HOME
The Info List - Apollo


--- Advertisement ---



Apollo
Apollo
(Attic, Ionic, and Homeric
Homeric
Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo
Apollo
has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo
Apollo
is the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo
Apollo
is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.[1] As the patron of Delphi
Delphi
(Pythian Apollo), Apollo
Apollo
was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo
Apollo
was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the god's custodial charges, Apollo
Apollo
became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses
Muses
(Apollon Musegetes) and director of their choir, Apollo
Apollo
functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo
Apollo
were called paeans. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios
Helios
he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun, and his sister Artemis
Artemis
similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon.[2] In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas
Aeneas
and Latinus
Latinus
in Aeneid
Aeneid
XII (161–215).[3] Apollo
Apollo
and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Greco-Roman epithets

1.1.1 Sun 1.1.2 Wolf 1.1.3 Origin and birth 1.1.4 Place of worship 1.1.5 Healing and disease 1.1.6 Founder and protector 1.1.7 Prophecy and truth 1.1.8 Music and arts 1.1.9 Archery

1.2 Celtic epithets and cult titles

2 Origins

2.1 Healer and god-protector from evil 2.2 Dorian origin 2.3 Minoan origin 2.4 Anatolian origin

3 Oracular
Oracular
cult

3.1 Oracular
Oracular
shrines

4 Temples of Apollo

4.1 Greek temples 4.2 Etruscan and Roman temples

5 Mythology

5.1 Birth 5.2 Youth 5.3 Trojan War 5.4 Admetus 5.5 Niobe 5.6 Consorts and children

5.6.1 Female lovers 5.6.2 Consorts and children: extended list 5.6.3 Male lovers

5.7 Apollo's lyre 5.8 Apollo
Apollo
in the Oresteia 5.9 Other stories

5.9.1 Musical contests

5.9.1.1 Pan 5.9.1.2 Marsyas 5.9.1.3 Cinyras

5.10 Roman Apollo

6 Festivals 7 Attributes and symbols 8 Apollo
Apollo
in the arts

8.1 Art and Greek philosophy 8.2 Archaic sculpture 8.3 Classical sculpture 8.4 Pediments and friezes 8.5 Hellenistic Greece-Rome

9 Modern reception 10 Genealogy 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Primary sources 13.2 Secondary sources

14 External links

Etymology

Apollo
Apollo
seated with lyre. Porphyry and marble, 2nd century AD. Farnese collection, Naples, Italy.

The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is generally not found in the Linear B
Linear B
(Mycenean Greek) texts, although there is a possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo-[ (Linear B: ]𐀟𐁊-[) on the KN E 842 tablet.[4][5][6] The etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων (pronounced [a.pól.lɔːn] in Classical Attic) had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form, Apellon (Ἀπέλλων), is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων. It probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios (Ἀπελλαῖος),[7] and the offerings apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai (ἀπέλλαι).[8][9] According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella (ἀπέλλα), which originally meant "wall," "fence for animals" and later "assembly within the limits of the square."[10][11] Apella (Ἀπέλλα) is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta,[10] corresponding to the ecclesia (ἐκκλησία). R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun.[12] Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), "to destroy".[13] Plato
Plato
in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις (apolysis), "redemption", with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), "purification", and with ἁπλοῦν ([h]aploun), "simple",[14] in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀειβάλλων (aeiballon), "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo
Apollo
with the Doric ἀπέλλα (apella), which means "assembly", so that Apollo
Apollo
would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos), "fold", in which case Apollo
Apollo
would be the god of flocks and herds.[15] In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means "stone,"[16] and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα (Pella,[17] the capital of ancient Macedonia) and Πελλήνη (Pellēnē/Pallene).[18] A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name,[19] The Hittite form Apaliunas (dx-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš) is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter,[20] perhaps related to Hurrian (and certainly the Etruscan) Aplu, a god of plague, in turn likely from Akkadian
Akkadian
Aplu Enlil
Enlil
meaning simply "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun.[21] The role of Apollo
Apollo
as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus
Apollo Smintheus
("mouse Apollo") by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is apotropaic, meaning that the god responsible for bringing the plague must be appeased in order to remove the plague). The Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων.[22] The name of the Lydian god Qλdãns /kʷʎðãns/ may reflect an earlier /kʷalyán-/ before palatalization, syncope, and the pre-Lydian sound change *y > d.[23] Note the labiovelar in place of the labial /p/ found in pre-Doric Ἀπέλjων and Hittite Apaliunas. A Luwian
Luwian
etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo
Apollo
"The One of Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".[24] Greco-Roman epithets Apollo's chief epithet was Phoebus (/ˈfiːbəs/ FEE-bəs; Φοῖβος, Phoibos Greek pronunciation: [pʰó͜i.bos]), literally "bright".[25] It was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans for Apollo's role as the god of light. Like other Greek deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo
Apollo
has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a few occur in Latin literature. Sun

Aegletes (/əˈɡliːtiːz/ ə-GLEE-teez; Αἰγλήτης, Aiglētēs), from αἴγλη, "light of the sun"[26] Helius (/ˈhiːliəs/ HEE-lee-əs; Ἥλιος, Helios), literally "sun"[27] Lyceus (/laɪˈsiːəs/ ly-SEE-əs; Λύκειος, Lykeios, from Proto-Greek *λύκη) "light". The meaning of the epithet "Lyceus" later became associated with Apollo's mother Leto, who was the patron goddess of Lycia
Lycia
(Λυκία) and who was identified with the wolf (λύκος).[28] Phanaeus (/fəˈniːəs/ fə-NEE-əs; Φαναῖος, Phanaios), literally "giving or bringing light" Phoebus (/ˈfiːbəs/ FEE-bəs; Φοῖβος, Phoibos), literally "bright", his most commonly used epithet by both the Greeks and Romans Sol (Roman) (/sɒl/ SOL), "sun" in Latin

Wolf

Lycegenes (/laɪˈsɛdʒəniːz/ ly-SEJ-ə-neez; Λυκηγενής, Lukēgenēs), literally "born of a wolf" or "born of Lycia" Lycoctonus (/laɪˈkɒktənəs/ ly-KOK-tə-nəs; Λυκοκτόνος, Lykoktonos), from λύκος, "wolf", and κτείνειν, "to kill"

Origin and birth Apollo's birthplace was Mount Cynthus
Cynthus
on the island of Delos.

Cynthius (/ˈsɪnθiəs/ SIN-thee-əs; Κύνθιος, Kunthios), literally "Cynthian" Cynthogenes (/sɪnˈθɒdʒɪniːz/ sin-THOJ-i-neez; Κυνθογενής, Kynthogenēs), literally "born of Cynthus" Delius (/ˈdiːliəs/ DEE-lee-əs; Δήλιος, Delios), literally "Delian" Didymaeus (/dɪdɪˈmiːəs/ did-i-MEE-əs; Διδυμαῖος, Didymaios) from δίδυμος, "twin") as Artemis' twin

Partial view of the temple of Apollo
Apollo
Epikurios (healer) at Bassae
Bassae
in southern Greece

Place of worship Delphi
Delphi
and Actium
Actium
were his primary places of worship.[29][30]

Acraephius (/əˈkriːfiəs/ ə-KREE-fee-əs; Ἀκραίφιος,[clarification needed] Akraiphios, literally "Acraephian") or Acraephiaeus (/əˌkriːfiˈiːəs/ ə-KREE-fee-EE-əs; Ἀκραιφιαίος, Akraiphiaios), "Acraephian", from the Boeotian town of Acraephia
Acraephia
(Ἀκραιφία), reputedly founded by his son Acraepheus.[31] Actiacus (/ækˈtaɪ.əkəs/ ak-TY-ə-kəs; Ἄκτιακός, Aktiakos), literally "Actian", after Actium
Actium
(Ἄκτιον) Delphinius (/dɛlˈfɪniəs/ del-FIN-ee-əs; Δελφίνιος, Delphinios), literally "Delphic", after Delphi
Delphi
(Δελφοί). An etiology in the Homeric Hymns associated this with dolphins. Pythius (/ˈpɪθiəs/ PITH-ee-əs; Πύθιος, Puthios, from Πυθώ, Pythō), from the region around Delphi Smintheus (/ˈsmɪnθjuːs/ SMIN-thews; Σμινθεύς, Smintheus), "Sminthian"—that is, "of the town of Sminthos or Sminthe"[32] near the Troad
Troad
town of Hamaxitus[33]

Temple of the Delians at Delos, dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
(478 BC). 19th-century pen-and-wash restoration.

Temple of Apollo Smintheus
Apollo Smintheus
at Çanakkale, Turkey

Healing and disease

Acesius (/əˈsiːʒəs/ ə-SEE-zhəs; Ἀκέσιος, Akesios), from ἄκεσις, "healing". Acesius was the epithet of Apollo
Apollo
worshipped in Elis, where he had a temple in the agora.[34] Acestor (/əˈsɛstər/ ə-SES-tər; Ἀκέστωρ, Akestōr), literally "healer" Culicarius (Roman) (/ˌkjuːlɪˈkæriəs/ KEW-li-KARR-ee-əs), from Latin culicārius, "of midges" Iatrus (/aɪˈætrəs/ eye-AT-rəs; Ἰατρός, Iātros), literally "physician"[35] Medicus (Roman) (/ˈmɛdɪkəs/ MED-i-kəs), "physician" in Latin. A temple was dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
Medicus at Rome, probably next to the temple of Bellona. Paean (/ˈpiːən/ PEE-ən; Παιάν, Paiān),physician, healer [36] Parnopius (/pɑːrˈnoʊpiəs/ par-NOH-pee-əs; Παρνόπιος, Parnopios), from πάρνοψ, "locust"

Founder and protector

Agyieus (/əˈdʒaɪ.ɪjuːs/ ə-JY-i-yoos; Ἀγυιεύς, Aguīeus), from ἄγυια, "street", for his role in protecting roads and homes Alexicacus (/əˌlɛksɪˈkeɪkəs/ ə-LEK-si-KAY-kəs; Ἀλεξίκακος, Alexikakos), literally "warding off evil" Apotropaeus (/əˌpɒtrəˈpiːəs/ ə-POT-rə-PEE-əs; Ἀποτρόπαιος, Apotropaios), from ἀποτρέπειν, "to avert" Archegetes (/ɑːrˈkɛdʒətiːz/ ar-KEJ-ə-teez; Ἀρχηγέτης, Arkhēgetēs), literally "founder" Averruncus (Roman) (/ˌævəˈrʌŋkəs/ AV-ə-RUNG-kəs; from Latin āverruncare), "to avert" Clarius (/ˈklæriəs/ KLARR-ee-əs; Κλάριος, Klārios), from Doric κλάρος, "allotted lot"[37] Epicurius (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊriəs/ EP-i-KEWR-ee-əs; Ἐπικούριος, Epikourios), from ἐπικουρέειν, "to aid"[27] Genetor (/ˈdʒɛnɪtər/ JEN-i-tər; Γενέτωρ, Genetōr), literally "ancestor"[27] Nomius (/ˈnoʊmiəs/ NOH-mee-əs; Νόμιος, Nomios), literally "pastoral" Nymphegetes (/nɪmˈfɛdʒɪtiːz/ nim-FEJ-i-teez; Νυμφηγέτης, Numphēgetēs), from Νύμφη, "Nymph", and ἡγέτης, "leader", for his role as a protector of shepherds and pastoral life

Prophecy and truth

Coelispex (Roman) (/ˈsɛlɪspɛks/ SEL-i-speks), from Latin coelum, "sky", and specere "to look at" Iatromantis (/aɪˌætrəˈmæntɪs/ eye-AT-rə-MAN-tis; Ἰατρομάντις, Iātromantis,) from ἰατρός, "physician", and μάντις, "prophet", referring to his role as a god both of healing and of prophecy Leschenorius (/ˌlɛskɪˈnɔːriəs/ LES-ki-NOR-ee-əs; Λεσχηνόριος, Leskhēnorios), from λεσχήνωρ, "converser" Loxias (/ˈlɒksiəs/ LOK-see-əs; Λοξίας, Loxias), from λέγειν, "to say",[27] historically associated with λοξός, "ambiguous" Manticus (/ˈmæntɪkəs/ MAN-ti-kəs; Μαντικός, Mantikos), literally "prophetic"

Music and arts

Musagetes (/mjuːˈsædʒɪtiːz/ mew-SAJ-i-teez; Doric Μουσαγέτας, Mousāgetās), from Μούσα, "Muse", and ἡγέτης "leader"[38] Musegetes (/mjuːˈsɛdʒɪtiːz/ mew-SEJ-i-teez; Μουσηγέτης, Mousēgetēs), as the preceding

Archery

Aphetor (/əˈfiːtər/ ə-FEE-tər; Ἀφήτωρ, Aphētōr), from ἀφίημι, "to let loose" Aphetorus (/əˈfɛtərəs/ ə-FET-ər-əs; Ἀφητόρος, Aphētoros), as the preceding Arcitenens (Roman) (/ɑːrˈtɪsɪnənz/ ar-TISS-i-nənz), literally "bow-carrying" Argyrotoxus (/ˌɑːrdʒɪrəˈtɒksəs/ AR-ji-rə-TOK-səs; Ἀργυρότοξος, Argyrotoxos), literally "with silver bow" Hecaërgus (/ˌhɛkiˈɜːrɡəs/ HEK-ee-UR-gəs; Ἑκάεργος, Hekaergos), literally "far-shooting" Hecebolus (/hɪˈsɛbələs/ hi-SEB-ə-ləs; Ἑκηβόλος, Hekēbolos), "far-shooting" Ismenius (/ɪzˈmiːniəs/ iz-MEE-nee-əs; Ἰσμηνιός, Ismēnios), literally "of Ismenus", after Ismenus, the son of Amphion and Niobe, whom he struck with an arrow

Celtic epithets and cult titles Apollo
Apollo
was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. In the traditionally Celtic lands he was most often seen as a healing and sun god. He was often equated with Celtic gods of similar character.[39]

Apollo Atepomarus
Apollo Atepomarus
("the great horseman" or "possessing a great horse"). Apollo
Apollo
was worshipped at Mauvières
Mauvières
(Indre). Horses were, in the Celtic world, closely linked to the sun.[40] Apollo Belenus
Apollo Belenus
('bright' or 'brilliant'). This epithet was given to Apollo
Apollo
in parts of Gaul, Northern Italy and Noricum
Noricum
(part of modern Austria). Apollo Belenus
Apollo Belenus
was a healing and sun god.[41] Apollo Cunomaglus ('hound lord'). A title given to Apollo
Apollo
at a shrine at Nettleton Shrub, Wiltshire. May have been a god of healing. Cunomaglus himself may originally have been an independent healing god.[42] Apollo
Apollo
Grannus. Grannus was a healing spring god, later equated with Apollo.[43][44][45] Apollo
Apollo
Maponus. A god known from inscriptions in Britain. This may be a local fusion of Apollo
Apollo
and Maponus. Apollo Moritasgus
Apollo Moritasgus
('masses of sea water'). An epithet for Apollo
Apollo
at Alesia, where he was worshipped as god of healing and, possibly, of physicians.[46] Apollo Vindonnus
Apollo Vindonnus
('clear light'). Apollo Vindonnus
Apollo Vindonnus
had a temple at Essarois, near Châtillon-sur-Seine
Châtillon-sur-Seine
in present-day Burgundy. He was a god of healing, especially of the eyes.[44] Apollo Virotutis
Apollo Virotutis
('benefactor of mankind?'). Apollo Virotutis
Apollo Virotutis
was worshipped, among other places, at Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoie) and at Jublains
Jublains
(Maine-et-Loire).[45][47]

Origins

The Omphalos
Omphalos
in the Museum of Delphi

The cult centers of Apollo
Apollo
in Greece, Delphi
Delphi
and Delos, date from the 8th century BCE. The Delos
Delos
sanctuary was primarily dedicated to Artemis, Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi, Apollo
Apollo
was venerated as the slayer of Pytho. For the Greeks, Apollo
Apollo
was all the Gods in one and through the centuries he acquired different functions which could originate from different gods. In archaic Greece he was the prophet, the oracular god who in older times was connected with "healing". In classical Greece he was the god of light and of music, but in popular religion he had a strong function to keep away evil.[48] Walter Burkert[49] discerned three components in the prehistory of Apollo worship, which he termed "a Dorian-northwest Greek component, a Cretan-Minoan component, and a Syro-Hittite component." From his eastern origin Apollo
Apollo
brought the art of inspection of "symbols and omina" (σημεία και τέρατα : semeia kai terata), and of the observation of the omens of the days. The inspiration oracular-cult was probably introduced from Anatolia. The ritualism belonged to Apollo
Apollo
from the beginning. The Greeks created the legalism, the supervision of the orders of the gods, and the demand for moderation and harmony. Apollo
Apollo
became the god of shining youth, the protector of music, spiritual-life, moderation and perceptible order. The improvement of the old Anatolian god, and his elevation to an intellectual sphere, may be considered an achievement of the Greek people.[50] Healer and god-protector from evil The function of Apollo
Apollo
as a "healer" is connected with Paean (Παιών-Παιήων), the physician of the Gods in the Iliad, who seems to come from a more primitive religion.[51] Paeοn is probably connected with the Mycenean pa-ja-wo-ne (Linear B: 𐀞𐀊𐀍𐀚),[52][53][54] but this is not certain. He did not have a separate cult, but he was the personification of the holy magic-song sung by the magicians that was supposed to cure disease. Later the Greeks knew the original meaning of the relevant song "paean" (παιάν). The magicians were also called "seer-doctors" (ἰατρομάντεις), and they used an ecstatic prophetic art which was used exactly by the god Apollo
Apollo
at the oracles.[55] In the Iliad, Apollo
Apollo
is the healer under the gods, but he is also the bringer of disease and death with his arrows, similar to the function of the Vedic
Vedic
god of disease Rudra.[56] He sends a plague (λοιμός) to the Achaeans. The god who sends a disease can also prevent it; therefore, when it stops, they make a purifying ceremony and offer him a hecatomb to ward off evil. When the oath of his priest appeases, they pray and with a song they call their own god, the Paean.[57] Some common epithets of Apollo
Apollo
as a healer are "paion" (παιών, literally "healer" or "helper")[58] "epikourios" (ἐπικουρώ, "help"), "oulios" (οὐλή, "healed wound", also a "scar" )[59] and "loimios" (λοιμός, "plague"). In classical times, his strong function in popular religion was to keep away evil, and was therefore called "apotropaios" (ἀποτρέπω, "divert", "deter", "avert") and "alexikakos" (from v. ἀλέξω + n. κακόν, "defend from evil").[60] In later writers, the word, usually spelled "Paean", becomes a mere epithet of Apollo
Apollo
in his capacity as a god of healing.[61] Homer
Homer
illustrated Paeon the god, and the song both of apotropaic thanksgiving or triumph.[citation needed] Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo, and afterwards to other gods: to Dionysus, to Apollo
Apollo
Helios, to Apollo's son Asclepius
Asclepius
the healer. About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. It was in this way that Apollo
Apollo
had become recognised as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the Python led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won. Dorian origin

Apollo
Apollo
Victorious over the Python by the Florentine Pietro Francavilla (dated 1591) depicting Apollo's first triumph, when he slew with his bow and arrows the serpent Python, which lies dead at his feet[62] (The Walters Art Museum).

The connection with the Dorians
Dorians
and their initiation festival apellai is reinforced by the month Apellaios in northwest Greek calendars.[63] The family-festival was dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
(Doric: Ἀπέλλων).[64] Apellaios is the month of these rites, and Apellon is the "megistos kouros" (the great Kouros).[65] However it can explain only the Doric type of the name, which is connected with the Ancient Macedonian word "pella" (Pella), stone. Stones played an important part in the cult of the god, especially in the oracular shrine of Delphi
Delphi
(Omphalos).[66][67] The " Homeric
Homeric
hymn" represents Apollo
Apollo
as a Northern intruder. His arrival must have occurred during the "Dark Ages" that followed the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization, and his conflict with Gaia (Mother Earth) was represented by the legend of his slaying her daughter the serpent Python.[68] The earth deity had power over the ghostly world, and it is believed that she was the deity behind the oracle.[69] The older tales mentioned two dragons who were perhaps intentionally conflated. A female dragon named Delphyne (δελφύς, "womb"),[70] and a male serpent Typhon
Typhon
(τύφειν, "to smoke"), the adversary of Zeus
Zeus
in the Titanomachy, who the narrators confused with Python.[71][72] Python was the good daemon (ἀγαθὸς δαίμων) of the temple as it appears in Minoan religion,[73] but she was represented as a dragon, as often happens in Northern European folklore as well as in the East.[74] Apollo
Apollo
and his sister Artemis
Artemis
can bring death with their arrows. The conception that diseases and death come from invisible shots sent by supernatural beings, or magicians is common in Germanic and Norse mythology.[56] In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
Artemis
Artemis
was the leader (ἡγεμών, "hegemon") of the nymphs, who had similar functions with the Nordic Elves.[75] The "elf-shot" originally indicated disease or death attributed to the elves, but it was later attested denoting stone arrow-heads which were used by witches to harm people, and also for healing rituals.[76] The Vedic
Vedic
Rudra
Rudra
has some similar functions with Apollo. The terrible god is called "The Archer", and the bow is also an attribute of Shiva.[77] Rudra
Rudra
could bring diseases with his arrows, but he was able to free people of them, and his alternative Shiba is a healer physician god.[78] However the Indo-European component of Apollo
Apollo
does not explain his strong relation with omens, exorcisms, and with the oracular cult. Minoan origin

Ornamented golden Minoan labrys

It seems an oracular cult existed in Delphi
Delphi
from the Mycenaean age.[79] In historical times, the priests of Delphi
Delphi
were called Labryaden, "the double-axe men", which indicates Minoan origin. The double-axe, labrys, was the holy symbol of the Cretan labyrinth.[80][81] The Homeric hymn adds that Apollo
Apollo
appeared as a dolphin and carried Cretan priests to Delphi, where they evidently transferred their religious practices. Apollo
Apollo
Delphinios or Delphidios was a sea-god especially worshiped in Crete
Crete
and in the islands.[82] Apollo's sister Artemis, who was the Greek goddess of hunting, is identified with Britomartis
Britomartis
(Diktynna), the Minoan "Mistress of the animals". In her earliest depictions she is accompanied by the "Mister of the animals", a male god of hunting who had the bow as his attribute. His original name is unknown, but it seems that he was absorbed by the more popular Apollo, who stood by the virgin "Mistress of the Animals", becoming her brother.[75] The old oracles in Delphi
Delphi
seem to be connected with a local tradition of the priesthood, and there is not clear evidence that a kind of inspiration-prophecy existed in the temple. This led some scholars to the conclusion that Pythia
Pythia
carried on the rituals in a consistent procedure through many centuries, according to the local tradition. In that regard, the mythical seeress Sibyl
Sibyl
of Anatolian origin, with her ecstatic art, looks unrelated to the oracle itself.[83] However, the Greek tradition is referring to the existence of vapours and chewing of laurel-leaves, which seem to be confirmed by recent studies.[84] Plato
Plato
describes the priestesses of Delphi
Delphi
and Dodona
Dodona
as frenzied women, obsessed by "mania" (μανία, "frenzy"), a Greek word he connected with mantis (μάντις, "prophet").[85] Frenzied women like Sibyls from whose lips the god speaks are recorded in the Near East as Mari in the second millennium BC.[86] Although Crete
Crete
had contacts with Mari from 2000 BC,[87] there is no evidence that the ecstatic prophetic art existed during the Minoan and Mycenean ages. It is more probable that this art was introduced later from Anatolia
Anatolia
and regenerated an existing oracular cult that was local to Delphi
Delphi
and dormant in several areas of Greece.[88] Anatolian origin

Illustration of a coin of Apollo
Apollo
Agyieus from Ambracia

A non-Greek origin of Apollo
Apollo
has long been assumed in scholarship.[7] The name of Apollo's mother Leto
Leto
has Lydian origin, and she was worshipped on the coasts of Asia Minor. The inspiration oracular cult was probably introduced into Greece from Anatolia, which is the origin of Sibyl, and where existed some of the oldest oracular shrines. Omens, symbols, purifications, and exorcisms appear in old Assyro-Babylonian texts, and these rituals were spread into the empire of the Hittites. In a Hittite text is mentioned that the king invited a Babylonian priestess for a certain "purification".[50] A similar story is mentioned by Plutarch. He writes that the Cretan seer Epimenides
Epimenides
purified Athens
Athens
after the pollution brought by the Alcmeonidae, and that the seer's expertise in sacrifices and reform of funeral practices were of great help to Solon
Solon
in his reform of the Athenian state.[89] The story indicates that Epimenides
Epimenides
was probably heir to the shamanic religions of Asia, and proves, together with the Homeric
Homeric
hymn, that Crete
Crete
had a resisting religion up to historical times. It seems that these rituals were dormant in Greece, and they were reinforced when the Greeks migrated to Anatolia. Homer
Homer
pictures Apollo
Apollo
on the side of the Trojans, fighting against the Achaeans, during the Trojan War. He is pictured as a terrible god, less trusted by the Greeks than other gods. The god seems to be related to Appaliunas, a tutelary god of Wilusa (Troy) in Asia Minor, but the word is not complete.[90] The stones found in front of the gates of Homeric
Homeric
Troy
Troy
were the symbols of Apollo. A western Anatolian origin may also be bolstered by references to the parallel worship of Artimus (Artemis) and Qλdãns, whose name may be cognate with the Hittite and Doric forms, in surviving Lydian texts.[91] However, recent scholars have cast doubt on the identification of Qλdãns with Apollo.[92] The Greeks gave to him the name ἀγυιεύς agyieus as the protector god of public places and houses who wards off evil, and his symbol was a tapered stone or column.[93] However, while usually Greek festivals were celebrated at the full moon, all the feasts of Apollo were celebrated at the seventh day of the month, and the emphasis given to that day (sibutu) indicates a Babylonian origin.[94] The Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
(from 1700 to 1200 BCE) Hittite and Hurrian
Hurrian
Aplu was a god of plague, invoked during plague years. Here we have an apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it. Aplu, meaning the son of, was a title given to the god Nergal, who was linked to the Babylonian god of the sun Shamash.[21] Homer
Homer
interprets Apollo
Apollo
as a terrible god (δεινὸς θεός) who brings death and disease with his arrows, but who can also heal, possessing a magic art that separates him from the other Greek gods.[95] In Iliad, his priest prays to Apollo
Apollo
Smintheus,[96] the mouse god who retains an older agricultural function as the protector from field rats.[32][97][98] All these functions, including the function of the healer-god Paean, who seems to have Mycenean origin, are fused in the cult of Apollo. Oracular
Oracular
cult

Columns of the Temple of Apollo
Apollo
at Delphi, Greece

Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo
Apollo
had two cult sites that had widespread influence: Delos
Delos
and Delphi. In cult practice, Delian Apollo
Apollo
and Pythian Apollo
Pythian Apollo
(the Apollo
Apollo
of Delphi) were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.[99] Apollo's cult was already fully established when written sources commenced, about 650 BCE. Apollo
Apollo
became extremely important to the Greek world as an oracular deity in the archaic period, and the frequency of theophoric names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia testify to his popularity. Oracular
Oracular
sanctuaries to Apollo
Apollo
were established in other sites. In the 2nd and 3rd century CE, those at Didyma
Didyma
and Clarus
Clarus
pronounced the so-called "theological oracles", in which Apollo
Apollo
confirms that all deities are aspects or servants of an all-encompassing, highest deity. "In the 3rd century, Apollo
Apollo
fell silent. Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate
(359–361) tried to revive the Delphic oracle, but failed."[7] Oracular
Oracular
shrines

Delos
Delos
lions

Apollo
Apollo
had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Clarus and Branchidae. His oracular shrine in Abae
Abae
in Phocis, where he bore the toponymic epithet Abaeus (Ἀπόλλων Ἀβαῖος, Apollon Abaios), was important enough to be consulted by Croesus.[100] His oracular shrines include:

Abae
Abae
in Phocis. Bassae
Bassae
in the Peloponnese. At Clarus, on the west coast of Asia Minor; as at Delphi
Delphi
a holy spring which gave off a pneuma, from which the priests drank. In Corinth, the Oracle
Oracle
of Corinth
Corinth
came from the town of Tenea, from prisoners supposedly taken in the Trojan War. At Khyrse, in Troad, the temple was built for Apollo
Apollo
Smintheus. In Delos, there was an oracle to the Delian Apollo, during summer. The Hieron (Sanctuary) of Apollo
Apollo
adjacent to the Sacred Lake, was the place where the god was said to have been born. In Delphi, the Pythia
Pythia
became filled with the pneuma of Apollo, said to come from a spring inside the Adyton. In Didyma, an oracle on the coast of Anatolia, south west of Lydian (Luwian) Sardis, in which priests from the lineage of the Branchidae received inspiration by drinking from a healing spring located in the temple. Was believed to have been founded by Branchus, son or lover of Apollo. In Hierapolis Bambyce, Syria (modern Manbij), according to the treatise De Dea Syria, the sanctuary of the Syrian Goddess contained a robed and bearded image of Apollo. Divination
Divination
was based on spontaneous movements of this image.[101] At Patara, in Lycia, there was a seasonal winter oracle of Apollo, said to have been the place where the god went from Delos. As at Delphi
Delphi
the oracle at Patara was a woman. In Segesta
Segesta
in Sicily.

Oracles were also given by sons of Apollo.

In Oropus, north of Athens, the oracle Amphiaraus, was said to be the son of Apollo; Oropus
Oropus
also had a sacred spring. in Labadea, 20 miles (32 km) east of Delphi, Trophonius, another son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was also afterwards consulted as an oracle.

Temples of Apollo Main articles: Ancient Greek temple
Greek temple
and Roman temple Many temples were dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
in Greece and the Greek colonies. They show the spread of the cult of Apollo
Apollo
and the evolution of the Greek architecture, which was mostly based on the rightness of form and on mathematical relations. Some of the earliest temples, especially in Crete, do not belong to any Greek order. It seems that the first peripteral temples were rectanglular wooden structures. The different wooden elements were considered divine, and their forms were preserved in the marble or stone elements of the temples of Doric order. The Greeks used standard types because they believed that the world of objects was a series of typical forms which could be represented in several instances. The temples should be canonic, and the architects were trying to achieve this esthetic perfection.[102] From the earliest times there were certain rules strictly observed in rectangular peripteral and prostyle buildings. The first buildings were built narrowly in order to hold the roof, and when the dimensions changed some mathematical relations became necessary in order to keep the original forms. This probably influenced the theory of numbers of Pythagoras, who believed that behind the appearance of things there was the permanent principle of mathematics.[103] The Doric order
Doric order
dominated during the 6th and the 5th century BC but there was a mathematical problem regarding the position of the triglyphs, which couldn’t be solved without changing the original forms. The order was almost abandoned for the Ionic order, but the Ionic capital also posed an insoluble problem at the corner of a temple. Both orders were abandoned for the Corinthian order
Corinthian order
gradually during the Hellenistic age and under Rome. The most important temples are: Greek temples

Thebes, Greece: The oldest temple probably dedicated to Apollo Ismenius was built in the 9th century B.C. It seems that it was a curvilinear building. The Doric temple was built in the early 7th century B.C., but only some small parts have been found [104] A festival called Daphnephoria
Daphnephoria
was celebrated every ninth year in honour of Apollo
Apollo
Ismenius (or Galaxius). The people held laurel branches (daphnai), and at the head of the procession walked a youth (chosen priest of Apollo), who was called "daphnephoros".[105] Eretria: According to the Homeric hymn to Apollo, the god arrived to the plain, seeking for a location to establish its oracle. The first temple of Apollo
Apollo
Daphnephoros, "Apollo, laurel-bearer", or "carrying off Daphne", is dated to 800 B.C. The temple was curvilinear hecatombedon (a hundred feet). In a smaller building were kept the bases of the laurel branches which were used for the first building. Another temple probably peripteral was built in the 7th century B.C., with an inner row of wooden columns over its Geometric predecessor. It was rebuilt peripteral around 510 B.C., with the stylobate measuring 21,00 x 43,00 m. The number of pteron column was 6 x 14.[106][107] Dreros (Crete). The temple of Apollo
Apollo
Delphinios dates from the 7th century B.C., or probably from the middle of the 8th century B.C. According to the legend, Apollo
Apollo
appeared as a dolphin, and carried Cretan priests to the port of Delphi.[108] The dimensions of the plan are 10,70 x 24,00 m and the building was not peripteral. It contains column-bases of the Minoan type, which may be considered as the predecessors of the Doric columns.[109] Gortyn
Gortyn
(Crete). A temple of Pythian Apollo, was built in the 7th century B.C. The plan measured 19,00 x 16,70 m and it was not peripteral. The walls were solid, made from limestone, and there was single door on the east side. Thermon
Thermon
(West Greece): The Doric temple of Apollo
Apollo
Thermios, was built in the middle of the 7th century B.C. It was built on an older curvilinear building dating perhaps from the 10th century B.C., on which a peristyle was added. The temple was narrow, and the number of pteron columns (probably wooden) was 5 x 15. There was a single row of inner columns. It measures 12.13 x 38.23 m at the stylobate, which was made from stones.[110]

Floor plan of the temple of Apollo, Corinth

Corinth: A Doric temple was built in the 6th century B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 21.36 x 53.30 m, and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 15. There was a double row of inner columns. The style is similar with the Temple of Alcmeonidae at Delphi.[111] The Corinthians were considered to be the inventors of the Doric order.[110] Napes (Lesbos): An Aeolic temple probably of Apollo
Apollo
Napaios was built in the 7th century B.C. Some special capitals with floral ornament have been found, which are called Aeolic, and it seems that they were borrowed from the East.[112] Cyrene, Libya: The oldest Doric temple of Apollo
Apollo
was built in c. 600 B.C. The number of pteron columns was 6 x 11, and it measures 16.75 x 30.05 m at the stylobate. There was a double row of sixteen inner columns on stylobates. The capitals were made from stone.[112] Naukratis: An Ionic temple was built in the early 6th century B.C. Only some fragments have been found and the earlier, made from limestone, are identified among the oldest of the Ionic order.[113]

Floor plan of the temple of Apollo, Syracuse

Syracuse, Sicily: A Doric temple was built at the beginning of the 6th century B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 21.47 x 55.36 m and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 17. It was the first temple in Greek west built completely out of stone. A second row of columns were added, obtaining the effect of an inner porch.[114] Selinus
Selinus
(Sicily):The Doric Temple C dates from 550 B.C., and it was probably dedicated to Apollo. The temple's stylobate measures 10.48 x 41.63 m and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 17. There was portico with a second row of columns, which is also attested for the temple at Syracuse.[115] Delphi: The first temple dedicated to Apollo, was built in the 7th century B.C. According to the legend, it was wooden made of laurel branches. The "Temple of Alcmeonidae" was built in c. 513 B.C. and it is the oldest Doric temple with significant marble elements. The temple's stylobate measures 21.65 x 58.00 m, and the number of pteron columns as 6 x 15.[116] A fest similar with Apollo's fest at Thebes, Greece was celebrated every nine years. A boy was sent to the temple, who walked on the sacred road and returned carrying a laurel branch (dopnephoros). The maidens participated with joyful songs.[105] Chios: An Ionic temple of Apollo
Apollo
Phanaios was built at the end of the 6th century B.C. Only some small parts have been found and the capitals had floral ornament.[112] Abae
Abae
(Phocis). The temple was destroyed by the Persians in the invasion of Xerxes in 480 B.C., and later by the Boeotians. It was rebuilt by Hadrian.[117] The oracle was in use from early Mycenaean times to the Roman period, and shows the continuity of Mycenaean and Classical Greek religion.[118]

Floor plan of the Temple of Apollo
Apollo
at Bassae

Bassae
Bassae
(Peloponnesus):A temple dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
Epikourios ("Apollo the helper"), was built in 430 B.C. and it was designed by Iktinos.It combined Doric and Ionic elements, and the earliest use of column with a Corinthian capital in the middle.[119] The temple is of a relatively modest size, with the stylobate measuring 14.5 x 38.3 metres[120] containing a Doric peristyle of 6 x 15 columns. The roof left a central space open to admit light and air.*Delos: A temple probably dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
and not peripteral, was built in the late 7th century B.C., with a plan measuring 10,00 x 15,60 m. The Doric Great temple of Apollo, was built in c. 475 B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 13.72 x 29.78 m, and the number of pteron columns as 6 x 13. Marble
Marble
was extensively used.[112] Ambracia: A Doric peripteral temple dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
Pythios Sotir was built in 500 B.C., and It is lying at the centre of the Greek city Arta. Only some parts have been found, and it seems that the temple was built on earlier sanctuaries dedicated to Apollo. The temple measures 20,75 x 44,00 m at the stylobate. The foundation which supported the statue of the god, still exists.[121]

Temple of Apollo, Didyma

Didyma
Didyma
(near Miletus): The gigantic Ionic temple of Apollo
Apollo
Didymaios started around 540 B.C. The construction ceased and then it was restarted in 330 B.C. The temple is dipteral, with an outer row of 10 x 21 columns, and it measures 28.90 x 80.75 m at the stylobate.[122] Clarus
Clarus
(near ancient Colophon): According to the legend, the famous seer Calchas, on his return from Troy, came to Clarus. He challenged the seer Mopsus, and died when he lost.[123] The Doric temple of Apollo
Apollo
Clarius was probably built in the 3rd century B.C., and it was peripteral with 6 x 11 columns. It was reconstructed at the end of the Hellenistic period, and later from the emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
but Pausanias claims that it was still incomplete in the 2nd century B.C.[124] Hamaxitus
Hamaxitus
(Troad): In Iliad, Chryses
Chryses
the priest of Apollo, addresses the god with the epithet Smintheus (Lord of Mice), related with the god’s ancient role as bringer of the disease (plague). Recent excavations indicate that the Hellenistic temple of Apollo
Apollo
Smintheus was constructed at 150–125 B.C., but the symbol of the mouse god was used on coinage probably from the 4th century B.C.[125] The temple measures 40,00 x 23,00 m at the stylobate, and the number of pteron columns was 8 x 14.[126]

Etruscan and Roman temples

Veii
Veii
(Etruria): The temple of Apollo
Apollo
was built in the late 6th century B.C. and it indicates the spread of Apollo’s culture (Aplu) in Etruria. There was a prostyle porch, which is called Tuscan, and a triple cella 18,50 m wide.[127] Falerii Veteres (Etruria): A temple of Apollo
Apollo
was built probably in the 4th-3rd century B.C. Parts of a teraccotta capital, and a teraccotta base have been found. It seems that the Etruscan columns were derived from the archaic Doric.[127] A cult of Apollo
Apollo
Soranus is attested by one inscription found near Falerii.[128]

Plan of the Temple of Apollo
Apollo
(Pompeii)

Pompeii
Pompeii
(Italy): The cult of Apollo
Apollo
was widespread in the region of Campania since the 6th century B.C. The temple was built in 120 B.V, but its beginnings lie in the 6th century B.C. It was reconstructed after an earthquake in A.D. 63. It demonstrates a mixing of styles which formed the basis of Roman architecture. The columns in front of the cella formed a Tuscan prostyle porch, and the cella is situated unusually far back. The peripteral colonnade of 48 Ionic columns was placed in such a way that the emphasis was given to the front side.[129] Rome: The temple of Apollo
Apollo
Sosianus and the temple of Apollo
Apollo
Medicus. The first temple building dates to 431 B.C., and was dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
Medicus (the doctor), after a plague of 433 B.C.[130] It was rebuilt by Gaius Sosius, probably in 34 B.C. Only three columns with Corinthian capitals exist today. It seems that the cult of Apollo
Apollo
had existed in this area since at least to the mid-5th century B.C.[131] Rome:The temple of Apollo
Apollo
Palatinus was located on the Palatine hill within the sacred boundary of the city. It was dedicated by Augustus on 28 B.C. The façade of the original temple was Ionic and it was constructed from solid blocks of marble. Many famous statues by Greek masters were on display in and around the temple, including a marble statue of the god at the entrance and a statue of Apollo
Apollo
in the cella.[132] Melite (modern Mdina, Malta): A Temple of Apollo
Apollo
was built in the city in the 2nd century A.D. Its remains were discovered in the 18th century, and many of its architectural fragments were dispersed among private collections or reworked into new sculptures. Parts of the temple's podium were rediscovered in 2002.[133]

Mythology Main article: Greek mythology Birth

Apollo
Apollo
(left) and Artemis. Brygos
Brygos
(potter signed), tondo of an Attic red-figure cup c. 470 BC, Musée du Louvre.

When Zeus' wife Hera
Hera
discovered that Leto
Leto
was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she banned Leto
Leto
from giving birth on terra firma. In her wanderings, Leto
Leto
found the newly created floating island of Delos, which was neither mainland nor a real island. She gave birth there and was accepted by the people, offering them her promise that her son would be always favourable toward the city. Afterwards, Zeus
Zeus
secured Delos
Delos
to the bottom of the ocean.[15] This island later became sacred to Apollo. It is also stated that Hera
Hera
kidnapped Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto
Leto
from going into labor. The other gods tricked Hera
Hera
into letting her go by offering her a necklace of amber 9 yards or 8.2 meters long. Mythographers agree that Artemis
Artemis
was born first and subsequently assisted with the birth of Apollo, or that Artemis
Artemis
was born on the island of Ortygia
Ortygia
and that she helped Leto
Leto
cross the sea to Delos
Delos
the next day to give birth to Apollo. Apollo
Apollo
was born on the seventh day (ἑβδομαγενής, hebdomagenes)[134] of the month Thargelion —according to Delian tradition—or of the month Bysios—according to Delphian tradition. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him.[15] Youth Four days after his birth, Apollo
Apollo
killed the chthonic dragon Python, which lived in Delphi
Delphi
beside the Castalian Spring. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the oracle at Delphi
Delphi
to give her prophecies. Hera
Hera
sent the serpent to hunt Leto
Leto
to her death across the world. To protect his mother, Apollo
Apollo
begged Hephaestus
Hephaestus
for a bow and arrows. After receiving them, Apollo
Apollo
cornered Python in the sacred cave at Delphi.[135] Apollo
Apollo
killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. Hera
Hera
then sent the giant Tityos
Tityos
to rape Leto. This time Apollo
Apollo
was aided by his sister Artemis
Artemis
in protecting their mother. During the battle Zeus
Zeus
finally relented his aid and hurled Tityos
Tityos
down to Tartarus. There, he was pegged to the rock floor, covering an area of 9 acres (36,000 m2), where a pair of vultures feasted daily on his liver. Trojan War

Marble
Marble
Bust of Apollo
Apollo
after the Apollo
Apollo
Belvedere. Circa 1675

Apollo
Apollo
shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment during the Trojan War
Trojan War
in retribution for Agamemnon's insult to Chryses, a priest of Apollo
Apollo
whose daughter Chryseis
Chryseis
had been captured. He demanded her return, and the Achaeans complied, indirectly causing the anger of Achilles, which is the theme of the Iliad. In the Iliad, when Diomedes
Diomedes
injured Aeneas, Apollo
Apollo
rescued him. First, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
tried to rescue Aeneas
Aeneas
but Diomedes
Diomedes
injured her as well. Aeneas
Aeneas
was then enveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy. Apollo
Apollo
aided Paris in the killing of Achilles
Achilles
by guiding the arrow of his bow into Achilles' heel. One interpretation of his motive is that it was in revenge for Achilles' sacrilege in murdering Troilus, the god's own son by Hecuba, on the very altar of the god's own temple. Admetus When Zeus
Zeus
struck down Apollo's son Asclepius
Asclepius
with a lightning bolt for resurrecting Hippolytus from the dead (transgressing Themis
Themis
by stealing Hades's subjects), Apollo
Apollo
in revenge killed the Cyclopes, who had fashioned the bolt for Zeus.[136] Apollo
Apollo
would have been banished to Tartarus
Tartarus
forever for this, but was instead sentenced to one year of hard labor, due to the intercession of his mother, Leto. During this time he served as shepherd for King Admetus
Admetus
of Pherae
Pherae
in Thessaly. Admetus
Admetus
treated Apollo
Apollo
well, and, in return, the god conferred great benefits on Admetus. Apollo
Apollo
helped Admetus
Admetus
win Alcestis, the daughter of King Pelias
Pelias
and later convinced the Fates to let Admetus
Admetus
live past his time, if another took his place. But when it came time for Admetus
Admetus
to die, his parents, whom he had assumed would gladly die for him, refused to cooperate. Instead, Alcestis
Alcestis
took his place, but Heracles
Heracles
managed to "persuade" Thanatos, the god of death, to return her to the world of the living.

Artemis
Artemis
and Apollo
Apollo
Piercing Niobe's Children with their Arrows by Jacques-Louis David, Dallas Museum of Art

Niobe Niobe, the queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, boasted of her superiority to Leto
Leto
because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven male and seven female, while Leto
Leto
had only two. Apollo
Apollo
killed her sons, and Artemis
Artemis
her daughters. Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis
Artemis
used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions of the myth, a number of the Niobids
Niobids
were spared (Chloris, usually). Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo after swearing revenge. A devastated Niobe
Niobe
fled to Mount Sipylos in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and turned into stone as she wept. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Zeus
Zeus
had turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the Niobids
Niobids
until the ninth day after their death, when the gods themselves entombed them. Consorts and children Love affairs ascribed to Apollo
Apollo
are a late development in Greek mythology.[137] Their vivid anecdotal qualities have made some of them favorites of painters since the Renaissance, the result being that they stand out more prominently in the modern imagination. Female lovers Main article: Apollo
Apollo
and Daphne

Apollo and Daphne
Apollo and Daphne
by Bernini
Bernini
in the Galleria Borghese

Daphne
Daphne
was a nymph, daughter of the river god Peneus, who had scorned Apollo. The myth explains the connection of Apollo
Apollo
with δάφνη (daphnē), the laurel whose leaves his priestess employed at Delphi.[138] In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Phoebus Apollo
Apollo
chaffs Cupid
Cupid
for toying with a weapon more suited to a man, whereupon Cupid
Cupid
wounds him with a golden dart; simultaneously, however, Cupid
Cupid
shoots a leaden arrow into Daphne, causing her to be repulsed by Apollo. Following a spirited chase by Apollo, Daphne
Daphne
prays to her father Peneus
Peneus
for help and he changes her into the laurel tree, sacred to Apollo. Artemis
Artemis
Daphnaia, who had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi[139] in Antiquity, on the slopes of Mount Cnacadion near the Spartan frontier,[140] had her own sacred laurel trees.[141] At Eretria
Eretria
the identity of an excavated 7th- and 6th-century temple to Apollo
Apollo
Daphnephoros, "Apollo, laurel-bearer", or "carrying off Daphne", a "place where the citizens are to take the oath", is identified in inscriptions.[142] Leucothea
Leucothea
was daughter of Orchamus and sister of Clytia. She fell in love with Apollo
Apollo
who disguised himself as Leucothea's mother to gain entrance to her chambers. Clytia, jealous of her sister because she wanted Apollo
Apollo
for herself, told Orchamus the truth, betraying her sister's trust and confidence in her. Enraged, Orchamus ordered Leucothea
Leucothea
to be buried alive. Apollo
Apollo
refused to forgive Clytia for betraying his beloved, and a grieving Clytia wilted and slowly died. Apollo
Apollo
changed her into an incense plant, either heliotrope or sunflower, which follows the sun every day. Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas
Idas
but was loved by Apollo
Apollo
as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas
Idas
on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old. Castalia
Castalia
was a nymph whom Apollo
Apollo
loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos, which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses. In the last oracle is mentioned that the "water which could speak", has been lost for ever. By Cyrene, Apollo
Apollo
had a son named Aristaeus, who became the patron god of cattle, fruit trees, hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping. He was also a culture-hero and taught humanity dairy skills, the use of nets and traps in hunting, and how to cultivate olives. Hecuba
Hecuba
was the wife of King Priam
Priam
of Troy, and Apollo
Apollo
had a son with her named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy
Troy
would not be defeated as long as Troilus
Troilus
reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus. Cassandra, was daughter of Hecuba
Hecuba
and Priam, and Troilus' half-sister. Apollo
Apollo
fell in love with Cassandra
Cassandra
and promised her the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo
Apollo
indeed gave her the ability to know the future, with a curse that she could only see the future tragedies and that no one would ever believe her. Coronis, was daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths. Pregnant with Asclepius, Coronis fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A crow informed Apollo
Apollo
of the affair. When first informed he disbelieved the crow and turned all crows black (where they were previously white) as a punishment for spreading untruths. When he found out the truth he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis (in other stories, Apollo himself had killed Coronis). As a result, he also made the crow sacred and gave them the task of announcing important deaths. Apollo
Apollo
rescued the baby and gave it to the centaur Chiron
Chiron
to raise. Phlegyas
Phlegyas
was irate after the death of his daughter and burned the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Apollo
Apollo
then killed him for what he did. In Euripides' play Ion, Apollo
Apollo
fathered Ion by Creusa, wife of Xuthus. Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, but Apollo
Apollo
asked Hermes
Hermes
to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi, where he was raised by a priestess. Acantha, was the spirit of the acanthus tree, and Apollo
Apollo
had one of his other liaisons with her. Upon her death, Apollo
Apollo
transformed her into a sun-loving herb. According to the Biblioteca, the "library" of mythology mis-attributed to Apollodorus, he fathered the Corybantes
Corybantes
on the Muse
Muse
Thalia.[143] Consorts and children: extended list

Acacallis

Amphithemis (Garamas)[144] Naxos, eponym of the island Naxos[145] Phylacides Phylander[146]

Acantha Aethusa

Eleuther

Aganippe

Chios[147]

Alciope[148]

Linus (possibly)

Amphissa / Isse, daughter of Macareus Anchiale / Acacallis

Oaxes[149]

Areia, daughter of Cleochus / Acacallis / Deione

Miletus

Astycome, nymph

Eumolpus (possibly)[150]

Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus

Asclepius
Asclepius
(possibly) Eriopis

Babylo

Arabus[151]

Bolina Calliope, Muse

Orpheus
Orpheus
(possibly) Linus (possibly) Ialemus

Cassandra Castalia Celaeno, daughter of Hyamus / Melaina / Thyia

Delphus

Chione / Philonis / Leuconoe

Philammon

Chrysorthe

Coronus

Chrysothemis

Parthenos

Coronis

Asclepius

Coryceia

Lycorus (Lycoreus)

Creusa

Ion

Cyrene

Aristaeus Idmon (possibly) Autuchus[152]

Danais, Cretan nymph

The Curetes[153]

Daphne Dia, daughter of Lycaon

Dryops

Dryope

Amphissus

Euboea (daughter of Macareus of Locris)

Agreus

Evadne, daughter of Poseidon

Iamus

Gryne Hecate

Scylla
Scylla
(possibly)[154]

Hecuba

Troilus Hector
Hector
(possibly)[155]

Hestia
Hestia
(wooed her unsuccessfully) Hypermnestra, wife of Oicles

Amphiaraus
Amphiaraus
(possibly)

Hypsipyle[156] Hyria (Thyria)

Cycnus

Lycia, nymph or daughter of Xanthus

Eicadius[157] Patarus[158]

Manto

Mopsus

Marpessa Melia

Ismenus[159] Tenerus[160]

Ocyrhoe Othreis

Phager

Parnethia, nymph

Cynnes[161]

Parthenope

Lycomedes

Phthia

Dorus Laodocus Polypoetes

Prothoe[162] Procleia

Tenes (possibly)

Psamathe

Linus

Rhoeo

Anius

Rhodoessa, nymph

Ceos, eponym of the island Ceos[163]

Rhodope

Cicon, eponym of the tribe Cicones[164]

Sinope

Syrus

Stilbe

Centaurus Lapithes Aineus

Syllis / Hyllis

Zeuxippus

Thaleia, Muse
Muse
/ Rhetia, nymph

The Corybantes

Themisto, daughter of Zabius of Hyperborea[165]

Galeotes Telmessus (?)

Thero

Chaeron

Urania, Muse

Linus (possibly)

Urea, daughter of Poseidon

Ileus (Oileus?)

Wife of Erginus

Trophonius
Trophonius
(possibly)

Unknown consorts

Acraepheus, eponym of the city Acraephia[166] Chariclo (possibly)[167] Erymanthus Marathus, eponym of Marathon[168] Megarus[169] Melaneus Oncius[170][171] Phemonoe Pisus, founder of Pisa
Pisa
in Etruria[172] Younger Muses

Cephisso Apollonis Borysthenis

Male lovers

Apollo
Apollo
and Hyacinthus, 16th-century Italian engraving by Jacopo Caraglio

Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's male lovers. He was a Spartan prince, beautiful and athletic. The pair was practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo
Apollo
was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus
Zephyrus
and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly. Apollo
Apollo
is said to be filled with grief: out of Hyacinthus' blood, Apollo
Apollo
created a flower named after him as a memorial to his death, and his tears stained the flower petals with the interjection αἰαῖ, meaning alas.[173] The Festival of Hyacinthus was a celebration of Sparta. Another male lover was Cyparissus, a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus
Cyparissus
accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth. Cyparissus asked Apollo
Apollo
to let his tears fall forever. Apollo
Apollo
granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk. Other male lovers of Apollo
Apollo
include:

Admetus[174][175] Atymnius,[176] otherwise known as a beloved of Sarpedon Branchus (alternately, a son of Apollo) Carnus Clarus[177] Hippolytus of Sicyon
Sicyon
(not the same as Hippolytus, the son of Theseus)[175] Hymenaios[178] Iapis Leucates, who threw himself off a rock when Apollo
Apollo
attempted to carry him off[179] Phorbas
Phorbas
(probably the son of Triopas)[180] Potnieus[181]

Apollo's lyre

Apollo
Apollo
with his lyre. Statue from Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Hermes
Hermes
was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. The story is told in the Homeric
Homeric
Hymn to Hermes.[182] His mother, Maia, had been secretly impregnated by Zeus. Maia wrapped the infant in blankets but Hermes escaped while she was asleep. Hermes
Hermes
ran to Thessaly, where Apollo
Apollo
was grazing his cattle. The infant Hermes
Hermes
stole a number of his cows and took them to a cave in the woods near Pylos, covering their tracks. In the cave, he found a tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made the first lyre. Apollo
Apollo
complained to Maia that her son had stolen his cattle, but Hermes
Hermes
had already replaced himself in the blankets she had wrapped him in, so Maia refused to believe Apollo's claim. Zeus
Zeus
intervened and, claiming to have seen the events, sided with Apollo. Hermes
Hermes
then began to play music on the lyre he had invented. Apollo, a god of music, fell in love with the instrument and offered to allow exchange of the cattle for the lyre. Hence, Apollo
Apollo
then became a master of the lyre. Apollo
Apollo
in the Oresteia In Aeschylus' Oresteia
Oresteia
trilogy, Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
kills her husband, King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia
Iphigenia
to proceed forward with the Trojan war, and Cassandra, a prophetess of Apollo. Apollo
Apollo
gives an order through the Oracle
Oracle
at Delphi
Delphi
that Agamemnon's son, Orestes, is to kill Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
and Aegisthus, her lover. Orestes
Orestes
and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes
Orestes
is pursued by the Erinyes
Erinyes
or Furies (female personifications of vengeance). Apollo
Apollo
and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo
Apollo
holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes
Orestes
was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes
Erinyes
say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage. They invade his temple, and he says that the matter should be brought before Athena. Apollo
Apollo
promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes
Orestes
has become Apollo's supplicant. Apollo
Apollo
advocates Orestes
Orestes
at the trial, and ultimately Athena
Athena
rules in favor of Apollo. Other stories Apollo
Apollo
killed the Aloadae
Aloadae
when they attempted to storm Mt. Olympus. Callimachus
Callimachus
sang[183] that Apollo
Apollo
rode on the back of a swan to the land of the Hyperboreans during the winter months. Apollo
Apollo
turned Cephissus into a sea monster. Another contender for the birthplace of Apollo
Apollo
is the Cretan islands of Paximadia. Musical contests Pan Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo
Apollo
and to challenge Apollo, the god of the kithara, the mountain-god Tmolus was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo
Apollo
struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus
Tmolus
at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas
Midas
agreed with the judgment. He dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo
Apollo
would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey. Marsyas

Marsyas
Marsyas
under Apollo's punishment, İstanbul Archaeology Museum

Apollo
Apollo
has ominous aspects aside from his plague-bringing, death-dealing arrows: Marsyas
Marsyas
was a satyr who challenged Apollo
Apollo
to a contest of music. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away after being invented by Athena
Athena
because it made her cheeks puffy. The contest was judged by the Muses. After they each performed, both were deemed equal until Apollo
Apollo
decreed they play and sing at the same time. As Apollo
Apollo
played the lyre, this was easy to do. Marsyas
Marsyas
could not do this, as he only knew how to use the flute and could not sing at the same time. Apollo
Apollo
was declared the winner because of this. Apollo
Apollo
flayed Marsyas
Marsyas
alive in a cave near Celaenae
Celaenae
in Phrygia
Phrygia
for his hubris to challenge a god. He then nailed Marsyas' shaggy skin to a nearby pine-tree. Marsyas' blood turned into the river Marsyas. Another variation is that Apollo
Apollo
played his instrument (the lyre) upside down. Marsyas
Marsyas
could not do this with his instrument (the flute), and so Apollo
Apollo
hung him from a tree and flayed him alive.[184] Cinyras Apollo
Apollo
also had a lyre-playing contest with Cinyras, his son, who committed suicide when he lost.

Head of Apollo, marble, Roman copy of a Greek original of the 4th century BCE, from the collection of Cardinal Albani

Roman Apollo The Roman worship of Apollo
Apollo
was adopted from the Greeks.[185] As a quintessentially Greek god, Apollo
Apollo
had no direct Roman equivalent, although later Roman poets often referred to him as Phoebus.[186] There was a tradition that the Delphic oracle was consulted as early as the period of the kings of Rome during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus.[187] On the occasion of a pestilence in the 430s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".[188] During the Second Punic War in 212 BCE, the Ludi Apollinares ("Apollonian Games") were instituted in his honor, on the instructions of a prophecy attributed to one Marcius.[189] In the time of Augustus, who considered himself under the special protection of Apollo
Apollo
and was even said to be his son, his worship developed and he became one of the chief gods of Rome.[190][185] After the battle of Actium, which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus
Augustus
enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.[191] He also erected a new temple to the god on the Palatine hill.[192] Sacrifices and prayers on the Palatine to Apollo
Apollo
and Diana formed the culmination of the Secular Games, held in 17 BCE to celebrate the dawn of a new era.[193] Festivals The chief Apollonian festivals were the Boedromia, Carneia, Carpiae, Daphnephoria, Delia, Hyacinthia, Metageitnia, Pyanepsia, Pythia
Pythia
and Thargelia. Attributes and symbols Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara (an advanced version of the common lyre), the plectrum and the sword. Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod, representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi. The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games.[185]

Gold stater of the Seleucid
Seleucid
king Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter
(reigned 281–261 BCE) showing on the reverse a nude Apollo
Apollo
holding his key attributes: two arrows and a bow

The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo
Apollo
because he had been born under one in Delos. Animals sacred to Apollo
Apollo
included wolves, dolphins, roe deer, swans, cicadas (symbolizing music and song), hawks, ravens, crows, snakes (referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy), mice and griffins, mythical eagle–lion hybrids of Eastern origin.[185]

Apollo Citharoedus
Apollo Citharoedus
(" Apollo
Apollo
with a kithara"), Musei Capitolini, Rome

As god of colonization, Apollo
Apollo
gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, 750–550 BCE. According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention a Minor Asian god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars. In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves (possibly a folk etymology). In literary contexts, Apollo
Apollo
represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus, god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder. The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo
Apollo
at winter left for Hyperborea, he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus. This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo
Apollo
is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony. Apollo
Apollo
in the arts

The Louvre Apollo
Apollo
Sauroctonos, Roman copy after Praxiteles
Praxiteles
(360 BC)

Apollo
Apollo
is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance. The earliest Greek word for a statue is "delight" (ἄγαλμα, agalma), and the sculptors tried to create forms which would inspire such guiding vision. Greek art puts into Apollo
Apollo
the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined. The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought. The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity. The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment. The statues of Apollo
Apollo
embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros
Kouros
type in early archaic period, to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period. In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos. Finally Praxiteles
Praxiteles
seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization. Art and Greek philosophy The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales
Thales
to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras. Thales
Thales
searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism. This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms.[194] Pythagoras
Pythagoras
believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.[103] The forms on earth, are imperfect imitations (εἰκόνες, eikones, "images") of the celestial world of numbers. His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.[195] (canon). In classical Greece, Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras
asserted that a divine reason (mind) gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato
Plato
extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms (ideai, "ideas"). The forms on earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The Greek words oida (οἶδα, "(I) know") and eidos (εἶδος, "species"), a thing seen, have the same root as the word idea (ἰδέα), a thing ἰδείν to see.[196][197] indicating how the Greek mind moved from the gift of the senses, to the principles beyond the senses. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization. The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual. Archaic sculpture

Sacred Gate
Sacred Gate
Kouros, marble (610–600 BC), Kerameikos
Kerameikos
Archaeological Museum in Athens

Kouros
Kouros
(male youth) is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece. This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo.[198][199] The first statues are certainly still and formal. The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason. The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness. When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods.[200] The adoption of a standard recognizable type for a long time, is probably because nature gives preference in survival of a type which has long be adopted by the climatic conditions, and also due to the general Greek belief that nature expresses itself in ideal forms that can be imagined and represented.[195] These forms expressed immortality. Apollo
Apollo
was the immortal god of ideal balance and order. His shrine in Delphi, that he shared in winter with Dionysius had the inscriptions: γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi seautón="know thyself") and μηδὲν ἄγαν (mēdén ágan, "nothing in excess"), and ἐγγύα πάρα δ'ἄτη (eggýa pára d'atē, "make a pledge and mischief is nigh").[201]

New York Kouros, Met. Mus. 32.11.1, marble (620–610 BC), Metropolitan Museum of Art

In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period (640–580 BC), the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life. The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive. This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself.[202] A fine example is the statue of the Sacred Gate
Sacred Gate
Kouros
Kouros
which was found at the cemetery of Dipylon
Dipylon
in Athens
Athens
( Dipylon
Dipylon
Kouros). The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity. According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus, and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move. It is considered that he created also the New York kouros, which is the oldest fully preserved statue of Kouros
Kouros
type, and seems to be the incarnation of the god himself.[194]

Piraeus
Piraeus
Apollo, archaic-style bronze, Archaeological Museum of Piraeus

The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality, is sanctified in the Homeric
Homeric
poems and in Greek myths, in stories of the god Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(Phaistos) and the mythic Daedalus
Daedalus
(the builder of the labyrinth) that made images which moved of their own accord. This kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was the representation of motion in a specific moment.[203] These free-standing statues were usually marble, but also the form rendered in limestone, bronze, ivory and terracotta. The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos. Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo
Apollo
with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo
Apollo
Ptoios, Boeotia
Boeotia
alone.[204] The last stage in the development of the Kouros
Kouros
type is the late archaic period (520–485 BC), in which the Greek sculpture attained a full knowledge of human anatomy and used to create a relative harmonious whole. Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece bronze Piraeus
Piraeus
Apollo. It was found in Piraeus, the harbour of Athens. The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of pouring libation in its right hand. It probably comes from north-eastern Peloponnesus. The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art. The statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts Ionian influence in Athens. Finally, this is the germ from which the art of Polykleitos
Polykleitos
was to grow two or three generations later.[205]

Classical sculpture

Apollo
Apollo
of the "Mantoua type", marble Roman copy after a 5th-century BCE Greek original attributed to Polykleitos, Musée du Louvre

At the beginning of the Classical period, it was considered that beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry and proportions. The artists tried also to represent motion in a specific moment (Myron), which may be considered as the reappearance of the dormant Minoan element.[203] Anatomy and geometry are fused in one, and each does something to the other. The Greek sculptors tried to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they sought some reality behind appearances. Polykleitos
Polykleitos
in his Canon wrote that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements (materials), but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with one another and with the whole. It seems that he was influenced by the theories of Pythagoras.[206] The famous Apollo
Apollo
of Mantua and its variants are early forms of the Apollo Citharoedus
Apollo Citharoedus
statue type, in which the god holds the cithara in his left arm. The type is represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to works of Polykleitos
Polykleitos
but more archaic. The Apollo
Apollo
held the cythara against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his biceps. Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone. The statues of Apollo
Apollo
were thought to incarnate his living presence, and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age. Just as the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses clear form, and the form of a work of art. Spiritual life is incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied wherever the conditions were the same. Artists and sculptors tried to find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate intellect, as to the whole sentient self.[194] Things as we see them, and as they really are, are one, that each stresses the nature of the other in a single unity. Pediments and friezes

Apollo, West Pediment Olympia. Munich, copy from original, 460 BCE at the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece.

In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with acute angles at the base. The Siphnian Treasury
Siphnian Treasury
in Delphi
Delphi
was one of the first Greek buildings utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting or kneeling. The pediment shows the story of Heracles
Heracles
stealing Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular inspiration. Their two figures hold the centre. In the pediment of the temple of Zeus
Zeus
in Olympia, the single figure of Apollo
Apollo
is dominating the scene.[200]

Head of the Apollo
Apollo
Belvedere

These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye for their own visible sake. They care for the schematic arrangements of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole. While each scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the general sequence to which it belongs. In these archaic pediments the sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a greater freedom and economy.[200] Hellenistic Greece-Rome Apollo
Apollo
as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a kithara (as Apollo
Apollo
Citharoedus) or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree (the Apollo Lykeios
Apollo Lykeios
and Apollo Sauroctonos
Apollo Sauroctonos
types). The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance
Renaissance
through the 19th century. The marble is a Hellenistic or Roman copy of a bronze original by the Greek sculptor Leochares, made between 350 and 325 BCE. The life-size so-called "Adonis" found in 1780 on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana
Via Labicana
in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is identified as an Apollo
Apollo
by modern scholars. In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem, Roman Thysdrus, he is identifiable as Apollo
Apollo
Helios
Helios
by his effulgent halo, though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire. Another haloed Apollo
Apollo
in mosaic, from Hadrumentum, is in the museum at Sousse.[207] The conventions of this representation, head tilted, lips slightly parted, large-eyed, curling hair cut in locks grazing the neck, were developed in the 3rd century BCE to depict Alexander the Great.[208] Some time after this mosaic was executed, the earliest depictions of Christ would also be beardless and haloed. Modern reception Apollo
Apollo
has often featured in postclassical art and literature. Percy Bysshe Shelley composed a "Hymn of Apollo" (1820), and the god's instruction of the Muses
Muses
formed the subject of Igor Stravinsky's Apollon musagète
Apollon musagète
(1927–1928). In 1978, the Canadian band Rush released an album with songs "Apollo: Bringer of Wisdom"/"Dionysus: Bringer of Love". In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian
Apollonian and Dionysian
impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance. Charles Handy, in Gods of Management (1978) uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture. Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason and bureaucracy prevail.[209] In spaceflight, the NASA
NASA
program for landing astronauts on the Moon was named Apollo. Genealogy

Left: Surya
Surya
on a quadriga, Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
relief, India. Right: Classical example of Phoebus Apollo
Apollo
on quadriga.

The Overthrow of Apollo
Apollo
and the Pagan Gods, watercolour from William Blake's illustrations of On the Morning of Christ's Nativity (1809)

Apollo's family tree [210]

Uranus

Gaia

Uranus' genitals

Coeus

Phoebe

Cronus

Rhea

Leto

Zeus

Hera

Poseidon

Hades

Demeter

Hestia

APOLLO

Artemis

    a [211]

     b [212]

Ares

Hephaestus

Metis

Athena
Athena
[213]

Maia

Hermes

Semele

Dionysus

Dione

    a [214]

     b [215]

Aphrodite

See also

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Dryad Epirus Pasiphaë Phoebus (other) Sibylline oracles Tegyra Temple of Apollo
Apollo
(other)

Notes

^ Krauskopf, I. 2006. "The Grave and Beyond." The Religion of the Etruscans. edited by N. de Grummond and E. Simon. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. vii, p. 73-75. ^ For the iconography of the Alexander– Helios
Helios
type, see H. Hoffmann, 1963. "Helios", in Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt
Egypt
2, pp. 117–23; cf. Yalouris 1980, no. 42. ^ Joseph Fontenrose, " Apollo
Apollo
and Sol in the Latin poets of the first century BC", Transactions of the American Philological Association 30 (1939), pp 439–55; " Apollo
Apollo
and the Sun-God in Ovid", American Journal of Philology 61 (1940) pp 429–44; and " Apollo
Apollo
and Sol in the Oaths of Aeneas
Aeneas
and Latinus" Classical Philology 38.2 (April 1943), pp. 137–138. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 118. ^ Herda, Alexander (2008). "Apollon Delphinios – Apollon Didymeus: Zwei Gesichter eines milesischen Gottes und ihr Bezug zur Kolonisation Milets in archaischer Zeit". Internationale Archäologie (in German). Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Symposium, Tagung, Kongress. Band 11: Kult(ur)kontakte. Apollon in Milet/Didyma, Histria, Myus, Naukratis und auf Zypern. Akten des Table Ronde in Mainz vom 11.–12. März 2004: 16. ISBN 978-3-89646-441-5.  ^ "KN 842 E", DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo, University of Oslo. Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas . ^ a b c van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Brill. p. 73. ISBN 978-90-04-11119-6.  ^ "The young men became grown-up kouroi, and Apollon was the "megistos kouros" (The Great Kouros) : Jane Ellen Harrison (2010): Themis: A study to the Social origins of Greek Religion Cambridge University Press. pp. 439–441, ISBN 1108009492 ^ Visible Religion. Volume IV–V. Approaches to Iconology. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1985 p. 143 [1] ^ a b The word usually appears in plural: Hesychius: ἀπέλλαι (apellai), σηκοί ("folds"), ἐκκλησίαι ("assemblies"), ἀρχαιρεσίαι ("elections"): Nilsson, Vol. I, p. 556 ^ Doric Greek
Doric Greek
verb: ἀπέλλάζειν ("to assemble"), and the festival ἀπέλλαι (apellai), which surely belonged to Apollo. Nilsson, Vol I, p. 556. ^ Beekes, 2009, pp. 115 and 118–119. ^ Mike Campbell. "Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Apollo". Behind the Name. Retrieved 30 July 2013.  ^ The ἁπλοῦν suggestion is repeated by Plutarch
Plutarch
in Moralia
Moralia
in the sense of "unity". ^ a b c Freese 1911, p. 184. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1168. ^ Πέλλα / Pella, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon ^ Nilsson Vol I, p.558 ^ Martin Nilsson, Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion, vol. I (C. H. Beck), 1955:555–564. ^ The reading of Apaliunas and the possible identification with Apollo is due to Emil Forrer (1931). It was doubted by Kretschmer, Glotta XXIV, p. 250. Martin Nilsson (1967), Vol I, p. 559 ^ a b de Grummond, Nancy Thomson (2006) Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology); Mackenzie, Donald A. (2005) Myths of Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria
Assyria
(Gutenberg) ^ Angel, John L.; Mellink, Machteld Johanna (1986). Troy
Troy
and the Trojan War: A Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984. Bryn Mawr Commentaries. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-929524-59-7.  ^ Melchert, Harold Craig (1994). Anatolian Historical Phonology. Rodopi. ISBN 905183697X.  ^ Immerwahr, Sara Anderson; Chapin, Anne Proctor (2004). Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr. Amer School of Classical. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87661-533-1.  ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1582. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, iv. 1730; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Biblioteca, i. 9. § 26 ^ a b c d Álvaro Jr., Santos, Allan. Simbolismo divino. Allan Álvaro, Jr., Santos.  ^ Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 4. 4 (A.F. Scholfield, tr.) ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
xiii. 715 ^ Strabo, x. p. 451 ^ Wiliam Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Acraepheus ^ a b Σμινθεύς in Liddell and Scott ^ The epithet "Smintheus" has historically been confused with σμίνθος, "mouse", in association with Apollo's role as a god of disease ^ Smith, William (1873). "Acesius". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London.  At the Perseus
Perseus
Project. ^ Euripides, Andromache 901 ^ παιών ^ κλάρος ^ Μουσαγέτας in Liddell and Scott. ^ Miranda J. Green, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1997 ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII, 1863–1986; A. Ross, Pagan Celtic Britain, 1967; M.J. Green, The Gods of the Celts, 1986, London ^ J. Zwicker, Fontes Historiae Religionis Celticae, 1934–36, Berlin; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V, XI, XII, XIII; J. Gourcest, "Le culte de Belenos en Provence occidentale et en Gaule", Ogam 6.6 (1954:257–262); E. Thevonot, "Le cheval sacre dans la Gaule de l'Est", Revue archeologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est (vol 2), 1951; [], "Temoignages du culte de l'Apollon gaulois dans l'Helvetie romaine", Revue celtique (vol 51), 1934. ^ W.J. Wedlake, The Excavation of the Shrine of Apollo
Apollo
at Nettleton, Wiltshire, 1956–1971, Society of Antiquaries of London, 1982. ^ M. Szabo, The Celtic Heritage in Hungary (Budapest 1971) ^ a b Divinites et sanctuaires de la Gaule, E. Thevonat, 1968, Paris ^ a b La religion des Celtes, J. de Vries, 1963, Paris ^ J. Le Gall, Alesia, archeologie et histoire (Paris 1963). ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII ^ Martin Nilsson (1967)".Die Geschicte der Giechischen Religion.Vol I".C.F.Beck Verlag.Munchen. p 529 ^ Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion, 1985:144. ^ a b Martin Nilsson. Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion Vol I, pp. 563–564 ^ Paieon (Παιήων) puts pain-relieving medicines on the wounds of Pluton and Ares
Ares
( Ilias
Ilias
E401). This art is related with Egypt: ( Odyssey
Odyssey
D232): M. Nilsson Vol I, p. 543 ^ Schofield, Louise (2007). The Mycenaeans. The British Museum Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-89236-867-9.  ^ "KN V 52+". Deaditerranean: Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B.  ^ Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-521-29037-6.  At Google Books. ^ Ἐπὶ καταπαύσει λοιμῶν καὶ νόσων ᾄδόμενος. Which is sung to stop the plagues and the diseases. Proklos: Chrestom from Photios Bibl. code. 239, p. 321: Martin Nilsson. Die Geschicthe der Griechischen religion. Vol I, p. 543 ^ a b "The conception that the diseases come from invisible shots sent by magicians or supernatural beings is common in primitive people and also in European folklore. In North-Europe they speak of the "Elf-shots". In Sweden where the Lapps were called magicians, they speak of the "Lappen-shots". Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 541 ^ Ilias
Ilias
A 314. Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 543 ^ [2]: Harper's Dictionary of classical antiquity ^ Perseus.tufts.edu ^ Pausanias VIII 41, 8-IV 34, 7-Sittig. Nom P. 48. f-Aristoph. Vesp. V. 61-Paus. I 3, 4. Martin Nilsson (1967) Vol I, p. 540, 544 ^ Graf, Fritz (2008). Apollo. Taylor & Francis. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-203-58171-1.  ^ " Apollo
Apollo
Victorious over the Python". The Walters Art Museum. Retrieved 21 June 2013.  ^ Graf, Apollo, pp. 104–113; Burkert also notes in this context Archilochus
Archilochus
Fr. 94. ^ Walter Burkert (1985) Greek Religion. Harvard University Press. p. 255 ^ Jane Ellen Harrison (2010): Themis: A study to the Social origins of Greek Religion. Cambridge University Press. p. 441. ISBN 1108009492 ^ Compare: Baetylus. In Semitic: sacred stone ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I. p. 556 ^ Herbert W. Park (1956). The delphic oracle. Vol.I, p. 3 ^ Lewis Farnel(1909)The cult of the city states. Clarendon Press. VIII. pp. 8–10 ^ δελφύς ^ "Many pictures show the serpent Python living in amity with Apollo and guarding the Omphalos. Karl Kerenyi
Karl Kerenyi
(1951). ed. 1980: The gods of the Greeks, pp. 36–37 ^ "In a Pompeian fresco Python is lying peacefully on the ground and the priests with the sacred double axe in their hand bring the bull (bouphronion). Jane. H. Harisson (1912): Themis. A study of the social origins of the Greek religion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 423–424 ^ In Minoan religion the serpent is the protector of the household (underground stored corn). Also in Greek religion, "snake of the house" (οἰκουρὸς ὄφις) in the temple of Athena
Athena
at Acropolis, etc., and in Greek folklore. Martin Nilsson, Vol.I, pp. 213–214 ^ Nordig sagas. Hittite myth of Illuyankas. Also in the Bible: Leviathan. W. Porzig (1930). Illuyankas
Illuyankas
and Typhon. Kleinasiatische Forschung, pp. 379–386 ^ a b . Martin Nilsson (1967), Vol I, pp. 499–500 ^ Hall, Alaric. 2005. 'Getting Shot of Elves: Healing, Witchcraft and Fairies in the Scottish Witchcraft Trials', [3], 116 (2005), pp. 19–36. ^ For Śarva as a name of Shiva
Shiva
see: Apte, p. 910. ^ For association between Rudra
Rudra
and disease, with Rigvedic references, see: Bhandarkar, p. 146. ^ Odyssey
Odyssey
8.80 ^ Huxley (1975). Cretan Paewones. Roman and Byzantine studies, pp. 129–134 ^ H.G.Wunderlich. The secret of Creta
Creta
Souvenir Press Ltd. London p. 319 ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 554 A4 ^ Hugh Bowden (2005). Classical Athens
Athens
and the Delphic oracle, pp. 17–18 ^ William J. Broad (2006). The oracle: the lost secrets and hidden message of ancient Delphi. Penguin Group USA. p. 32. ISBN 1-59420-081-5.  ^ μάντις in Liddell and Scott. ^ Walter Burkert (1985).The Greek religion. p. 116 ^ F.Schachermeyer (1964). p. 128 ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, pp. 543–545 ^ Plutarch, Life of Solon, 12; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 1. ^ Paul Kretschmer (1936). Glotta XXIV p. 250. Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 559. ^ "EDIANA - Corpus". www.ediana.gwi.uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ "The Archaeological Exploration of Sardis". sardisexpedition.org. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ Martin Nilsson, Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. vol. I (C. H. Beck), 1955:563f. ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 561. ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I. pp. 559–560. ^ "You Apollo
Apollo
Smintheus, let my tears become your arrows against the Danaans, for revenge". Iliad
Iliad
1.33 (A 33). ^ An ancient aetiological myth connects sminthos with mouse and suggests Cretan origin. Apollo
Apollo
is the mouse-god ( Strabo
Strabo
13.1.48). ^ "Sminthia" in several areas of Greece. In Rhodes
Rhodes
(Lindos) they belong to Apollo
Apollo
and Dionysos who have destroyed the rats that were swallowing the grapes". Martin Nilsson (1967). pp. 534–535. ^ Burkert 1985:143. ^ Herodotus, 1.46. ^ Lucian
Lucian
(attrib.), De Dea Syria
De Dea Syria
35–37. ^ To know what a thing is, we must know the look of it": Rhys Carpenter: The esthetic basis of Greek art. Indiana University Press. p. 108 ^ a b C. M. Bowra (1957). The Greek experience, p. 166. ^ William Dinsmoor (1950),The architecture of Ancient Greece, p. 218, ISBN 0-8196-0283-3 ^ a b William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. p. 384 ^ Hellenic Ministry of culture, Temple of Apollo
Apollo
Daphnephoros Archived 12 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rufus B. Richardson, "A Temple in Eretria" The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 10.3 (July – September 1895:326–337) ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 529 ^ Robertson pp. 56 and 323 ^ a b Spivey, p. 112 ^ Robertson p. 87 ^ a b c d D.S Robertson(1945):A handbook of Greek and Roman architecture, Cambridge University Press pp. 324-329 ^ Robertson, p. 98 ^ Mertens 2006, pp. 104–109. ^ IG XIV 269 ^ Temple of Apollo
Apollo
at Delphi, Ancient-Greece.org ^ Smith, William (1850). New classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography. p. 1. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ See reports of the German Archaeological Institute in Archaeological Reports for 2008/9 43-45 ^ Hellenic Ministry of Culture: The Temple of Epicurean Apollo. ^ Temple of Apollo
Apollo
Epicurius at Bassae, World Heritage Site. ^ Ministry of culture. Temple of Apollo
Apollo
Pythios Sotir Archived 2 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Peter Schneider: Neue Funde vom archaischen Apollontempel in Didyma. In: Ernst-Ludwig Schwandner (ed.): Säule und Gebälk. Zu Struktur und Wandlungsprozeß griechisch-römischer Architektur. Bauforschungskolloquium in Berlin vom 16.-18. Juni 1994. Diskussionen zur Archäologischen Bauforschung ^ perseus tufts Clarus ^ Prophecy centre of Apollo
Apollo
Clarius ^ Bresson (2007) 154-5, citing the excavations reports of Özgünel (2001). ^ Robertson p.333 ^ a b Robertson pp. 200-201 ^ Perseus
Perseus
tufts: Falerii Veteres ^ Davidson CSA :Temple of Apollo, Pompeii
Pompeii
Archived 6 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Livy
Livy
4.25 ^ Livy
Livy
34.43 ^ A topographical dictionary of Ancient Rome ^ Testa, Michael (19 March 2002). "New find at Mdina
Mdina
most important so far in old capital". Times of Malta. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016.  ^ ἑβδομαγενής in Liddell and Scott. ^ Children of the Gods by Kenneth McLeish, page 32. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliothke iii. 10.4. ^ "The love-stories themselves were not told until later." Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks 1951:140. ^ The ancient Daphne
Daphne
episode is noted in late narratives, notably in Ovid, Metamorphoses, in Hyginus, Fabulae, 203 and by the fourth-century-CE teacher of rhetoric and Christian convert, Libanius, in Narrationes. ^ G. Shipley, "The Extent of Spartan Territory in the Late Classical and Hellenistic Periods", The Annual of the British School at Athens, 2000. ^ Pausanias, 3.24.8 (on-line text); Lilius Gregorius Gyraldus, Historiae Deorum Gentilium, Basel, 1548, Syntagma 10, is noted in this connection in Benjamin Hederich, Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon, 1770 ^ Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks, 1951:141 ^ Rufus B. Richardson, "A Temple in Eretria" The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 10.3 (July - September 1895:326–337); Paul Auberson, Eretria. Fouilles et Recherches I, Temple d'Apollon Daphnéphoros, Architecture (Bern, 1968). See also Plutarch, Pythian Oracle, 16. ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.3.4. Other ancient sources, however, gave the Corybantes
Corybantes
different parents; see Sir James Frazer's note on the passage in the Bibliotheca. ^ Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1491 ff ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1491 ff ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10. 16. 5 ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 7. 1 ^ Photius, Lexicon s. v. Linos ^ Servius
Servius
on Virgil's Eclogue 1, 65 ^ Photius, Lexicon, s. v. Eumolpidai ^ Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 7. 56 - 57 p. 196 ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 2. 498 ^ Tzetzes
Tzetzes
on Lycophron, 77 ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica
Argonautica
4.828, referring to "Hesiod", Megalai Ehoiai fr. ^ Tzetzes
Tzetzes
on Lycophron, 266 ^ Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, 4. 26; not the same as Hypsipyle
Hypsipyle
of Lemnos ^ Servius
Servius
on Aeneid, 3. 332 ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. Patara ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.10.6. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.10.6, 26.1. ^ Photius, Lexicon, s. v. Kynneios ^ Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, 4. 26 ^ Etymologicum Magnum
Etymologicum Magnum
507, 54, under Keios ^ Etymologicum Magnum
Etymologicum Magnum
513, 37, under Kikones ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Galeōtai ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Akraiphia ^ Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Ode 4. 181 ^ Suda
Suda
s. v. Marathōn ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v Megara ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8. 25. 4 ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. Ogkeion ^ Servius
Servius
on Aeneid, 10. 179 ^ αἰαῖ, αἴ in Liddell and Scott. ^ Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo, 49. ^ a b Plutarch, Life of Numa, 4. 5. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 11. 258; 19. 181. ^ Philostratus, Letters, 5. 3. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 23. ^ Servius
Servius
on Aeneid, 3. 279. ^ Plutarch, Life of Numa, 4. 5, cf. also Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy, 2. 14. ^ Clement of Rome, Homilia, 5. 15. ^ " Homeric
Homeric
Hymn to Hermes
Hermes
(IV, 1-506)". Perseus. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo2.5 ^ Man Myth and Magic by Richard Cavendish ^ a b c d Freese 1911, p. 185. ^ "Koronis". Theoi. Retrieved 30 July 2013.  ^ Livy
Livy
1.56. ^ Livy
Livy
3.63.7, 4.25.3. ^ Livy
Livy
25.12. ^ J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz (1979). Continuity and Change in Roman Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–85. ISBN 0-19-814822-4.  ^ Suetonius, Augustus
Augustus
18.2; Cassius Dio 51.1.1–3. ^ Cassius Dio 53.1.3. ^ Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 5050, translated by Beard, Mary; North, John; Price, Simon (1998). Religions of Rome: Volume 2: A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5.7b. ISBN 0-521-45015-2.  ^ a b c E. Homann-Wedeking. Transl. J.R. Foster (1968). Art of the world. Archaic Greece, Methuen & Co Ltd. London, pp. 63–65, 193. ^ a b R. Carpenter (1975). The esthetic basis of Greek art. Indiana University Press. pp. 55–58. ^ ”The same root of looking or seeing” . R. Carpenter (1975). The esthetic basis of Greek art. Indiana University Press. p.107. ^ idea ^ V.I. Leonardos(1895). Archaelogiki Ephimeris, Col 75, n 1. ^ Lechat (1904). La sculpture Attic avant Phidias, p. 23. ^ a b c C. M. Bowra (1957). The Greek experience, pp. 144–152. ^ See ἄτη in Liddell and Scott. ^ C.M. Bowra. The Greek experience, p. 159. ^ a b F. Schachermeyer (1964). Die Minoische Kultur des alten Creta, Kohlhammer Stuttgart, pp. 242–244. ^ J. Ducat (1971). Les Kouroi des Ptoion. ^ Homann-Wedeking (1966). Art of the World. Archaic Greece, pp. 144–150. ^ "Each part (finger, palm, arm, etc.) transmitted its individual existence to the next, and then to the whole" : Canon of Polykleitos, also Plotinus, Ennead I vi. i: Nigel Spivey (1997). Greek art, Phaidon Press Ltd. London. pp. 290–294. ^ "Mosaics in Tunisia: Apollo
Apollo
and the Muses". Web.archive.org. 8 July 2008. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2013.  ^ Bieber 1964, Yalouris 1980. ^ British Library: Management and Business Studies Portal, Charles Handy Archived 12 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine., accessed 12 November 2016 ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted. ^ According to Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
927–929, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena
Athena
was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus
Zeus
impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus
Zeus
himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
"from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
183–200, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
( Iliad
Iliad
3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References Primary sources

Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Sophocles, Oedipus
Oedipus
Rex Palaephatus, On Unbelievable Tales 46. Hyacinthus (330 BCE) Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
10. 162–219 (1–8 CE) Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Philostratus the Elder, Images i.24 Hyacinthus (170–245 CE) Philostratus the Younger, Images 14. Hyacinthus (170–245 CE) Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 14 (170 CE) First Vatican Mythographer, 197. Thamyris et Musae

Secondary sources

M. Bieber, 1964. Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in Greek and Roman Art. Chicago. Hugh Bowden, 2005. Classical Athens
Athens
and the Delphic Oracle: Divination and Democracy. Cambridge University Press. Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard University Press) III.2.5 passim  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Freese, John Henry (1911). "Apollo". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 184–186.  Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). Fritz Graf (2009). Apollo. Taylor & Francis US. ISBN 978-0-415-31711-5.  Robert Graves, 1960. The Greek Myths, revised edition. Penguin. Miranda J. Green, 1997. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and Hudson. Karl Kerenyi, 1953. Apollon: Studien über Antiken Religion und Humanität revised edition. Karl Kerenyi, 1951. The Gods of the Greeks Mertens, Dieter; Schutzenberger, Margareta. Città e monumenti dei Greci d'Occidente: dalla colonizzazione alla crisi di fine V secolo a.C.. Roma L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2006. ISBN 88-8265-367-6. Martin Nilsson, 1955. Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion, vol. I. C.H. Beck. Pauly–Wissowa, Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft: II, "Apollon". The best repertory of cult sites (Burkert). Pfeiff, K.A., 1943. Apollon: Wandlung seines Bildes in der griechischen Kunst. Traces the changing iconography of Apollo. D.S.Robertson (1945) A handbook of Greek and Roman Architecture Cambridge University Press Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Apollo" Spivey Nigel (1997) Greek art Phaedon Press Ltd.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Apollo.

Look up Apollo
Apollo
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Apollo
Apollo
at the Greek Mythology
Mythology
Link, by Carlos Parada The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1650 images of Apollo

v t e

Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric
Homeric
Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic
Apotropaic
magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

v t e

Ancient Roman religion
Ancient Roman religion
and mythology

Deities

Apollo Bellona Bona Dea Castor and Pollux Ceres Cupid Diana Dīs Pater Egeria Fauna Faunus Flora Genius Hercules Janus Juno Jupiter Lares Liber Libertas Lucina Mars Mercury Minerva Orcus Neptune Penates Pluto Pomona Priapus Proserpina Quirinus Saturn Silvanus Sol Venus Vesta Vulcan

Abstract deities

Abundantia Aequitas Concordia Fides Fortuna Pietas Roma Salus Securitas Spes Victoria Terra

Legendary figures

Aeneas Rhea Silvia Romulus and Remus Numa Pompilius Tullus Hostilius Servius
Servius
Tullius Ancus Marcius Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Texts

Virgil

Aeneid

Ovid

Metamorphoses Fasti

Propertius Apuleius

The Golden Ass

Varro

Concepts and practices

Religion in ancient Rome Festivals Interpretatio graeca Imperial cult Temples

See also

Glossary of ancient Roman religion Greek mythology Myth and ritual Classical mythology Conversion to Christianity Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

v t e

" Apollo
Apollo
and Daphne" from Ovid's Metamorphoses

Characters

Apollo Daphne

Operas

Dafne
Dafne
(1597) La Dafne
Dafne
(1608) Dafne
Dafne
(1627) Gli amori d' Apollo
Apollo
e di Dafne
Dafne
(1640) Daphne
Daphne
(1938)

Other

Apollo
Apollo
e Dafne
Dafne
(cantata) Apollo and Daphne
Apollo and Daphne
(sculpture)

Other

Daphnomancy The Wood of Suicides

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3261638 LCCN: n2014033988 GND: 118503642 SUDOC: 027476537 BNF:

.