The Apusomonadida appear to be the sister to the Breviata, together forming a basal Obazoa clade. The other basal Obazoa clade are the Opisthokonts.[2][3][4] The Mantamonadida may also be directly related to the Apusomonadida.

It includes the genera Apusomonas, Amastigomonas, Manchomonas, Thecamonas, Podomonas and Multimonas. There is an effort to clarify the relationships between these genera.[5]



  1. ^ Karpov S. A. & Mylnikov A. P. 1989. Biology and ultrastructure of colourless flagellates Apusomonadida ord. n. Zoologischkei Zhurnal 58: 5-17. (in Russian)
  2. ^ Thomas Cavalier-Smith & Ema E. Chao (October 2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of Apusomonadida (Protozoa: Apusozoa): new genera and species". Protist. 161 (4): 549–576. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2010.04.002. PMID 20537943. 
  3. ^ Brown, Matthew W.; Sharpe, Susan C.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Lang, B. Franz; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Roger, Andrew J. (2013-10-22). "Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131755. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1755. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3768317Freely accessible. PMID 23986111. 
  4. ^ Eme, Laura; Sharpe, Susan C.; Brown, Matthew W.; Roger, Andrew J. (2014-08-01). "On the Age of Eukaryotes: Evaluating Evidence from Fossils and Molecular Clocks". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (8): a016139. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016139. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 4107988Freely accessible. PMID 25085908. 
  5. ^ Torruella, Guifré; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación (2017). "Phylogenetic and ecological diversity of apusomonads, a lineage of deep-branching eukaryotes". Environmental Microbiology Reports. 9 (2): 113–119. doi:10.1111/1758-2229.12507. 
  6. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, Thomas (May 2013). "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (2): 115–178 Document online. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. ISSN 0932-4739. PMID 23085100.