party
(1978–82) Free Lebanon State (1978–84) South Lebanon Army
South Lebanon Army
(1984–2000)

Supported by:   United States
United States
(1973–)

 All- Palestine
Palestine
(1948–59)

AHW (1947–49) Fedayeen (1949–64)

 Arab League

  Egypt
Egypt
(1948–78)   Jordan
Jordan
(1948–94)   Lebanon
Lebanon
(1948–67)   Iraq
Iraq
(1948–2003)   Syria
Syria
(1948–)  PLO (1964–1993)  Palestinian Authority (2000–05)

Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
(2006–) Supported by:   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1967–91)[1]   Iran
Iran
(2006–2012)

Commanders and leaders

David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
(1948–63) Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
(1948–52) Yaakov Dori
Yaakov Dori
(1948–49) Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1948–95) Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
(1948–2005) Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
(1948–2013) Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
(1948–79) Saad Haddad (1978–84) Antoine Lahad
Antoine Lahad
(1984–2000) Bachir Gemayel
Bachir Gemayel
(1978–82)

John Bagot Glubb
John Bagot Glubb
(1948–86) Habis al-Majali
Habis al-Majali
(1948–2001) Abd al-Q. al-Husayni † Hasan Salama † Fawzi Al-Qawuqji
Fawzi Al-Qawuqji
(1948–77) Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi (1948–1979) Haj Amin Al-Husseini
Haj Amin Al-Husseini
(1948–74) King Farouk I
King Farouk I
(1948–65) Ahmad Ali al-Mwawi (1948–79) Muhammad Naguib
Muhammad Naguib
(1948–84) Saad El Shazly (1948–2011)

Casualties and losses

≈22,570 military deaths[2] ≈1,723 civilian deaths[3] ≈1,050 SLA militiamen deaths[4] 91,105 total Arab deaths[5]

Both sides: 74,000 military deaths 18,000 civilian deaths (1945–1995)[6]

The Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
(Arabic: الصراع العربي الإسرائيلي‎, translit. Al-Sira'a Al'Arabi Al-Israili; Hebrew: הסכסוך הישראלי-ערבי‎, translit. Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) is the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots of the ongoing Arab–Israeli conflict is attributed to the rise of Zionism
Zionism
and Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
towards the end of the 19th century. Part of the dispute arises from the conflicting claims to the land. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their ancestral homeland is at the same time regarded by the Pan-Arab
Pan-Arab
movement as historically and currently belonging to the Palestinians,[7] and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands. The sectarian conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs
Arabs
emerged in the early 20th century, peaking into a full-scale civil war in 1947 and transforming into the First Arab–Israeli War in May 1948 following the Israeli Declaration of Independence. Large-scale hostilities mostly ended with the cease-fire agreements after the 1973 Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
War. Peace agreements were signed between Israel
Israel
and Egypt in 1979, resulting in Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
and abolishment of the military governance system in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip, in favor of Israeli Civil Administration
Israeli Civil Administration
and consequent unilateral annexation of the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
and East Jerusalem. The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large-scale, regional Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which peaked during the 1982 Lebanon War. The interim Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, within the context of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The same year Israel
Israel
and Jordan reached a peace accord. A cease-fire has been largely maintained between Israel
Israel
and Baathist Syria, as well as with Lebanon
Lebanon
since 2006. However, developments in the course of the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
reshuffled the situation near Israel's northern border, putting the Syrian Arab Republic, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and the Syrian opposition
Syrian opposition
at odds with each other and complicating their relations with Israel. The conflict between Israel
Israel
and Hamas-ruled Gaza, which resulted in the 2014 cease-fire, is usually also considered part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
and therefore the Arab–Israeli conflict. Its 2006–2012 phase is, however, also attributed to the Iran– Israel
Israel
proxy conflict in the region (Government of Syria
Syria
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
are being supported by Iran). Since 2012, Iran (predominantly Shia) has cut ties with the Sunni Hamas
Hamas
movement on account of the latter's support for the opposition in the Syrian Civil War. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt
Egypt
and Jordan, interim peace accords with Palestine
Palestine
and the generally existing cease-fire, the Arab world and Israel
Israel
remain at odds with each other over many issues.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Religious aspects of the conflict 1.2 National movements 1.3 Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine

1.3.1 First mandate years and the Franco-Syrian war 1.3.2 1929 events 1.3.3 1930s and 1940s

1.4 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

2 History

2.1 1948 Arab–Israeli War 2.2 1949–67 2.3 1967–73 2.4 1974–2000

2.4.1 Egypt 2.4.2 Jordan 2.4.3 Iraq 2.4.4 Lebanon 2.4.5 Palestinians

2.5 2000–09 2.6 2010–present

3 Notable wars and violent events 4 Cost of conflict 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

8.1 Government and official sources 8.2 Regional media 8.3 Think tanks and strategic analysis 8.4 Peace proposals 8.5 Maps 8.6 General sources

Background Religious aspects of the conflict Some groups opposed to the peace process invoke religious arguments for their uncompromising positions.[8] The contemporary history of the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
is very much affected by the religious beliefs of the various sides and their views of the idea of the chosen people in their policies with regard to the "Promised Land" and the "Chosen City" of Jerusalem.[9] The Land of Canaan
Canaan
or Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, promised by God to the Children of Israel. This is also mentioned in the Qur'an.[10] In his 1896 manifesto, The Jewish State, Theodor Herzl
Theodor Herzl
repeatedly refers to the Biblical Promised Land concept.[11] Likud
Likud
is currently the most prominent Israeli political party to include the Biblical claim to the Land of Israel
Israel
in its platform.[12] Muslims also claim rights to that land in accordance with the Quran.[13] Contrary to the Jewish claim that this land was promised only to the descendants of Abraham's grandson Jacob
Jacob
(Yisrael),[14] they argue that the Land of Canaan
Canaan
was promised to what they consider the elder son of Abraham, Ishmael, from whom Arabs
Arabs
claim descent.[13][15] Additionally, Muslims also revere many sites holy for Biblical Israelites, such as the Cave of the Patriarchs
Cave of the Patriarchs
and the Temple Mount. In the past 1,400 years, Muslims have constructed Islamic landmarks on these ancient Israelite sites, such as the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
on the Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism. This has brought the two groups into conflict over the rightful possession of Jerusalem. Muslim teaching is that Muhammad passed through Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on his first journey to heaven. Hamas, which governs the Gaza Strip, claims that all of the land of Palestine
Palestine
(the current Israeli and Palestinian territories) is an Islamic waqf that must be governed by Muslims.[16] Christian Zionists often support the State of Israel
Israel
because of the ancestral right of the Jews to the Holy Land, as suggested, for instance, by the apostle Paul in his letter to the Romans, chapter 11, in the Bible. Christian Zionism
Zionism
teaches that the return of Jews in Israel
Israel
is a prerequisite for the Second Coming of Christ.[17][18] National movements The roots of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
lie in the rise of Zionism
Zionism
and the reactionary Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
that arose in response to Zionism
Zionism
towards the end of the 19th century. Territory regarded by the Jewish people
Jewish people
as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab
Pan-Arab
movement as historically and presently belonging to the Palestinian Arabs. Before World War I, the Middle East, including Palestine
Palestine
(later Mandatory Palestine), had been under the control of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for nearly 400 years. During the closing years of their empire, the Ottomans began to espouse their Turkish ethnic identity, asserting the primacy of Turks within the empire, leading to discrimination against the Arabs.[19] The promise of liberation from the Ottomans led many Jews and Arabs
Arabs
to support the allied powers during World War I, leading to the emergence of widespread Arab nationalism. Both Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
and Zionism
Zionism
had their formulative beginning in Europe. The Zionist Congress was established in Basel in 1897, while the "Arab Club" was established in Paris in 1906. In the late 19th century European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities began to increasingly immigrate to Palestine
Palestine
and purchase land from the local Ottoman landlords. The population of the late 19th century in Palestine
Palestine
reached 600,000 – mostly Muslim Arabs, but also significant minorities of Jews, Christians, Druze and some Samaritans and Bahai's. At that time, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
did not extend beyond the walled area and had a population of only a few tens of thousands. Collective farms, known as kibbutzim, were established, as was the first entirely Jewish city in modern times, Tel Aviv. During 1915–16, as World War I
World War I
was underway, the British High Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, secretly corresponded with Husayn ibn 'Ali, the patriarch of the Hashemite family and Ottoman governor of Mecca and Medina. McMahon convinced Husayn to lead an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was aligned with Germany against Britain and France
France
in the war. McMahon promised that if the Arabs
Arabs
supported Britain in the war, the British government would support the establishment of an independent Arab state under Hashemite rule in the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine. The Arab revolt, led by T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
("Lawrence of Arabia") and Husayn's son Faysal, was successful in defeating the Ottomans, and Britain took control over much of this area. Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine Main article: Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine First mandate years and the Franco-Syrian war In 1917, Palestine
Palestine
was conquered by the British forces (including the Jewish Legion). The British government issued the Balfour Declaration, which stated that the government viewed favorably "the establishment in Palestine
Palestine
of a national home for the Jewish people" but "that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine". The Declaration was issued as a result of the belief of key members of the government, including Prime Minister David Lloyd George, that Jewish support was essential to winning the war; however, the declaration caused great disquiet in the Arab world.[20] After the war, the area came under British rule as the British Mandate of Palestine. The area mandated to the British in 1923 included what is today Israel, the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip. Transjordan eventually was carved into a separate British protectorate – the Emirate of Transjordan, which gained an autonomous status in 1928 and achieved complete independence in 1946 with the approval by the United Nations
United Nations
of the end of the British Mandate. A major crisis among the Arab nationalists took place with the failed establishment of the Arab Kingdom of Syria
Syria
in 1920. With the disastrous outcome of the Franco-Syrian War, the self-proclaimed Hashemite kingdom with its capital in Damascus was defeated and the Hashemite ruler took refuge in Mandatory Iraq. The crisis saw the first confrontation of nationalist Arab and Jewish forces, taking place in the Battle of Tel Hai
Battle of Tel Hai
in March 1920, but more importantly the collapse of the pan-Arabist kingdom led to the establishment of the local Palestinian version of Arab nationalism, with the return of Amin al-Husseini from Damascus to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in late 1920. At this point in time Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine continued, while to some opinions a similar, but less documented, immigration also took place in the Arab sector, bringing workers from Syria
Syria
and other neighbouring areas. Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
saw this rapid influx of Jewish immigrants as a threat to their homeland and their identity as a people. Moreover, Jewish policies of purchasing land and prohibiting the employment of Arabs
Arabs
in Jewish-owned industries and farms greatly angered the Palestinian Arab communities.[21][verification needed] Demonstrations were held as early as 1920, protesting what the Arabs
Arabs
felt were unfair preferences for the Jewish immigrants set forth by the British mandate that governed Palestine
Palestine
at the time. This resentment led to outbreaks of violence later that year, as the al-Husseini incited riots broke out in Jerusalem. Winston Churchill's 1922 White Paper tried to reassure the Arab population, denying that the creation of a Jewish state was the intention of the Balfour Declaration. 1929 events In 1929, after a demonstration by Vladimir Jabotinsky's political group Betar
Betar
at the Western Wall, riots started in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and expanded throughout Mandatory Palestine; Arabs
Arabs
murdered 67 Jews in the city of Hebron, in what became known as the Hebron
Hebron
massacre.

A Jewish bus equipped with wire screens to protect against rock, glass, and grenade throwing, late 1930s

During the week of the 1929 riots, at least 116 Arabs
Arabs
and 133 Jews[22] were killed and 339 wounded.[23] 1930s and 1940s By 1931, 17 percent of the population of Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
were Jews, an increase of six percent since 1922.[24] Jewish immigration peaked soon after the Nazis came to power in Germany, causing the Jewish population in British Palestine
Palestine
to double.[25] In the mid-1930s Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
arrived from Syria
Syria
and established the Black Hand, an anti-Zionist and anti-British militant organization. He recruited and arranged military training for peasants and by 1935 he had enlisted between 200 and 800 men. The cells were equipped with bombs and firearms, which they used to kill Jewish settlers in the area, as well as engaging in a campaign of vandalism of Jewish settler plantations.[26] By 1936, escalating tensions led to the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.[27] In response to Arab pressure,[28] the British Mandate authorities greatly reduced the number of Jewish immigrants to Palestine
Palestine
(see White Paper of 1939
White Paper of 1939
and the SS Exodus). These restrictions remained in place until the end of the mandate, a period which coincided with the Nazi Holocaust
Holocaust
and the flight of Jewish refugees from Europe. As a consequence, most Jewish entrants to Mandatory Palestine
Palestine
were considered illegal (see Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet), causing further tensions in the region. Following several failed attempts to solve the problem diplomatically, the British asked the newly formed United Nations for help. On 15 May 1947, the General Assembly appointed a committee, the UNSCOP, composed of representatives from eleven states.[29] To make the committee more neutral, none of the Great Powers were represented.[30] After five weeks of in-country study, the Committee reported to the General Assembly on 3 September 1947.[31] The Report contained a majority and a minority plan. The majority proposed a Plan of Partition with Economic Union. The minority proposed The Independent State of Palestine. With only slight modifications, the Plan of Partition with Economic Union was the one the adoption and implementation of which was recommended in resolution 181(II) of 29 November 1947.[32] The Resolution was adopted by 33 votes to 13 with 10 abstentions. All six Arab states who were UN-members voted against it. On the ground, Arab and Jewish Palestinians
Palestinians
were fighting openly to control strategic positions in the region. Several major atrocities were committed by both sides.[33] Civil War in Mandatory Palestine Main article: 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

Boundaries defined in the 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine:

  Area assigned for a Jewish state     Area assigned for an Arab state     Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
would be neither Jewish nor Arab

Armistice Demarcation Lines of 1949:

      Israeli controlled territory from 1949     Egyptian and Jordanian controlled territory from 1948 until 1967

In the weeks prior to the end of the Mandate the Haganah
Haganah
launched a number of offensives in which they gained control over all the territory allocated by the UN to the Jewish State, creating a large number of refugees and capturing the towns of Tiberias, Haifa, Safad, Beisan
Beisan
and, in effect, Jaffa. Early in 1948, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
announced its firm intention to terminate its mandate in Palestine
Palestine
on 14 May.[34] In response, U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
made a statement on 25 March proposing UN trusteeship rather than partition, stating that "unfortunately, it has become clear that the partition plan cannot be carried out at this time by peaceful means. ... unless emergency action is taken, there will be no public authority in Palestine
Palestine
on that date capable of preserving law and order. Violence and bloodshed will descend upon the Holy Land. Large-scale fighting among the people of that country will be the inevitable result."[35] History Main article: History of the Arab–Israeli conflict 1948 Arab–Israeli War Main article: 1948 Arab–Israeli War On 14 May 1948, the day on which the British Mandate over Palestine expired, the Jewish People's Council
Jewish People's Council
gathered at the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Museum, and approved a proclamation which declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. The declaration was made by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization.[36] There were no mention of the borders of the new state other than that it was in Eretz Israel. In an official cablegram from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the UN Secretary-General on 15 May 1948, the Arab stated publicly that Arab Governments found "themselves compelled to intervene for the sole purpose of restoring peace and security and establishing law and order in Palestine." (Clause 10(e)). Further in Clause 10(e) – "The Governments of the Arab States hereby confirm at this stage the view that had been repeatedly declared by them on previous occasions, such as the London Conference and before the United Nations
United Nations
mainly, the only fair and just solution to the problem of Palestine
Palestine
is the creation of United State of Palestine
Palestine
based upon the democratic principles ..." That day, the armies of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq invaded/intervened in what had just ceased to be the British Mandate, marking the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The nascent Israeli Defense Force
Israeli Defense Force
repulsed the Arab nations from part of the occupied territories, thus extending its borders beyond the original UNSCOP partition.[37] By December 1948, Israel
Israel
controlled most of the portion of Mandate Palestine
Palestine
west of the Jordan
Jordan
River. The remainder of the Mandate consisted of Jordan, the area that came to be called the West Bank
West Bank
(controlled by Jordan), and the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
(controlled by Egypt). Prior to and during this conflict, 713,000[38] Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
fled their original lands to become Palestinian refugees, in part, due to a promise from Arab leaders that they would be able to return when the war had been won, and also in part due to attacks on Palestinian villages and towns by Israeli forces and Jewish militant groups.[39] Many Palestinians
Palestinians
fled from the areas that are now Israel as a response to massacres of Arab towns by militant Jewish organizations like the Irgun
Irgun
and the Lehi (group)
Lehi (group)
(See Deir Yassin massacre). The War came to an end with the signing of the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel
Israel
and each of its Arab neighbours. The status of Jewish citizens in Arab states worsened during the 1948 Israeli-Arab war. Anti-Jewish riots erupted throughout the Arab World in December 1947, and Jewish communities were hit particularly hard in Aleppo and British-controlled Aden, with hundreds of dead and injured. In Libya, Jews were deprived of citizenship, and in Iraq, their property was seized.[context?][40] Egypt
Egypt
expelled most of its foreign community, including Jews, after the Suez War 1956,[41] while Algeria denied its French citizens, including Jews, of citizenship upon its independence in 1962. Over the course of twenty years, some 850,000 Jews from Arab countries immigrated to Israel
Israel
and other countries.[42] 1949–67 As a result of Israel's victory in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, any Arabs
Arabs
caught on the wrong side of the ceasefire line were unable to return to their homes in what became Israel. Likewise, any Jews on the West Bank
West Bank
or in Gaza were exiled from their property and homes to Israel. Today's Palestinian refugees
Palestinian refugees
are the descendants of those who left, the responsibility for their exodus being a matter of dispute between the Israeli and the Palestinian side.[43][44]:114 Morris concluded that the "decisive cause" for the abandonment by Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
of their settlements was predominantly related to, or caused by, actions of the Jewish forces (citing actual physical expulsions, military assaults on settlements, fear of being caught up in fighting, the fall of nearby settlements, and propaganda inciting flight), while abandonment due to orders by the Arab leadership was decisive in only six out of the 392 depopulated Arab settlements analysed by him.[44]:xiv-xviii Over 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel
Israel
between 1948 and 1952, with approximately 285,000 of them from Arab countries.[45][46] In 1956, Egypt
Egypt
closed the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
to Israeli shipping, and blockaded the Gulf of Aqaba, in contravention of the Constantinople Convention of 1888. Many argued that this was also a violation of the 1949 Armistice Agreements.[47][48][not in citation given] On 26 July 1956, Egypt
Egypt
nationalized the Suez Canal Company, and closed the canal to Israeli shipping.[49] Israel
Israel
responded on 29 October 1956, by invading the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
with British and French support. During the Suez Crisis, Israel
Israel
captured the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and Sinai Peninsula. The United States
United States
and the United Nations
United Nations
soon pressured it into a ceasefire.[49][50] Israel
Israel
agreed to withdraw from Egyptian territory. Egypt
Egypt
agreed to freedom of navigation in the region and the demilitarization of the Sinai. The United Nations
United Nations
Emergency Force (UNEF) was created and deployed to oversee the demilitarization.[51] The UNEF was only deployed on the Egyptian side of the border, as Israel
Israel
refused to allow them on its territory.[52] Israel
Israel
completed work on a national water carrier, a huge engineering project designed to transfer Israel's allocation of the Jordan
Jordan
river's waters towards the south of the country in realization of Ben-Gurion's dream of mass Jewish settlement of the Negev
Negev
desert. The Arabs responded by trying to divert the headwaters of the Jordan, leading to growing conflict between Israel
Israel
and Syria.[53] The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) was first established in 1964, under a charter including a commitment to "[t]he liberation of Palestine
Palestine
[which] will destroy the Zionist and imperialist presence..." (PLO Charter, Article 22, 1968). On 19 May 1967, Egypt
Egypt
expelled UNEF observers,[54] and deployed 100,000 soldiers in the Sinai Peninsula.[55] It again closed the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
to Israeli shipping,[56][57] returning the region to the way it was in 1956 when Israel
Israel
was blockaded. On 30 May 1967, Jordan
Jordan
signed a mutual defense pact with Egypt. Egypt mobilized Sinai units, crossing UN lines (after having expelled the UN border monitors) and mobilized and massed on Israel's southern border. On 5 June, Israel
Israel
launched an attack on Egypt. The Israeli Air Force (IAF) destroyed most of the Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
in a surprise attack, then turned east to destroy the Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces.[58] This strike was the crucial element in Israel's victory in the Six-Day War.[55][57] At the war's end, Israel
Israel
had gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank
West Bank
(including East Jerusalem), Shebaa farms, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day. 1967–73

Egyptian forces crossing the Suez Canal on 7 October 1973

At the end of August 1967, Arab leaders met in Khartoum in response to the war, to discuss the Arab position toward Israel. They reached consensus that there should be no recognition, no peace, and no negotiations with the State of Israel, the so-called "three no's".[59] In 1969, Egypt
Egypt
initiated the War of Attrition, with the goal of exhausting Israel
Israel
into surrendering the Sinai Peninsula.[60] The war ended following Gamal Abdel Nasser's death in 1970. Once Sadat took over, he tried to forge positive relations with the USA, hoping that they would put pressure on Israel
Israel
to return the land, by expelling 15,000 Russian advisors from Egypt.[61] On 6 October 1973, Syria
Syria
and Egypt
Egypt
staged a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish calendar. The Israeli military were caught off guard and unprepared, and took about three days to fully mobilize.[62][63] This led other Arab states to send troops to reinforce the Egyptians and Syrians. In addition, these Arab countries agreed to enforce an oil embargo on industrial nations including the U.S, Japan and Western European Countries. These OPEC countries increased the price of oil fourfold, and used it as a political weapon to gain support against Israel.[64] The Yom Kippur War accommodated indirect confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union. When Israel
Israel
had turned the tide of war, the USSR threatened military intervention. The United States, wary of nuclear war, secured a ceasefire on 25 October.[62][63] 1974–2000 Egypt Further information: Egypt– Israel
Israel
relations

Begin, Carter and Sadat at Camp David

Following the Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
of the late 1970s, Israel
Israel
and Egypt signed a peace treaty in March 1979. Under its terms, the Sinai Peninsula returned to Egyptian hands, and the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
remained under Israeli control, to be included in a future Palestinian state. The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and recognition of the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
and the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
as international waterways. Jordan Further information: Israel– Jordan
Jordan
relations In October 1994, Israel
Israel
and Jordan
Jordan
signed a peace agreement, which stipulated mutual cooperation, an end of hostilities, the fixing of the Israel- Jordan
Jordan
border, and a resolution of other issues. The conflict between them had cost roughly 18.3 billion dollars. Its signing is also closely linked with the efforts to create peace between Israel
Israel
and the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) representing the Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
(PNA). It was signed at the southern border crossing of Arabah on 26 October 1994 and made Jordan
Jordan
only the second Arab country (after Egypt) to sign a peace accord with Israel. Iraq Further information: Iraq– Israel
Israel
relations Israel
Israel
and Iraq
Iraq
have been implacable foes since 1948. Iraq
Iraq
sent its troops to participate in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and later backed Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
in the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
and in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. In June 1981, Israel
Israel
attacked and destroyed newly built Iraqi nuclear facilities in Operation Opera. During the Gulf War
Gulf War
in 1991, Iraq
Iraq
fired 39 Scud
Scud
missiles into Israel, in the hopes of uniting the Arab world against the coalition which sought to liberate Kuwait. At the behest of the United States, Israel did not respond to this attack in order to prevent a greater outbreak of war. Lebanon Further information: Israeli–Lebanese conflict, Israel–Lebanon relations, and Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon In 1970, following an extended civil war, King Hussein expelled the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
from Jordan. September 1970 is known as the Black September
Black September
in Arab history and sometimes is referred to as the "era of regrettable events". It was a month when Hashemite King Hussein of Jordan
Jordan
moved to quash the autonomy of Palestinian organisations and restore his monarchy's rule over the country.[65] The violence resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people, the vast majority Palestinians.[66] Armed conflict lasted until July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO and thousands of Palestinian fighters to Lebanon. The PLO resettled in Lebanon, from which it staged raids into Israel. In 1978, Israel
Israel
launched Operation Litani, in which it together with the South Lebanon Army
South Lebanon Army
forced the PLO to retreat north of the Litani river. In 1981 another conflict between Israel
Israel
and the PLO broke out, which ended with a ceasefire agreement that did not solve the core of the conflict. In June 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon. Within two months the PLO agreed to withdraw thence. In March 1983, Israel
Israel
and Lebanon
Lebanon
signed a ceasefire agreement. However, Syria
Syria
pressured President Amine Gemayel
Amine Gemayel
into nullifying the truce in March 1984. By 1985, Israeli forces withdrew to a 15 km wide southern strip of Lebanon, following which the conflict continued on a lower scale, with relatively low casualties on both sides. In 1993 and 1996, Israel
Israel
launched major operations against the Shiite militia of Hezbollah, which had become an emergent threat. In May 2000, the newly elected government of Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
authorized a withdrawal from Southern Lebanon, fulfilling an election promise to do so well ahead of a declared deadline. The hasty withdrawal lead to the immediate collapse of the South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army, and many members either got arrested or fled to Israel. In 2006, as a response to a Hezbollah
Hezbollah
cross-border raid, Israel launched air strikes on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
strongholds in Southern Lebanon, starting the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War. The inconclusive war lasted for 34 days, and resulted in the creation of a buffer zone in Southern Lebanon
Lebanon
and the deployment of Lebanese troops south of the Litani river for the first time since the 1960s. The Israeli government under Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
was harshly criticized for its handling of the war in the Winograd Commission. Palestinians Further information: Israeli–Palestinian conflict The 1970s were marked by a large number of major, international terrorist attacks, including the Lod Airport massacre
Lod Airport massacre
and the Munich Olympics Massacre in 1972, and the Entebbe Hostage Taking in 1976, with over 100 Jewish hostages of different nationalities kidnapped and held in Uganda. In December 1987, the First Intifada
First Intifada
began. The First Intifada
First Intifada
was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the Palestinian territories.[67] The rebellion began in the Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spread throughout Gaza and the West Bank. Palestinian actions ranged from civil disobedience to violence. In addition to general strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, graffiti and barricades, Palestinian demonstrations that included stone-throwing by youths against the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces brought the Intifada international attention. The Israeli army's heavy handed response to the demonstrations, with live ammunition, beatings and mass arrests, brought international condemnation. The PLO, which until then had never been recognised as the leaders of the Palestinian people by Israel, was invited to peace negotiations the following year, after it recognized Israel
Israel
and renounced terrorism.

Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
at the Oslo Accords signing ceremony on 13 September 1993

In mid-1993, Israeli and Palestinian representatives engaged in peace talks in Oslo, Norway. As a result, in September 1993, Israel
Israel
and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, known as the Declaration of Principles or Oslo I; in side letters, Israel
Israel
recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people while the PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel
Israel
to exist and renounced terrorism, violence and its desire for the destruction of Israel. The Oslo II agreement was signed in 1995 and detailed the division of the West Bank
West Bank
into Areas A, B, and C. Area A was land under full Palestinian civilian control. In Area A, Palestinians
Palestinians
were also responsible for internal security. The Oslo agreements remain important documents in Israeli-Palestinian relations. 2000–09 The Second Intifada
Second Intifada
forced Israel
Israel
to rethink its relationship and policies towards the Palestinians. Following a series of suicide bombings and attacks, the Israeli army launched Operation Defensive Shield. It was the largest military operation conducted by Israel since the Six-Day War.[68] As violence between the Israeli army and Palestinian militants intensified, Israel
Israel
expanded its security apparatus around the West Bank by re-taking many parts of land in Area A. Israel
Israel
established a complicated system of roadblocks and checkpoints around major Palestinian areas to deter violence and protect Israeli settlements. However, since 2008, the IDF has slowly transferred authority to Palestinian security forces.[69][70][71] Israel's then prime minister Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
began a policy of disengagement from the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
in 2003. This policy was fully implemented in August 2005.[72] Sharon's announcement to disengage from Gaza came as a tremendous shock to his critics both on the left and on the right. A year previously, he had commented that the fate of the most far-flung settlements in Gaza, Netzararem and Kfar Darom, was regarded in the same light as that of Tel Aviv.[73] The formal announcements to evacuate seventeen Gaza settlements and another four in the West Bank
West Bank
in February 2004 represented the first reversal for the settler movement since 1968. It divided his party. It was strongly supported by Trade and Industry Minister Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
and Tzipi Livni, the Minister for Immigration and Absorption, but Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom and Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
strongly condemned it. It was also uncertain whether this was simply the beginning of further evacuation.[74] On 16 March 2003, Rachel Corrie, an American peace activist was crushed to death by an Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) bulldozer in Rafah, Gaza, during a non-violent protest of the Israeli demolition of Palestinian homes.[75] Corrie stood in confrontation with the bulldozers for three hours wearing a bright orange jacket and carrying a megaphone.[75] Although the Israeli government has denied responsibility in the incident and ruled her death as an accident, several eye-witness reports say that the Israeli soldier operating the bulldozer deliberately ran her over.[75][76] In June 2006, Hamas
Hamas
militants infiltrated an army post near the Israeli side of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and abducted Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit. Two IDF soldiers were killed in the attack, while Shalit was wounded after his tank was hit with an RPG. Three days later Israel launched Operation Summer Rains
Operation Summer Rains
to secure the release of Shalit.[77] He was held hostage by Hamas, who barred the International Red Cross from seeing him, until 18 October 2011, when he was exchanged for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners.[78][79] In July 2006, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters crossed the border from Lebanon
Lebanon
into Israel, attacked and killed eight Israeli soldiers, and abducted two others as hostages, setting off the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War which caused much destruction in Lebanon.[80] A UN-sponsored ceasefire went into effect on 14 August 2006, officially ending the conflict.[81] The conflict killed over a thousand Lebanese and over 150 Israelis,[82][83][84][85][86][87][88] severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese[89] and 300,000–500,000 Israelis, although most were able to return to their homes.[90][91][92] After the ceasefire, some parts of Southern Lebanon
Lebanon
remained uninhabitable due to Israeli unexploded cluster bomblets.[93] In the aftermath of the Battle of Gaza, where Hamas
Hamas
seized control of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
in a violent civil war with rival Fatah, Israel
Israel
placed restrictions on its border with Gaza borders and ended economic cooperation with the Palestinian leadership based there. Israel
Israel
and Egypt
Egypt
have imposed a blockade of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
since 2007. Israel maintains the blockade is necessary to limit Palestinian rocket attacks from Gaza and to prevent Hamas
Hamas
from smuggling advanced rockets and weapons capable of hitting its cities.[75] On 6 September 2007, in Operation Orchard, Israel
Israel
bombed an eastern Syrian complex which was allegedly a nuclear reactor being built with assistance from North Korea.[94] Israel
Israel
had also bombed Syria
Syria
in 2003. In April 2008, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
told a Qatari newspaper that Syria
Syria
and Israel
Israel
had been discussing a peace treaty for a year, with Turkey
Turkey
as a go-between. This was confirmed in May 2008 by a spokesman for Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. As well as a peace treaty, the future of the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
is being discussed. President Assad said "there would be no direct negotiations with Israel
Israel
until a new US president takes office."[95] Speaking in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on 26 August 2008, then United States
United States
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
criticized Israel's increased settlement construction in the West Bank
West Bank
as detrimental to the peace process. Rice's comments came amid reports that Israeli construction in the disputed territory had increased by a factor of 1.8 over 2007 levels.[96] A fragile six-month truce between Hamas
Hamas
and Israel
Israel
expired on 19 December 2008;[97] attempts at extending the truce failed amid accusations of breaches from both sides.[98][99][100][101] Following the expiration, Israel
Israel
launched a raid on a tunnel suspected of being used to kidnap Israeli soldiers which killed several Hamas fighters.[102] Following this, Hamas
Hamas
resumed rocket and mortar attacks on Israeli cities, most notably firing over 60 rockets on 24 December. On 27 December 2008, Israel
Israel
launched Operation Cast Lead against Hamas. Numerous human rights organizations accused Israel
Israel
and Hamas
Hamas
of committing war crimes.[103] In 2009 Israel
Israel
placed a 10-month settlement freeze on the West Bank. Then United States
United States
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
praised the freeze as an "unprecedented" gesture that could "help revive Middle East talks."[104][105] A raid was carried out by Israeli naval forces on six ships of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla
Gaza Freedom Flotilla
in May 2010[106] after the ships refused to dock at Port Ashdod. On the MV Mavi Marmara, activists clashed with the Israeli boarding party. During the fighting, nine activists were killed by Israeli special forces. Widespread international condemnation of and reaction to the raid followed, Israel–Turkey relations were strained, and Israel
Israel
subsequently eased its blockade on the Gaza Strip.[107][108][109][110] Several dozen other passengers and seven Israeli soldiers were injured,[108] with some of the commandos suffering from gunshot wounds.[111][112] 2010–present Following the latest round of peace talks between Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Authority, 13 Palestinian militant movements led by Hamas initiated a terror campaign designed to derail and disrupt the negotiations.[113] Attacks on Israelis have increased since August 2010, after 4 Israeli civilians were killed by Hamas
Hamas
militants. Palestinian militants have increased the frequency of rocket attacks aimed at Israelis. On 2 August, Hamas
Hamas
militants launched seven Katyusha rockets at Eilat
Eilat
and Aqaba, killing one Jordanian civilian and wounding 4 others.[114] Intermittent fighting continued since then, including 680 rocket attacks on Israel
Israel
in 2011.[115] On 14 November 2012, Israel
Israel
killed Ahmed Jabari, a leader of Hamas's military wing, launching Operation Pillar of Cloud.[116] Hamas
Hamas
and Israel
Israel
agreed to an Egyptian-mediated ceasefire on 21 November.[117] The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights said that 158 Palestinians were killed during the operation, of which: 102 were civilians, 55 were militants and one was a policeman; 30 were children and 13 were women.[118][119] B'Tselem
B'Tselem
stated that according to its initial findings, which covered only the period between 14 and 19 November 102 Palestinians
Palestinians
were killed in the Gaza Strip, 40 of them civilians. According to Israeli figures, 120 combatants and 57 civilians were killed.[120] International outcry ensued, with many criticizing Israel for what much of the international community perceived as a disproportionately violent response.[121] Protests took place on hundreds of college campuses across the U.S., and in front of the Israeli consulate in New York.[122] Additional protests took place throughout the Middle East, throughout Europe, and in parts of South America.[122] However, the governments of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France, Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Netherlands expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself, and/or condemned the Hamas
Hamas
rocket attacks on Israel.[123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133] Following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas, Israel
Israel
started an operation in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
on 8 July 2014.[134] Notable wars and violent events

Time Name

1948–1949 First Arab–Israeli War

1951–1955 Reprisal operations

1956 Suez War

1967 The Six-Day War

1967–1970 War of Attrition

1971–1982 Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1973 Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
War

1978 First South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict

1982 First Lebanon
Lebanon
War

1985–2000 Second South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict

1987–1993 First Intifada

2000–2004 Second Intifada

2006 Operation Summer Rains

Second Lebanon
Lebanon
War

2008–2009 Gaza War

2012 Operation Pillar of Defense

2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict

Cost of conflict See also: Arab League
Arab League
boycott of Israel A report by Strategic Foresight Group has estimated the opportunity cost of conflict for the Middle East
Middle East
from 1991–2010 at $12 trillion. The report's opportunity cost calculates the peace GDP of countries in the Middle East
Middle East
by comparing the current GDP to the potential GDP in times of peace. Israel's share is almost $1 trillion, with Iraq
Iraq
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
having approximately $2.2 and $4.5 trillion, respectively. In other words, had there been peace and cooperation between Israel
Israel
and Arab League
Arab League
nations since 1991, the average Israeli citizen would be earning over $44,000 instead of $23,000 in 2010.[135] In terms of the human cost, it is estimated that the conflict has taken 92,000 lives (74,000 military and 18,000 civilian from 1945 to 1995).[6] See also

One-state solution Two-state solution International law and the Arab–Israeli conflict Media coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict Arab League
Arab League
and the Arab–Israeli conflict Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
and Russia
Russia
and the Arab–Israeli conflict Foreign relations of Israel Israel– European Union
European Union
relations Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict Israeli–Lebanese conflict Occupation of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
by Egypt Jordanian annexation of the West Bank Policide Israel– Turkey
Turkey
relations Jewish-Islamic conflict in the days of Muhammad Conflict: Middle East
Middle East
Political Simulator Civil defense in Israel List of wars involving Israel Israeli casualties of war Palestinian casualties of war Palestinian political violence Zionist political violence

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begin to resume normal life after truce". BBC News. 22 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012. [348] The UN has given a figure of 103 dead civilians. ^ "Israeli strikes kill 23 in bloodiest day for Gaza". The News International. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". The Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.  ^ "Gaza- Israel
Israel
war rages amid international protests – video". The Guardian. London. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ a b "Global anti- Israel
Israel
protests staged as fears of Gaza ground invasion escalate". RT. Retrieved 12 December 2012.  ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel
Israel
has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post.  ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.  ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012.  ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). Australia. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013.  ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel
Israel
and the Gaza Strip". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas
Hamas
and Stands with Israel" (Press release). Canada: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ Statement of MFA on Israel
Israel
and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012 Archived 23 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel
Israel
from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012 ^ " Russia
Russia
condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ " Israel
Israel
and Hamas
Hamas
Trade Attacks as Tension Rises". The New York Times. 8 July 2014.  ^ "Cost of Conflict in the Middle East, Strategic Foresight Group" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2009. 

Further reading See also: Bibliography of the Arab–Israeli conflict

Associated Press, comp. (1996). Lightning Out of Israel: [The Six-Day War in the Middle East]: The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Commemorative Ed. Western Printing and Lithographing Company for the Associated Press. ASIN B000BGT89M. Bard, Mitchell (1999). Middle East
Middle East
Conflict. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 0-02-863261-3. Barzilai, Gad (1996). Wars, Internal Conflicts and Political Order: A Jewish Democracy in the Middle East. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2944-X Brown, Wesley H. & Peter F. Penner (ed.): Christian Perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Neufeld Verlag, Schwarzenfeld 2008. ISBN 978-3-937896-57-1. Carter, Jimmy (2006). Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-8502-6. Casper, Lionel L. (2003). Rape of Palestine
Palestine
and the Struggle for Jerusalem. New York & Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-297-4. Citron, Sabina (2006). The Indictment: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in Historical Perspective. New York & Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-373-3. Cramer, Richard Ben (2004). How Israel
Israel
Lost: The Four Questions. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5028-1.  Dershowitz, Alan (2004). The Case for Israel. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-67952-6. Falk, Avner (2004). Fratricide in the Holy Land: A Psychoanalytic View of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. ISBN 0-299-20250-X Gelvin, James L. (2005). The Israel- Palestine
Palestine
Conflict: 100 Years of War. New York & Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-61804-5.  Gold, Dore (2004). Tower of Babble: How the United Nations
United Nations
Has Fueled Global Chaos. New York: Crown Forum. ISBN 1-4000-5475-3.  Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). Image and Reality of the Israel- Palestine
Palestine
Conflict. Verso Books. ISBN 1-85984-442-1. Goldenberg, Doron (2003). State of Siege. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-310-5. Gopin, Marc. (2002). Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514650-6. Hamidullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(January 1986). "Relations of Muslims with non-Muslims". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 7 (1): 9. doi:10.1080/13602008608715960.  Howell, Mark (2007). What Did We Do to Deserve This? Palestinian Life under Occupation in the West Bank, Garnet Publishing. ISBN 1-85964-195-4 Israeli, Raphael (2002). Dangers of a Palestinian State. New York & Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-303-2. Katz, Shmuel (1973). Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. Shapolsky Pub. ISBN 0-933503-03-2. Khouri, Fred J. (1985). The Arab-Israeli Dilemma (3rd ed.). Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-2339-9.  Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-05419-3.  Lesch, David (2007). The Arab-Israeli Conflict A History. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-517230-2.  –––. (September 1990). "The Roots of Muslim Rage." The Atlantic Monthly. Maoz, Zeev (2006). Defending the Holy Land. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. ISBN 0-472-11540-5 Morris, Benny (1999). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-521-00967-7.  Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-679-42120-3.  Morris, Benny (2009). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War, Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15112-1 Reiter, Yitzhak (2009). National Minority, Regional Majority: Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
Versus Jews in Israel
Israel
(Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution), Syracuse University Press (Sd). ISBN 978-0-8156-3230-6 Rogan, Eugene L., ed., and Avi Shlaim, ed. (2001). The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0-521-79476-3. Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine
Palestine
Complete: Jews and Arabs
Arabs
Under British Mandate. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-8050-6587-3.

External links

Find more aboutArab–Israeli conflictat's sister projects

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Government and official sources

Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000 The Arab-Israeli Wars, by Netanel Lorch

League of Arab States Palestinian Authority Ministry of Foreign Affairs United Nations
United Nations
on the Question of Palestine Arab-Israeli Conflict from UCB Libraries GovPubs

Regional media

Israeli

Israel
Israel
News – Yedioth Aharonoth Israel's largest newspaper, centrist (Hebrew) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post, Israel's oldest English newspaper, conservative Ha'aretz Israeli newspaper, liberal Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Newswire Christian-run Jerusalem-based news website, conservative

Arab

Lebanon
Lebanon
Daily Star, largest English-circulation newspaper in the Arab world Al Ahram, Egypt's largest newspaper (see also Al Ahram) Palestine
Palestine
Chronicle, weekly electronic paper

Think tanks and strategic analysis

Dean Peter Krogh Examines Prospects for Peace from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives NGO Monitor, NGO watchdog group, highlighting perceived instances of anti-Israeli NGO bias Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Center for Public Affairs Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA), Palestinian research organization Israel/ Palestine
Palestine
Center for Research and Information Joint Israeli-Palestinian think tank Middle East
Middle East
Research and Information Project (see also Middle East Research and Information Project) Saban Center for Middle East
Middle East
Policy (see also Saban Center for Middle East Policy) Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Washington Institute for Near East Policy
(see also Washington Institute for Near East Policy) Original analysis of current developments in the peace-process, from Middle East
Middle East
Media Research Institute The Ariel Center for Policy Research A Regional Perspective on the Arab-Israeli Conflict by Jay Shapiro Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Institute for Israel
Israel
Studies

Peace proposals Main article: List of Middle East
Middle East
peace proposals

A historical summary of Middle East
Middle East
Peace Plans and Proposals

Maps

MideastWeb Middle East
Middle East
Map Collection FactsOfIsrael.com Maps, history, statistics, victims University of Texas Map Collection

General sources

Crisis Guide: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict from the Council on Foreign Relations The State of Israel
Israel
The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Daily digest of commentary about the Arab-Israeli conflict from around the world Israel
Israel
and the Palestinians Encarta
Encarta
Encyclopedia on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Archived 2009-10-31) Guide to the Arab-Israeli Conflict, includes links to historical sources, as well as sources representing the Arab and Israeli sides of the conflict. The Guardian (UK) A Brief History of Arab-Israeli Conflict (flash) Israel- Palestine
Palestine
Conflict at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Diplomacy Monitor – Middle East Information (articles, reports, maps, books, links, ...) on the israeli palestinian conflict (middle east conflict) Holy Land, Unholy War Independent coverage of the Middle East conflicts by the news agency Inter Press Service "A Brief History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict" by Jeremy Pressman

v t e

Arab–Israeli conflict

v t e

Countries Authorities Organizations

Primary countries and authorities

All-Palestine Egypt Hamas
Hamas
Gaza Iraq Kuwait Israel Jordan Lebanon Pakistan Palestinian National Authority Saudi Arabia Syria

Organizations

Active

Abu Nidal
Abu Nidal
Organization Amal al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Syrian Social Nationalist Party Arab League Arab Liberation Front Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine Fatah Guardians of the Cedars Hamas Hezbollah Jaish al-Islam Kataeb Lebanese Forces al-Mourabitoun Muslim Brotherhood Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestine
Palestine
Liberation Front Palestine
Palestine
Liberation Organization Palestinian Popular Struggle Front Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Palestine
– General Command Popular Resistance Committees as-Sa'iqa

Inactive or former

Arab Higher Committee Arab Liberation Army Black Hand Black September Haganah Holy War Army Irgun
Irgun
(Etzel) Japanese Red Army Lehi Palmach Revolutionary Cells South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army

Other countries

Algeria China Cuba France Iran Kuwait Libya Morocco North Korea Norway Pakistan Russia Sudan Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Venezuela Yemen

Transnational

European Union United Nations

Former states

Mandatory Palestine Soviet Union United Arab Republic

v t e

Armed engagements

Background

1920 Battle of Tel Hai 1936–39 Arab revolt 1944 Operation ATLAS 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

1948–1950s

1948–49 Arab–Israeli War 1950s Palestinian Fedayeen attacks (Reprisal operations) 1956 Suez Crisis

1960s

1966 Operation Shredder 1967 Six-Day War 1967–70 War of Attrition

1968 Battle of Karameh

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1968 Operation Gift

1970s–1980

1973  Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
War

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1972 Operation Isotope / Lod Airport massacre / Munich Olympics massacre 1972–79  Operation Wrath of God (Airstrike, Spring of Youth) 1973 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 1974 Ma'alot massacre 1975 Savoy Operation 1976 Operation Entebbe 1978 Coastal Road massacre / Operation Litani 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

1980s

1981 Operation Opera 1982  Lebanon
Lebanon
War 1982–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 1984 Bus 300 affair 1985 Operation Wooden Leg 1987–93 First Intifada

1988 Mothers' Bus rescue / Tunis raid

1990s

1992 Operation Bramble Bush 1993–2008 Palestinian suicide attacks 1993 Operation Accountability 1996 Operation Grapes of Wrath

2000s

2000–05 Al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) 2000–06 Shebaa Farms conflict 2001–present Rocket and mortar attacks on southern Israel 2003 Ain es Saheb airstrike 2006 Operation Bringing Home the Goods / Operation Summer Rains / Operation Autumn Clouds / Lebanon
Lebanon
War 2006–present Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2007–08 Operation Hot Winter 2008–09 Gaza War

2007–present Lebanese rocket attacks

2010s

2010 Adaisseh skirmish / Palestinian militancy campaign Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2011 Southern Israel
Israel
cross-border attacks 2012 Operation Returning Echo / Operation Pillar of Defense 2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict 2015  Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
(2015–2016)

v t e

Diplomacy and peace proposals

To 1948

1914 Damascus Protocol 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement 1917 Balfour Declaration 1918 Declaration to the Seven / Anglo-French Declaration 1919 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement 1920 San Remo conference 1922 Churchill White Paper 1937 Peel Commission 1939 White Paper 1947 UN Partition Plan 1948 American trusteeship proposal

1948–91

1948 UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 194 1949 Armistice agreements / Lausanne Conference 1950  Tripartite Declaration 1964 Palestinian National Covenant 1967 Khartoum Resolution / UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 242 1973 UNSC Resolution 338 / UNSC Resolution 339 1974 Israel– Syria
Syria
disengagement agreement / UNSC Resolution 350 1978 UNSC Resolution 425 / Camp David Accords 1979 UNSC Resolution 446 / Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty / UNSC Resolution 452 1980 UNSC Resolution 478 1981 UNSC Resolution 497 1983 Israel– Lebanon
Lebanon
agreement

1991–present

1991 Madrid Conference 1993 Oslo Accords 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement / Israel– Jordan
Jordan
peace treaty 1995 Beilin-Abu Mazen agreement 1998 Wye River Memorandum 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum 2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters 2001 Taba Summit 2002 Beirut Summit and peace initiative / Road map 2003 Geneva Initiative 2004 UNSC Resolution 1559 / UNSC Resolution 1566 2005 UNSC Resolution 1583 / Sharm el-Sheikh Summit / Israeli disengagement from Gaza / Agreement on Movement and Access 2006 UNSC Resolution 1701 2007 Annapolis Conference 2010 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks 2013 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks

v t e

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

1910s

World War I

Middle Eastern theatre Arab Revolt Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide

Unification of Saudi Arabia Simko Shikak revolt Egyptian revolution of 1919 Turkish War of Independence

Greco-Turkish War Turkish–Armenian War Franco-Turkish War Revolts

Mahmud Barzanji revolts

1920s

Franco-Syrian War Iraqi revolt against the British Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine Adwan Rebellion Arab separatism in Khuzestan Great Syrian Revolt Sheikh Said rebellion 1921 Persian coup d'état

1930s

Ararat rebellion Ahmed Barzani revolt Simele massacre Saudi–Yemeni War (1934) Goharshad Mosque rebellion 1935–36 Iraqi Shia revolts 1935 Yazidi revolt Dersim rebellion

1940s

World War II

Italian bombing of Palestine Anglo-Iraqi War Syria– Lebanon
Lebanon
Campaign Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

1943 Barzani revolt Alwaziri coup Al-Wathbah uprising Kurdish separatism in Iran

Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946

Arab–Israeli conflict

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

1950s

Egyptian revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Jebel Akhdar War Cypriot ethnic crisis Yemeni–Adenese clan violence 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis 1958 Iraqi revolution 1959 Mosul uprising

1960s

Iraqi–Kurdish conflict

First Iraqi-Kurdish War

Dhofar Rebellion North Yemen
Yemen
Civil War Feb. 1963 Iraqi coup 8th March Syrian Revolution Nov. 1963 Iraqi coup Aden Emergency 1964 Hama riot 1966 Syrian coup d'état

1970s

Black September
Black September
in Jordan 1972 North Yemen–South Yemen
Yemen
war Turkish invasion of Cyprus Lebanese Civil War Political violence in Turkey
Turkey
(1976–80) Libyan–Egyptian War Islamist uprising in Syria NDF Rebellion Iranian Revolution

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

1979 Qatif Uprising Grand Mosque seizure

1980s

Sadr uprising (1980) Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War 1980 Turkish coup d'état Kurdish separatism in Turkey

Turkey-PKK conflict

South Yemen
Yemen
Civil War 1986 Egyptian conscripts riot 1986 Damascus bombings Mecca massacre Abu Nidal's executions

1990s

Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990–1991) 1991 uprisings in Iraq Terror campaign in Egypt
Egypt
(1990s) Yemeni Civil War (1994) Islamic insurgency in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(2000–present) Operation Desert Fox al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq

2000s

Iraq
Iraq
War Balochi insurgency in Iran 2004 al-Qamishli riots Houthi insurgency in Yemen Iran– Israel
Israel
proxy conflict

2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War

Fatah– Hamas
Hamas
conflict Nahr al-Bared fighting 2008 conflict in Lebanon South Yemen
Yemen
insurgency 2009–10 Iranian election protests

2010s

Bahraini uprising of 2011 Egyptian Crisis

Sinai insurgency Insurgency in Egypt
Egypt
(2013–present)

Syrian Civil War Syrian War spillover in Lebanon Iraqi insurgency (2011–13) Iraqi Civil War (2014–present) Yemeni Crisis Turkish involvement in Syria

This list includes post-Ottoman conflicts (after 1918) of at least 100 fatalities each Prolonged conflicts are listed in the decade when initiated; ongoing conflicts are marked italic and conflict with +100,000 killed with bold.

Israel
Israel
portal Palestine
Palestine
portal Jordan
Jordan
portal Egypt
Egypt
portal Iraq
Iraq
portal Syria
Syria
portal Lebanon
Lebanon
portal Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
portal

Authority control

LCCN: sh87002535 GND: 4041158-8 BNF: cb12047729m (data) NDL: 0056

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