1 Nomenclature 2 Natural cider 3 Treated cider 4 Commercial production 5 Variations 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
A vintage combination apple grinder and press. Moving slatted baskets left to right allows simultaneous two-man production.
A small scale hydraulic apple press. Each load produces about 140 US gallons (530 L)/(31 Imperial gallons)
Although the term cider is used for the fermented alcoholic drink in
most of the world, it refers to fresh "apple cider" in the United
States and much of Canada; hard cider is used there instead for the
While some states specify a difference between apple juice and cider,
the distinction is not well established across the U.S.
Golden Gate Park
Historically all cider was left in its natural state, unprocessed. In time, airborne yeasts present on apple skins or cider making machinery would start fermentation in the finished cider. Left on its own, alcohol would develop and forestall growth of harmful bacteria. When modern refrigeration emerged, cider and other fruit juices could be kept cold for long periods of time, retarding fermentation. Any interruption of the refrigeration, however, could invite bacterial contamination to grow. Outbreaks of illness resulted in government regulation requiring virtually all commercially produced cider to be treated either with heat or radiation. As a result, natural raw cider is a specialty seasonal beverage, produced on-site at orchards and small rural mills in apple growing areas and sold there, at farmers markets, and some juice bars. Such traditional cider is typically made from a mixture of several different apples to give a balanced taste. Frequently blends of heirloom varieties such as Winesap, once among the most sought-after cider apples for its tangy flavor, are used. The US government requires that unpasteurized cider and juice have a warning label on the bottle. Even with refrigeration, raw cider will begin to become slightly carbonated within a week or so and eventually become hard cider as the fermentation process continues. Some producers use this fermentation to make hard cider; others carry it to acetification to create artisanal apple cider vinegar. Treated cider Virtually all commercially produced cider is treated for bacterial contamination, which also extends its shelf life; the most common method used is pasteurization, but UV irradiation is also employed. Pasteurization, which partially cooks the juice, results in some change of the sweetness, body and flavor of the cider; irradiation has less noticeable effects. Impetus for Federal level regulation began with outbreaks E. coli O157:H7 from unpasteurized apple cider and other illnesses caused by contaminated fruit juices in the late 1990s. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made proposals in 1998; Canada began to explore regulation in 2000. The U.S. regulations were finalized in 2001, with the FDA issuing a rule requiring that virtually all juice producers follow Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) controls, using either heat pasteurization, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), or other proven methods to achieve a "5 log" reduction in pathogens. Canada, however, relies on a voluntary Code of Practice for manufacturers, voluntary labelling of juice/cider as "Unpasteurized", and an education campaign to inform consumers about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of unpasteurized juice products.
Cidering in a contemporary rural area mill. Custom batches pressed directly to bulk containers on demand.
Modern cider making has come a long way from early forms of production that involved a man- or horse-powered crusher. These consisted of a stone or wood trough with a heavy circulating wheel to crush the fruit, and a large manual screw press to express the juice from the pulp. Straw was commonly used to contain the pulp during pressing, later replaced by coarse cloth. The Palmer Bros. Company, of Cos Cob, CT, made the most popular "modern" rack and cloth press from the mid 1800s to the mid 1900s, when production shifted to OESCO in Massachusetts. As technology advanced, rotary drum "scratters"[clarification needed] came into use. Today, nearly all small pressing operations use atomic-hydraulic equipment with press cloths and plastic racks in what is commonly called a "rack and cloth press", and atomic hammermill "breakers". Depending on the varieties of apples and using the optimal extraction methods, it takes about one third of a bushel (10 liters) to make a gallon (3.78 liters) of cider. Apples are washed, cut, and ground into a mash that has the consistency of coarse applesauce. Layers of this mash are then either wrapped in cloth and placed upon wooden or plastic racks where a hydraulic press then squeezes the layers together, or the mash is distributed onto a continuous belt filter press, which squeezes the pulp between two permeable belts fed between a succession of rollers that press the juice out of the pulp in a continuous, highly efficient operation. The resulting juice is then stored in refrigerated tanks, pasteurized to kill bacteria and extend shelf life, and bottled and sold as apple cider. The juice may also be fermented to produce hard cider, which then may be further treated by exposure to acetobacter to produce apple cider vinegar, or distilled to produce apple brandy. The waste left after pressing, known as pomace, is sold for cattle feed. Variations
Hot mulled cider
Hot mulled cider – similar to "Wassail" – is a popular autumn and
^ "Where Are You From?". Credoreference.com. Retrieved
^ "Effects of climate on character". Aeppeltreow.com. Archived from
the original on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2015-05-09.
^ Fabricant, Florence (1990-10-31). "
Principles and practices of small scale fruit juice processing
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