HOME
The Info List - Apple Cider


--- Advertisement ---



Apple
Apple
cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and parts of Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples. Though typically referred to simply as "cider" in those areas, it is not to be confused with the alcoholic beverage known as cider throughout most of the world, called hard cider (or just cider) in North America. Once widely pressed at farmsteads and local mills, apple cider is now easy and inexpensive to make.[1] It is typically opaque due to fine apple particles in suspension and generally tangier than conventional filtered apple juice, depending on the apples used.[2] Today, most cider is treated to kill bacteria and extend its shelf life, but untreated cider can still be found. In either form, apple cider is a seasonally produced drink[3] of limited shelf-life that is typically available only in autumn. It is traditionally served on the Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas
Christmas
and various New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
holidays, sometimes heated and mulled. It is the official state beverage of New Hampshire.[4]

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Natural cider 3 Treated cider 4 Commercial production 5 Variations 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Nomenclature[edit]

A vintage combination apple grinder and press. Moving slatted baskets left to right allows simultaneous two-man production.

A small scale hydraulic apple press. Each load produces about 140 US gallons (530 L)/(31 Imperial gallons)

Although the term cider is used for the fermented alcoholic drink in most of the world, it refers to fresh "apple cider" in the United States and much of Canada; hard cider is used there instead for the alcoholic drink. While some states specify a difference between apple juice and cider, the distinction is not well established across the U.S.[5] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
makes an attempt to at least differentiate fresh cider and processed apple juice: according to its Department of Agricultural Resources, "apple juice and apple cider are both fruit beverages made from apples, but there is a difference between the two. Fresh cider is raw apple juice that has not undergone a filtration process to remove coarse particles of pulp or sediment. Apple juice
Apple juice
is juice that has been filtered to remove solids and pasteurized so that it will stay fresh longer. Vacuum sealing and additional filtering extend the shelf life of the juice."[6] This still leaves unfiltered apple juice that is no longer raw in a gray area, presumably cider but not labeled as such. The addition of sweeteners or reconstitution from concentrate are left even grayer. Canada recognizes unfiltered, unsweetened apple juice as cider, fresh or not.[7] Natural cider[edit]

Golden Gate Park
Golden Gate Park
apple press monument

Historically all cider was left in its natural state, unprocessed. In time, airborne yeasts present on apple skins or cider making machinery would start fermentation in the finished cider. Left on its own, alcohol would develop and forestall growth of harmful bacteria. When modern refrigeration emerged, cider and other fruit juices could be kept cold for long periods of time, retarding fermentation. Any interruption of the refrigeration, however, could invite bacterial contamination to grow. Outbreaks of illness resulted in government regulation requiring virtually all commercially produced cider to be treated either with heat or radiation. As a result, natural raw cider is a specialty seasonal beverage, produced on-site at orchards and small rural mills in apple growing areas and sold there, at farmers markets, and some juice bars. Such traditional cider is typically made from a mixture of several different apples to give a balanced taste. Frequently blends of heirloom varieties such as Winesap, once among the most sought-after cider apples for its tangy flavor, are used. The US government requires that unpasteurized cider and juice have a warning label on the bottle.[8] Even with refrigeration, raw cider will begin to become slightly carbonated within a week or so and eventually become hard cider as the fermentation process continues. Some producers use this fermentation to make hard cider; others carry it to acetification to create artisanal apple cider vinegar. Treated cider[edit] Virtually all commercially produced cider is treated for bacterial contamination, which also extends its shelf life; the most common method used is pasteurization,[9] but UV irradiation[8] is also employed. Pasteurization, which partially cooks the juice, results in some change of the sweetness, body and flavor of the cider;[8] irradiation has less noticeable effects. Impetus for Federal level regulation began with outbreaks E. coli O157:H7 from unpasteurized apple cider and other illnesses caused by contaminated fruit juices in the late 1990s.[10] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made proposals in 1998;[11] Canada began to explore regulation in 2000.[12] The U.S. regulations were finalized in 2001, with the FDA issuing a rule requiring that virtually all juice producers follow Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) controls,[13] using either heat pasteurization, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), or other proven methods to achieve a "5 log" reduction in pathogens.[14] Canada, however, relies on a voluntary Code of Practice for manufacturers, voluntary labelling of juice/cider as "Unpasteurized", and an education campaign to inform consumers about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of unpasteurized juice products.[7]

Commercial production[edit]

Cidering in a contemporary rural area mill. Custom batches pressed directly to bulk containers on demand.

Modern cider making has come a long way from early forms of production that involved a man- or horse-powered crusher. These consisted of a stone or wood trough with a heavy circulating wheel to crush the fruit, and a large manual screw press to express the juice from the pulp. Straw was commonly used to contain the pulp during pressing, later replaced by coarse cloth. The Palmer Bros. Company, of Cos Cob, CT, made the most popular "modern" rack and cloth press from the mid 1800s to the mid 1900s, when production shifted to OESCO in Massachusetts. As technology advanced, rotary drum "scratters"[clarification needed] came into use. Today, nearly all small pressing operations use atomic-hydraulic equipment with press cloths and plastic racks in what is commonly called a "rack and cloth press", and atomic hammermill "breakers". Depending on the varieties of apples and using the optimal extraction methods, it takes about one third of a bushel (10 liters) to make a gallon (3.78 liters) of cider.[6] Apples are washed, cut, and ground into a mash that has the consistency of coarse applesauce. Layers of this mash are then either wrapped in cloth and placed upon wooden or plastic racks where a hydraulic press then squeezes the layers together, or the mash is distributed onto a continuous belt filter press,[15] which squeezes the pulp between two permeable belts fed between a succession of rollers that press the juice out of the pulp in a continuous, highly efficient operation. The resulting juice is then stored in refrigerated tanks, pasteurized to kill bacteria and extend shelf life, and bottled and sold as apple cider. The juice may also be fermented to produce hard cider, which then may be further treated by exposure to acetobacter to produce apple cider vinegar, or distilled to produce apple brandy. The waste left after pressing, known as pomace, is sold for cattle feed. Variations[edit]

Hot mulled cider

Hot mulled cider – similar to "Wassail" – is a popular autumn and winter beverage.[16] Cider
Cider
is heated to a temperature just below boiling, with cinnamon, orange peel, nutmeg, cloves, or other spices added. Authentic "sparkling cider" is a naturally carbonated beverage made from unfiltered apple cider. "Sparkling apple juice", often confused with it and sometimes even labeled as "sparkling cider", as does the popular Martinelli's brand, is filtered, pasteurized, and mechanically carbonated and thus not true cider. Rosé
Rosé
apple cider can be obtained using red-fleshed applecrabs. " Cider
Cider
doughnuts" traditionally used the yeast in raw cider as a leavener. Today they are sometimes sold at cider mills and roadside stands, though there is no assurance natural cider is used. Visiting apple orchards in the fall for cider, doughnuts, and self-picked apples is a large segment in agritourism.[17][18][19] See also[edit]

Drink portal

Apple
Apple
cider cookie Apple
Apple
juice List of apple dishes List of hot drinks Martinelli's

References[edit]

^ "Where Are You From?". Credoreference.com. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ "Effects of climate on character". Aeppeltreow.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ Fabricant, Florence (1990-10-31). " Apple
Apple
Cider: It's the Drink For Tonight". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25.  ^ "Official State Beverages". Netstate.com. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ "What's the difference between apple juice and apple cider?". Straigbhtdope.com. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ a b " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Department of Agricultural Resources".  ^ a b "Unpasteurized fruit juices". Hc-sc.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ a b c Shahidi, Fereidoon. Quality of Fresh and Processed Foods. New York: Kluwer ^ "HACCP — "Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point: Juice HACCP"". Fda.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ Kaufman, Marjorie (1998-10-11). "New York Times, October 11, 1998 "Those Quaint Apple
Apple
Cider
Cider
Stands Meet Up With the Long Arm of the Law" Accessed: 15 October, 2007". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25.  ^ "USDA Food Safety "New Juice Regulations Underway"" (PDF).  ^ "Canadian Food Insp. Agency on Unpasteurized Fruit Juice/Cider Products". Hc-sc.ca. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ "Federal Register: January 19, 2001, HHS/FDA "21 CFR Part 120 Final Rule"". Archived from the original on December 13, 2007.  ^ "Log reduction explained". Archived from the original on March 26, 2008.  ^ "Core Equipment Belt Presses for the apple Juice, cider and winemaking industries". Core-equip.com. Retrieved 5 March 2014.  ^ "Warm Up With Mulled Wine & Cider". Allrecipes.com. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ "' Orchard
Orchard
Alley' in Georgia". Georgia.org. Archived from the original on 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
agri-tourism guide". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ " Orchard
Orchard
tourism in Canada". Mediacentre.canada.travel. Retrieved 2015-05-09. 

External links[edit]

Principles and practices of small scale fruit juice processing

v t e

Halloween

Main topics

History

Samhain
Samhain
• Allhallowtide

Symbols Activities

Trick-or-treating

Geography Christian observances

Traditions

Abstinence from meat Apple
Apple
bobbing Cards Costumes Food Ghost
Ghost
tours Jack-o'-lantern Lighting candles on graves Prayer for the dead Soul cake

Events

Bonfire Great Pumpkin Haunted attraction Pumpkin queen

Media

Television Films Books Music

Albums Songs

Related events

Festival of the Dead

Bon Festival Chuseok Día de Muertos Gai Jatra Pitri Paksha Qingming Festival Totensonntag Zhōng yuán jié

Veneration of the dead

Death anniversary Death customs Kaddish Yizkor

Other events

Allantide Beggars Night Devil's Night Eid il-Burbara Hop-tu-Naa Korochun Krampus Mischief Night Namahage Old Halloween Saci day Superstition Walpurgis Night Will-o'-the-wisp

v t e

Thanksgiving

History and traditions

Canada

Samuel de Champlain Martin Frobisher Halifax First Nations

United States

Pilgrims Mayflower Plymouth Colony Plymouth, Massachusetts Plymouth Rock Native Americans Samoset Squanto Wampanoag Cornucopia National Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
Proclamation Franksgiving National Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
Turkey Presentation William Penn Sarah Josepha Hale Blackout Wednesday Abraham Lincoln Mourt's Relation

Cuisine

Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
dinner Turkey

Deep-fried Tofurkey

Stuffing Gravy Butternut squash Apple
Apple
cider Hazelnuts Cranberry sauce Carrots Mashed potatoes Sweet potatoes Acorn squash Yams Corn Green bean casserole Apple
Apple
pie Pumpkin pie Pecan pie Sweet potato
Sweet potato
pie Tamale

Songs

"Alice's Restaurant" "Bless This House" "Bringing In the Sheaves" "Come, Ye Thankful People, Come" "For the Beauty of the Earth" "Jingle Bells" "Let All Things Now Living" "Now Thank We All Our God" "Over the River and Through the Wood" "Simple Gifts" "The Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
Song" "We Gather Together" "We Plough the Fields and Scatter"

Associated events

Cultural

Christmas
Christmas
and holiday season Harvest festivals Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
in film Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
television specials Winter festivals Lighting of the Macy's Great Tree World's Largest Disco Black Friday

Parades

Novant Health (Charlotte) McDonald's (Chicago) America's (Detroit) Oktoberfest (Kitchener-Waterloo) Hollywood Christmas
Christmas
(Los Angeles) Macy's (New York City) 6abc-Dunkin' Donuts (Philadelphia) Celebrate the Season (Pittsburgh) America's Hometown (Plymouth)

Protests

National Day of Mourning Unthanksgiving Day Buy Nothing Day

Sports

Football

NFL on Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
Day CFL Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
Classic English–Latin rivalry Missouri Turkey Day Game Turkey Day Classic

Basketball

AdvoCare Invitational Battle 4 Atlantis Wooden Legacy Maui Invitational Tournament

Turkey Trots

Atlanta Marathon Berwick Run for the Diamonds Buffalo Turkey Trot Dallas Turkey Trot Feaster Five Road Race Manchester Road Race

Others

National Dog Show Pumpkin chucking Turkey bowling Turkey Night Grand Prix

v t e

Christmas

Christmas
Christmas
Eve Children's Day Boxing Day Nochebuena Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
Day St. Stephen's Day Sol Invictus Yule

In Christianity

Biblical Magi

Adoration of the Magi

Adoration of the Shepherds Advent Angel Gabriel Annunciation Annunciation
Annunciation
to the shepherds Baptism of the Lord Bethlehem Christingle Christmastide Epiphany Herod the Great Jesus Joseph Mary Massacre of the Innocents

flight into Egypt

Nativity Fast Nativity of Jesus

in art in later culture

Nativity scene Saint Nicholas Star of Bethlehem Twelfth Night

In folklore

Badalisc La Befana Belsnickel Caganer Christkind Ded Moroz Elves Father Christmas Grýla Jack Frost Joulupukki Knecht Ruprecht Korvatunturi Krampus Mikulás Miner's figure Mrs. Claus Nisse/Tomte North Pole Old Man Winter Olentzero Père Fouettard Père Noël Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Saint Lucy Santa's reindeer Santa's workshop Sinterklaas Tió de Nadal Vertep Yule
Yule
Cat Yule
Yule
Lads Zwarte Piet

Gift-bringers

Saint Nicholas Santa Claus List of Christmas
Christmas
gift-bringers by country

Traditions

Advent
Advent
calendar Advent
Advent
candle Advent
Advent
wreath Boar's Head Feast Candle arches Cards Carols by Candlelight Cavalcade of Magi Crackers Decorations Events and celebrations Feast of the Seven Fishes Flying Santa Google Santa Tracker Hampers Las Posadas Letters Lights Lord of Misrule Markets Meals and feasts Moravian star Nine Lessons and Carols NORAD Tracks Santa Nutcrackers

dolls

Ornaments Parades

list

Piñatas Pyramids Räuchermann Seals Secret Santa Spanbaum Stamps Stockings Tree Twelve Days Wassailing Windows Yule
Yule
Goat Yule
Yule
log

By country

Australia and New Zealand Denmark Germany Hawaii Hungary Iceland Indonesia Ireland Mexico Norway Philippines Poland Romania Russia Scotland Serbia Sweden Ukraine

Music

Carols

list

Hit singles UK Hit singles US Music books

Carols for Choirs The Oxford Book of Carols The New Oxford Book of Carols Piae Cantiones

Other media

Films Poetry

"Old Santeclaus with Much Delight" "A Visit from St. Nicholas"

Television

specials Yule
Yule
Log

In modern society

Advent
Advent
Conspiracy Black Friday (partying) Black Friday (shopping) Bronner's Christmas
Christmas
Wonderland Christmas
Christmas
club Christmas
Christmas
creep Christmas
Christmas
Day (Trading) Act 2004 Christmas
Christmas
Lectures Christmas
Christmas
Mountains Christmas
Christmas
truce Controversies Cyber Monday Economics Giving Tuesday El Gordo Holiday season In July In August Leon Day NBA games NFL games Puritan New England American Civil War Post-War United States Running of the Santas SantaCon Santa's Candy Castle Small Business Saturday Super Saturday Virginia O'Hanlon White Christmas Winter festivals WWE Tribute to the Troops Xmas

Food and drink

Dinner

Joulupöytä Julebord Kūčios Réveillon Twelve-dish supper Smörgåsbord Wigilia

Sweets

bûche de Noël Cake Candy cane Cookies Fruitcake Gingerbread Kourabiedes Melomakarono Mince pie Pavlova Pecan pie Pumpkin pie Pudding Rosca de reyes Szaloncukor Turrón

Soup

Menudo

Sauce

Cranberry sauce

Beverages

Apple
Apple
cider Champurrado Eggnog Mulled wine

Smoking Bishop

Ponche crema

Dumpling

Hallaca Tamale

Meat

Ham Roast goose Romeritos Turkey Stuffing

Category Portal

v t e

Apples

List of apple cultivars

Species

Malus
Malus
pumila Malus
Malus
niedzwetskyana Malus
Malus
sieversii

Table apples

Adams Pearmain Akane Åkerö Alkmene Allington Pippin Ambrosia Anna Annurca Ariane Arkansas Black Ashmead's Kernel Aurora Golden Gala Baldwin Beacon Beauty of Bath Belle de Boskoop Bellflower Ben Davis Birgit Bonnier Braeburn Brina Cameo Champion Civni (Rubens) Claygate Pearmain Clivia Cornish Aromatic Cornish Gilliflower Cortland Cosmic Crisp Court Pendu Plat Cox's Orange Pippin Crimson Gold Cripps Red Cripps Pink
Cripps Pink
(Pink Lady) Delbard Jubilee Delbarestivale Delrouval Discovery Dorsett Golden Dougherty Duchess of Oldenburg Egremont Russet Ellison's Orange Elstar Empire Enterprise Envy Esopus Spitzenburg Eva Fiesta Filippa Flamenco Florina Fuji Gala Gascoyne's Scarlet Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg Ginger Gold Golden Delicious Golden Orange Goldspur Granny Smith Gravenstein Grimes Golden Haralson Honeycrisp Honeygold Idared Ingrid Marie James Grieve Jazz Jersey Black Jonagold Jonathan Jubilee Julieta Jupiter Kanzi Karmijn de Sonnaville King of the Pippins Knobby Russet Lady Alice Laxton's Superb Liberty Liveland Raspberry Lodi Lord Lambourne Lucombe's Seedling Macoun McIntosh Melba Melrose Mutsu Newtown Pippin Nicola Opal Pacific Rose Pam's Delight Papirovka Paula Red Pink Pearl Pinova Prima Pristine Rajka Ralls Genet Rambo Red Astrachan Red Delicious Red Pineapple Redlove apples Rhode Island Greening Ribston Pippin Rome Roxbury Russet Sandow Sekai Ichi Spartan Splendour Star of Devon Stayman Sturmer Pippin Summerfree Sundowner Sunset Suntan SweeTango Taliaferro Tartu Rose Tentation Tompkins King Topaz Wealthy Winesap Winston Worcester Pearmain Wyken Pippin York Imperial Zestar

Cooking apples

Antonovka Bismarck Blenheim Orange Bramley Calville Blanc d'hiver Chelmsford Wonder Creston Crimson Bramley Flower of Kent Golden Noble Granny Smith Grenadier King Byerd Manks Codlin Newton Wonder Norfolk Biffin Northern Spy Reinette
Reinette
du Canada Upton Pyne White Transparent Wolf River

Cider
Cider
apples

Antonovka Brown Snout Chisel Jersey Coccagee Crimson King Dabinett Dufflin Ellis Bitter Foxwhelp Golden Russet Golden Spire Hangdown Harrison Cider Kingston Black Michelin Redstreak Slack-ma-Girdle Styre Tom Putt Woodcock Yarlington Mill

Ornamental apple

Flamenco Goldspur Wijcik McIntosh

Apple
Apple
products

Apfelwein Apple
Apple
butter Apple
Apple
cake Apple
Apple
chips Apple
Apple
cider Apple
Apple
cider vinegar Apple
Apple
crisp Apple
Apple
dishes Apple
Apple
juice Apple
Apple
pie Apple
Apple
sauce Apple
Apple
seed oil Apple
Apple
strudel Applejack Calvados Candy apple Caramel apple Cider Himmel und Erde Ice cider Jewish apple cake Pectin Pommeau

Agriculture

Apple
Apple
diseases Apple
Apple
picking Apple
Apple
scab Applecrab Countries by apple production Fruit tree pruning Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Johnny Appleseed Lepidoptera that feed on Malus Malling series Malus Pearmain Pollination Pome PRI disease resistant apple breeding program Reinette Russeting US Apple
Apple
Association

Cul

.