Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and
Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn
(GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn;
Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν,
Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of
the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek
and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic
Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth
and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more.
Apollo is the son of
Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste
Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan
mythology as Apulu.
As the patron of
Delphi (Pythian Apollo),
Apollo was an oracular
god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing
are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or
mediated through his son Asclepius, yet
Apollo was also seen as a god
who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the god's
Apollo became associated with dominion over
colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the
leader of the
Muses (Apollon Musegetes) and director of their choir,
Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes
created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute
of Apollo. Hymns sung to
Apollo were called paeans.
In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo
Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the
sun, and his sister
Artemis similarly equated with Selene, Titan
goddess of the moon. In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph
Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo
with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the
Aeneid XII (161–215).
Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and
mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.
1.1 Greco-Roman epithets
1.1.3 Origin and birth
1.1.4 Place of worship
Healing and disease
1.1.6 Founder and protector
1.1.7 Prophecy and truth
1.1.8 Music and arts
1.2 Celtic epithets and cult titles
2.1 Healer and god-protector from evil
2.2 Dorian origin
2.3 Minoan origin
2.4 Anatolian origin
4 Temples of Apollo
4.1 Greek temples
4.2 Etruscan and Roman temples
5.3 Trojan War
5.6 Consorts and children
5.6.1 Female lovers
5.6.2 Consorts and children: extended list
5.6.3 Male lovers
5.7 Apollo's lyre
Apollo in the Oresteia
5.9 Other stories
5.9.1 Musical contests
5.10 Roman Apollo
7 Attributes and symbols
Apollo in the arts
8.1 Art and Greek philosophy
8.2 Archaic sculpture
8.3 Classical sculpture
8.4 Pediments and friezes
8.5 Hellenistic Greece-Rome
9 Modern reception
11 See also
13.1 Primary sources
13.2 Secondary sources
14 External links
Apollo seated with lyre. Porphyry and marble, 2nd century AD. Farnese
collection, Naples, Italy.
The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is generally
not found in the
Linear B (Mycenean Greek) texts, although there is a
possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo-[ (Linear B:
]𐀟𐁊-[) on the KN E 842 tablet.
The etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων
(pronounced [a.pól.lɔːn] in Classical Attic) had almost
superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the
Doric form, Apellon (Ἀπέλλων), is more archaic, as it is
derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων. It probably is a cognate to
the Doric month Apellaios (Ἀπελλαῖος), and the offerings
apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) at the initiation of the young men
during the family-festival apellai (ἀπέλλαι). According
to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella
(ἀπέλλα), which originally meant "wall," "fence for animals"
and later "assembly within the limits of the square." Apella
(Ἀπέλλα) is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta,
corresponding to the ecclesia (ἐκκλησία). R. S. P. Beekes
rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and
Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun.
Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient
authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo's name with the
Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), "to destroy".
Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις (apolysis),
"redemption", with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), "purification",
and with ἁπλοῦν ([h]aploun), "simple", in particular in
reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and
finally with Ἀειβάλλων (aeiballon), "ever-shooting".
Hesychius connects the name
Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα
(apella), which means "assembly", so that
Apollo would be the god of
political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos),
"fold", in which case
Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds.
In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means
"stone," and some toponyms may be derived from this word:
Πέλλα (Pella, the capital of ancient Macedonia) and
A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the
name, The Hittite form
Apaliunas (dx-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš) is
attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter, perhaps related to Hurrian
(and certainly the Etruscan) Aplu, a god of plague, in turn likely
Enlil meaning simply "the son of Enlil", a title
that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash,
Babylonian god of the sun. The role of
Apollo as god of plague is
evident in the invocation of
Apollo Smintheus ("mouse Apollo") by
Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a
plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague
becoming a god of healing is apotropaic, meaning that the god
responsible for bringing the plague must be appeased in order to
remove the plague).
The Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may also
be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric
Ἀπέλλων. The name of the Lydian god Qλdãns /kʷʎðãns/
may reflect an earlier /kʷalyán-/ before palatalization, syncope,
and the pre-Lydian sound change *y > d. Note the labiovelar in
place of the labial /p/ found in pre-Doric Ἀπέλjων and Hittite
Luwian etymology suggested for
Apollo "The One of
Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".
Apollo's chief epithet was Phoebus (/ˈfiːbəs/ FEE-bəs;
Φοῖβος, Phoibos Greek pronunciation: [pʰó͜i.bos]),
literally "bright". It was very commonly used by both the Greeks
and Romans for Apollo's role as the god of light. Like other Greek
deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the
variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god. However,
Apollo has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a
few occur in Latin literature.
Aegletes (/əˈɡliːtiːz/ ə-GLEE-teez; Αἰγλήτης,
Aiglētēs), from αἴγλη, "light of the sun"
Helius (/ˈhiːliəs/ HEE-lee-əs; Ἥλιος, Helios), literally
Lyceus (/laɪˈsiːəs/ ly-SEE-əs; Λύκειος, Lykeios, from
Proto-Greek *λύκη) "light". The meaning of the epithet "Lyceus"
later became associated with Apollo's mother Leto, who was the patron
Lycia (Λυκία) and who was identified with the wolf
Phanaeus (/fəˈniːəs/ fə-NEE-əs; Φαναῖος, Phanaios),
literally "giving or bringing light"
Phoebus (/ˈfiːbəs/ FEE-bəs; Φοῖβος, Phoibos), literally
"bright", his most commonly used epithet by both the Greeks and Romans
Sol (Roman) (/sɒl/ SOL), "sun" in Latin
Lycegenes (/laɪˈsɛdʒəniːz/ ly-SEJ-ə-neez; Λυκηγενής,
Lukēgenēs), literally "born of a wolf" or "born of Lycia"
Lycoctonus (/laɪˈkɒktənəs/ ly-KOK-tə-nəs; Λυκοκτόνος,
Lykoktonos), from λύκος, "wolf", and κτείνειν, "to kill"
Origin and birth
Apollo's birthplace was Mount
Cynthus on the island of Delos.
Cynthius (/ˈsɪnθiəs/ SIN-thee-əs; Κύνθιος, Kunthios),
Cynthogenes (/sɪnˈθɒdʒɪniːz/ sin-THOJ-i-neez;
Κυνθογενής, Kynthogenēs), literally "born of Cynthus"
Delius (/ˈdiːliəs/ DEE-lee-əs; Δήλιος, Delios), literally
Didymaeus (/dɪdɪˈmiːəs/ did-i-MEE-əs; Διδυμαῖος,
Didymaios) from δίδυμος, "twin") as Artemis' twin
Partial view of the temple of
Apollo Epikurios (healer) at
Place of worship
Actium were his primary places of worship.
Acraephius (/əˈkriːfiəs/ ə-KREE-fee-əs;
Ἀκραίφιος,[clarification needed] Akraiphios, literally
"Acraephian") or Acraephiaeus (/əˌkriːfiˈiːəs/
ə-KREE-fee-EE-əs; Ἀκραιφιαίος, Akraiphiaios),
"Acraephian", from the Boeotian town of
reputedly founded by his son Acraepheus.
Actiacus (/ækˈtaɪ.əkəs/ ak-TY-ə-kəs; Ἄκτιακός,
Aktiakos), literally "Actian", after
Delphinius (/dɛlˈfɪniəs/ del-FIN-ee-əs; Δελφίνιος,
Delphinios), literally "Delphic", after
Delphi (Δελφοί). An
etiology in the
Homeric Hymns associated this with dolphins.
Pythius (/ˈpɪθiəs/ PITH-ee-əs; Πύθιος, Puthios, from
Πυθώ, Pythō), from the region around Delphi
Smintheus (/ˈsmɪnθjuːs/ SMIN-thews; Σμινθεύς, Smintheus),
"Sminthian"—that is, "of the town of Sminthos or Sminthe" near
Troad town of Hamaxitus
Temple of the Delians at Delos, dedicated to
Apollo (478 BC).
19th-century pen-and-wash restoration.
Apollo Smintheus at Çanakkale, Turkey
Healing and disease
Acesius (/əˈsiːʒəs/ ə-SEE-zhəs; Ἀκέσιος, Akesios), from
ἄκεσις, "healing". Acesius was the epithet of
in Elis, where he had a temple in the agora.
Acestor (/əˈsɛstər/ ə-SES-tər; Ἀκέστωρ, Akestōr),
Culicarius (Roman) (/ˌkjuːlɪˈkæriəs/ KEW-li-KARR-ee-əs), from
Latin culicārius, "of midges"
Iatrus (/aɪˈætrəs/ eye-AT-rəs; Ἰατρός, Iātros), literally
Medicus (Roman) (/ˈmɛdɪkəs/ MED-i-kəs), "physician" in Latin. A
temple was dedicated to
Apollo Medicus at Rome, probably next to the
temple of Bellona.
Paean (/ˈpiːən/ PEE-ən; Παιάν, Paiān),physician, healer 
Parnopius (/pɑːrˈnoʊpiəs/ par-NOH-pee-əs; Παρνόπιος,
Parnopios), from πάρνοψ, "locust"
Founder and protector
Agyieus (/əˈdʒaɪ.ɪjuːs/ ə-JY-i-yoos; Ἀγυιεύς,
Aguīeus), from ἄγυια, "street", for his role in protecting
roads and homes
Alexicacus (/əˌlɛksɪˈkeɪkəs/ ə-LEK-si-KAY-kəs;
Ἀλεξίκακος, Alexikakos), literally "warding off evil"
Apotropaeus (/əˌpɒtrəˈpiːəs/ ə-POT-rə-PEE-əs;
Ἀποτρόπαιος, Apotropaios), from ἀποτρέπειν, "to
Archegetes (/ɑːrˈkɛdʒətiːz/ ar-KEJ-ə-teez;
Ἀρχηγέτης, Arkhēgetēs), literally "founder"
Averruncus (Roman) (/ˌævəˈrʌŋkəs/ AV-ə-RUNG-kəs; from Latin
āverruncare), "to avert"
Clarius (/ˈklæriəs/ KLARR-ee-əs; Κλάριος, Klārios), from
Doric κλάρος, "allotted lot"
Epicurius (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊriəs/ EP-i-KEWR-ee-əs;
Ἐπικούριος, Epikourios), from ἐπικουρέειν, "to
Genetor (/ˈdʒɛnɪtər/ JEN-i-tər; Γενέτωρ, Genetōr),
Nomius (/ˈnoʊmiəs/ NOH-mee-əs; Νόμιος, Nomios), literally
Nymphegetes (/nɪmˈfɛdʒɪtiːz/ nim-FEJ-i-teez;
Νυμφηγέτης, Numphēgetēs), from Νύμφη, "Nymph", and
ἡγέτης, "leader", for his role as a protector of shepherds and
Prophecy and truth
Coelispex (Roman) (/ˈsɛlɪspɛks/ SEL-i-speks), from Latin coelum,
"sky", and specere "to look at"
Iatromantis (/aɪˌætrəˈmæntɪs/ eye-AT-rə-MAN-tis;
Ἰατρομάντις, Iātromantis,) from ἰατρός,
"physician", and μάντις, "prophet", referring to his role as a
god both of healing and of prophecy
Leschenorius (/ˌlɛskɪˈnɔːriəs/ LES-ki-NOR-ee-əs;
Λεσχηνόριος, Leskhēnorios), from λεσχήνωρ,
Loxias (/ˈlɒksiəs/ LOK-see-əs; Λοξίας, Loxias), from
λέγειν, "to say", historically associated with λοξός,
Manticus (/ˈmæntɪkəs/ MAN-ti-kəs; Μαντικός, Mantikos),
Music and arts
Musagetes (/mjuːˈsædʒɪtiːz/ mew-SAJ-i-teez; Doric
Μουσαγέτας, Mousāgetās), from Μούσα, "Muse", and
Musegetes (/mjuːˈsɛdʒɪtiːz/ mew-SEJ-i-teez;
Μουσηγέτης, Mousēgetēs), as the preceding
Aphetor (/əˈfiːtər/ ə-FEE-tər; Ἀφήτωρ, Aphētōr), from
ἀφίημι, "to let loose"
Aphetorus (/əˈfɛtərəs/ ə-FET-ər-əs; Ἀφητόρος,
Aphētoros), as the preceding
Arcitenens (Roman) (/ɑːrˈtɪsɪnənz/ ar-TISS-i-nənz), literally
Argyrotoxus (/ˌɑːrdʒɪrəˈtɒksəs/ AR-ji-rə-TOK-səs;
Ἀργυρότοξος, Argyrotoxos), literally "with silver bow"
Hecaërgus (/ˌhɛkiˈɜːrɡəs/ HEK-ee-UR-gəs; Ἑκάεργος,
Hekaergos), literally "far-shooting"
Hecebolus (/hɪˈsɛbələs/ hi-SEB-ə-ləs; Ἑκηβόλος,
Ismenius (/ɪzˈmiːniəs/ iz-MEE-nee-əs; Ἰσμηνιός,
Ismēnios), literally "of Ismenus", after Ismenus, the son of Amphion
and Niobe, whom he struck with an arrow
Celtic epithets and cult titles
Apollo was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. In the
traditionally Celtic lands he was most often seen as a healing and sun
god. He was often equated with Celtic gods of similar character.
Apollo Atepomarus ("the great horseman" or "possessing a great
Apollo was worshipped at
Mauvières (Indre). Horses were, in
the Celtic world, closely linked to the sun.
Apollo Belenus ('bright' or 'brilliant'). This epithet was given to
Apollo in parts of Gaul, Northern Italy and
Noricum (part of modern
Apollo Belenus was a healing and sun god.
Apollo Cunomaglus ('hound lord'). A title given to
Apollo at a shrine
at Nettleton Shrub, Wiltshire. May have been a god of healing.
Cunomaglus himself may originally have been an independent healing
Apollo Grannus. Grannus was a healing spring god, later equated with
Apollo Maponus. A god known from inscriptions in Britain. This may be
a local fusion of
Apollo and Maponus.
Apollo Moritasgus ('masses of sea water'). An epithet for
Alesia, where he was worshipped as god of healing and, possibly, of
Apollo Vindonnus ('clear light').
Apollo Vindonnus had a temple at
Châtillon-sur-Seine in present-day Burgundy. He was a
god of healing, especially of the eyes.
Apollo Virotutis ('benefactor of mankind?').
Apollo Virotutis was
worshipped, among other places, at Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoie) and at
Omphalos in the Museum of Delphi
The cult centers of
Apollo in Greece,
Delphi and Delos, date from the
8th century BCE. The
Delos sanctuary was primarily dedicated to
Artemis, Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi,
Apollo was venerated as the
slayer of Pytho. For the Greeks,
Apollo was all the Gods in one and
through the centuries he acquired different functions which could
originate from different gods. In archaic Greece he was the prophet,
the oracular god who in older times was connected with "healing". In
classical Greece he was the god of light and of music, but in popular
religion he had a strong function to keep away evil. Walter
Burkert discerned three components in the prehistory of Apollo
worship, which he termed "a Dorian-northwest Greek component, a
Cretan-Minoan component, and a Syro-Hittite component."
From his eastern origin
Apollo brought the art of inspection of
"symbols and omina" (σημεία και τέρατα : semeia
kai terata), and of the observation of the omens of the days. The
inspiration oracular-cult was probably introduced from Anatolia. The
ritualism belonged to
Apollo from the beginning. The Greeks created
the legalism, the supervision of the orders of the gods, and the
demand for moderation and harmony.
Apollo became the god of shining
youth, the protector of music, spiritual-life, moderation and
perceptible order. The improvement of the old Anatolian god, and his
elevation to an intellectual sphere, may be considered an achievement
of the Greek people.
Healer and god-protector from evil
The function of
Apollo as a "healer" is connected with Paean
(Παιών-Παιήων), the physician of the Gods in the Iliad, who
seems to come from a more primitive religion. Paeοn is probably
connected with the Mycenean pa-ja-wo-ne (Linear B:
𐀞𐀊𐀍𐀚), but this is not certain. He did not
have a separate cult, but he was the personification of the holy
magic-song sung by the magicians that was supposed to cure disease.
Later the Greeks knew the original meaning of the relevant song
"paean" (παιάν). The magicians were also called "seer-doctors"
(ἰατρομάντεις), and they used an ecstatic prophetic art
which was used exactly by the god
Apollo at the oracles.
In the Iliad,
Apollo is the healer under the gods, but he is also the
bringer of disease and death with his arrows, similar to the function
Vedic god of disease Rudra. He sends a plague
(λοιμός) to the Achaeans. The god who sends a disease can also
prevent it; therefore, when it stops, they make a purifying ceremony
and offer him a hecatomb to ward off evil. When the oath of his priest
appeases, they pray and with a song they call their own god, the
Some common epithets of
Apollo as a healer are "paion" (παιών,
literally "healer" or "helper") "epikourios" (ἐπικουρώ,
"help"), "oulios" (οὐλή, "healed wound", also a "scar" ) and
"loimios" (λοιμός, "plague"). In classical times, his strong
function in popular religion was to keep away evil, and was therefore
called "apotropaios" (ἀποτρέπω, "divert", "deter", "avert")
and "alexikakos" (from v. ἀλέξω + n. κακόν, "defend from
evil"). In later writers, the word, usually spelled "Paean",
becomes a mere epithet of
Apollo in his capacity as a god of
Homer illustrated Paeon the god, and the song both of apotropaic
thanksgiving or triumph. Such songs were originally
addressed to Apollo, and afterwards to other gods: to Dionysus, to
Apollo Helios, to Apollo's son
Asclepius the healer. About the 4th
century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its
object was either to implore protection against disease and
misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been
rendered. It was in this way that
Apollo had become recognised as the
god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the Python led to his
association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom
for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering
into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory
had been won.
Apollo Victorious over the Python by the Florentine Pietro Francavilla
(dated 1591) depicting Apollo's first triumph, when he slew with his
bow and arrows the serpent Python, which lies dead at his feet
(The Walters Art Museum).
The connection with the
Dorians and their initiation festival apellai
is reinforced by the month Apellaios in northwest Greek calendars.
The family-festival was dedicated to
Ἀπέλλων). Apellaios is the month of these rites, and
Apellon is the "megistos kouros" (the great Kouros). However it
can explain only the Doric type of the name, which is connected with
the Ancient Macedonian word "pella" (Pella), stone. Stones played an
important part in the cult of the god, especially in the oracular
Homeric hymn" represents
Apollo as a Northern intruder. His
arrival must have occurred during the "Dark Ages" that followed the
destruction of the Mycenaean civilization, and his conflict with Gaia
(Mother Earth) was represented by the legend of his slaying her
daughter the serpent Python.
The earth deity had power over the ghostly world, and it is believed
that she was the deity behind the oracle. The older tales
mentioned two dragons who were perhaps intentionally conflated. A
female dragon named
Delphyne (δελφύς, "womb"), and a male
Typhon (τύφειν, "to smoke"), the adversary of
the Titanomachy, who the narrators confused with Python.
Python was the good daemon (ἀγαθὸς δαίμων) of the temple
as it appears in Minoan religion, but she was represented as a
dragon, as often happens in Northern European folklore as well as in
Apollo and his sister
Artemis can bring death with their arrows. The
conception that diseases and death come from invisible shots sent by
supernatural beings, or magicians is common in Germanic and Norse
Artemis was the leader
(ἡγεμών, "hegemon") of the nymphs, who had similar functions
with the Nordic Elves. The "elf-shot" originally indicated disease
or death attributed to the elves, but it was later attested denoting
stone arrow-heads which were used by witches to harm people, and also
for healing rituals.
Rudra has some similar functions with Apollo. The terrible
god is called "The Archer", and the bow is also an attribute of
Rudra could bring diseases with his arrows, but he was able
to free people of them, and his alternative Shiba is a healer
physician god. However the Indo-European component of
not explain his strong relation with omens, exorcisms, and with the
Ornamented golden Minoan labrys
It seems an oracular cult existed in
Delphi from the Mycenaean
age. In historical times, the priests of
Delphi were called
Labryaden, "the double-axe men", which indicates Minoan origin. The
double-axe, labrys, was the holy symbol of the Cretan
Homeric hymn adds that
Apollo appeared as a
dolphin and carried Cretan priests to Delphi, where they evidently
transferred their religious practices.
Apollo Delphinios or Delphidios
was a sea-god especially worshiped in
Crete and in the islands.
Apollo's sister Artemis, who was the Greek goddess of hunting, is
Britomartis (Diktynna), the Minoan "Mistress of the
animals". In her earliest depictions she is accompanied by the "Mister
of the animals", a male god of hunting who had the bow as his
attribute. His original name is unknown, but it seems that he was
absorbed by the more popular Apollo, who stood by the virgin "Mistress
of the Animals", becoming her brother.
The old oracles in
Delphi seem to be connected with a local tradition
of the priesthood, and there is not clear evidence that a kind of
inspiration-prophecy existed in the temple. This led some scholars to
the conclusion that
Pythia carried on the rituals in a consistent
procedure through many centuries, according to the local tradition. In
that regard, the mythical seeress
Sibyl of Anatolian origin, with her
ecstatic art, looks unrelated to the oracle itself. However, the
Greek tradition is referring to the existence of vapours and chewing
of laurel-leaves, which seem to be confirmed by recent studies.
Plato describes the priestesses of
Dodona as frenzied
women, obsessed by "mania" (μανία, "frenzy"), a Greek word he
connected with mantis (μάντις, "prophet"). Frenzied women
like Sibyls from whose lips the god speaks are recorded in the Near
East as Mari in the second millennium BC. Although
contacts with Mari from 2000 BC, there is no evidence that the
ecstatic prophetic art existed during the Minoan and Mycenean ages. It
is more probable that this art was introduced later from
regenerated an existing oracular cult that was local to
dormant in several areas of Greece.
Illustration of a coin of
Agyieus from Ambracia
A non-Greek origin of
Apollo has long been assumed in scholarship.
The name of Apollo's mother
Leto has Lydian origin, and she was
worshipped on the coasts of Asia Minor. The inspiration oracular cult
was probably introduced into Greece from Anatolia, which is the origin
of Sibyl, and where existed some of the oldest oracular shrines.
Omens, symbols, purifications, and exorcisms appear in old
Assyro-Babylonian texts, and these rituals were spread into the empire
of the Hittites. In a Hittite text is mentioned that the king invited
a Babylonian priestess for a certain "purification".
A similar story is mentioned by Plutarch. He writes that the Cretan
Athens after the pollution brought by the
Alcmeonidae, and that the seer's expertise in sacrifices and reform of
funeral practices were of great help to
Solon in his reform of the
Athenian state. The story indicates that
Epimenides was probably
heir to the shamanic religions of Asia, and proves, together with the
Homeric hymn, that
Crete had a resisting religion up to historical
times. It seems that these rituals were dormant in Greece, and they
were reinforced when the Greeks migrated to Anatolia.
Apollo on the side of the Trojans, fighting against the
Achaeans, during the Trojan War. He is pictured as a terrible god,
less trusted by the Greeks than other gods. The god seems to be
related to Appaliunas, a tutelary god of
Wilusa (Troy) in Asia Minor,
but the word is not complete. The stones found in front of the
Troy were the symbols of Apollo. A western Anatolian
origin may also be bolstered by references to the parallel worship of
Artimus (Artemis) and Qλdãns, whose name may be cognate with the
Hittite and Doric forms, in surviving Lydian texts. However,
recent scholars have cast doubt on the identification of Qλdãns with
The Greeks gave to him the name ἀγυιεύς agyieus as the
protector god of public places and houses who wards off evil, and his
symbol was a tapered stone or column. However, while usually Greek
festivals were celebrated at the full moon, all the feasts of Apollo
were celebrated at the seventh day of the month, and the emphasis
given to that day (sibutu) indicates a Babylonian origin.
Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age (from 1700 to 1200 BCE) Hittite and
was a god of plague, invoked during plague years. Here we have an
apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was
invoked to end it. Aplu, meaning the son of, was a title given to the
god Nergal, who was linked to the Babylonian god of the sun
Apollo as a terrible god (δεινὸς
θεός) who brings death and disease with his arrows, but who can
also heal, possessing a magic art that separates him from the other
Greek gods. In Iliad, his priest prays to
the mouse god who retains an older agricultural function as the
protector from field rats. All these functions, including
the function of the healer-god Paean, who seems to have Mycenean
origin, are fused in the cult of Apollo.
Columns of the Temple of
Apollo at Delphi, Greece
Unusually among the Olympic deities,
Apollo had two cult sites that
had widespread influence:
Delos and Delphi. In cult practice, Delian
Pythian Apollo (the
Apollo of Delphi) were so distinct that
they might both have shrines in the same locality. Apollo's cult
was already fully established when written sources commenced, about
Apollo became extremely important to the Greek world as an
oracular deity in the archaic period, and the frequency of theophoric
names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia
testify to his popularity.
Oracular sanctuaries to
established in other sites. In the 2nd and 3rd century CE, those at
Clarus pronounced the so-called "theological oracles", in
Apollo confirms that all deities are aspects or servants of an
all-encompassing, highest deity. "In the 3rd century,
Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate (359–361) tried to revive the Delphic
oracle, but failed."
Apollo had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Clarus
and Branchidae. His oracular shrine in
Abae in Phocis, where he bore
the toponymic epithet
Abaeus (Ἀπόλλων Ἀβαῖος, Apollon
Abaios), was important enough to be consulted by Croesus. His
oracular shrines include:
Abae in Phocis.
Bassae in the Peloponnese.
At Clarus, on the west coast of Asia Minor; as at
Delphi a holy spring
which gave off a pneuma, from which the priests drank.
In Corinth, the
Corinth came from the town of Tenea, from
prisoners supposedly taken in the Trojan War.
At Khyrse, in Troad, the temple was built for
In Delos, there was an oracle to the Delian Apollo, during summer. The
Hieron (Sanctuary) of
Apollo adjacent to the Sacred Lake, was the
place where the god was said to have been born.
In Delphi, the
Pythia became filled with the pneuma of Apollo, said to
come from a spring inside the Adyton.
In Didyma, an oracle on the coast of Anatolia, south west of Lydian
(Luwian) Sardis, in which priests from the lineage of the Branchidae
received inspiration by drinking from a healing spring located in the
temple. Was believed to have been founded by Branchus, son or lover of
In Hierapolis Bambyce, Syria (modern Manbij), according to the
treatise De Dea Syria, the sanctuary of the Syrian Goddess contained a
robed and bearded image of Apollo.
Divination was based on spontaneous
movements of this image.
At Patara, in Lycia, there was a seasonal winter oracle of Apollo,
said to have been the place where the god went from Delos. As at
Delphi the oracle at Patara was a woman.
Segesta in Sicily.
Oracles were also given by sons of Apollo.
In Oropus, north of Athens, the oracle Amphiaraus, was said to be the
son of Apollo;
Oropus also had a sacred spring.
in Labadea, 20 miles (32 km) east of Delphi, Trophonius, another
son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was
also afterwards consulted as an oracle.
Temples of Apollo
Main articles: Ancient
Greek temple and Roman temple
Many temples were dedicated to
Apollo in Greece and the Greek
colonies. They show the spread of the cult of
Apollo and the evolution
of the Greek architecture, which was mostly based on the rightness of
form and on mathematical relations. Some of the earliest temples,
especially in Crete, do not belong to any Greek order. It seems that
the first peripteral temples were rectanglular wooden structures. The
different wooden elements were considered divine, and their forms were
preserved in the marble or stone elements of the temples of Doric
order. The Greeks used standard types because they believed that the
world of objects was a series of typical forms which could be
represented in several instances. The temples should be canonic, and
the architects were trying to achieve this esthetic perfection.
From the earliest times there were certain rules strictly observed in
rectangular peripteral and prostyle buildings. The first buildings
were built narrowly in order to hold the roof, and when the dimensions
changed some mathematical relations became necessary in order to keep
the original forms. This probably influenced the theory of numbers of
Pythagoras, who believed that behind the appearance of things there
was the permanent principle of mathematics.
Doric order dominated during the 6th and the 5th century BC but
there was a mathematical problem regarding the position of the
triglyphs, which couldn’t be solved without changing the original
forms. The order was almost abandoned for the Ionic order, but the
Ionic capital also posed an insoluble problem at the corner of a
temple. Both orders were abandoned for the
Corinthian order gradually
during the Hellenistic age and under Rome.
The most important temples are:
Thebes, Greece: The oldest temple probably dedicated to Apollo
Ismenius was built in the 9th century B.C. It seems that it was a
curvilinear building. The Doric temple was built in the early 7th
century B.C., but only some small parts have been found  A
Daphnephoria was celebrated every ninth year in honour
Apollo Ismenius (or Galaxius). The people held laurel branches
(daphnai), and at the head of the procession walked a youth (chosen
priest of Apollo), who was called "daphnephoros".
Eretria: According to the
Homeric hymn to Apollo, the god arrived to
the plain, seeking for a location to establish its oracle. The first
Apollo Daphnephoros, "Apollo, laurel-bearer", or "carrying
off Daphne", is dated to 800 B.C. The temple was curvilinear
hecatombedon (a hundred feet). In a smaller building were kept the
bases of the laurel branches which were used for the first building.
Another temple probably peripteral was built in the 7th century B.C.,
with an inner row of wooden columns over its Geometric predecessor. It
was rebuilt peripteral around 510 B.C., with the stylobate measuring
21,00 x 43,00 m. The number of pteron column was 6 x 14.
Dreros (Crete). The temple of
Apollo Delphinios dates from the 7th
century B.C., or probably from the middle of the 8th century B.C.
According to the legend,
Apollo appeared as a dolphin, and carried
Cretan priests to the port of Delphi. The dimensions of the plan
are 10,70 x 24,00 m and the building was not peripteral. It contains
column-bases of the Minoan type, which may be considered as the
predecessors of the Doric columns.
Gortyn (Crete). A temple of Pythian Apollo, was built in the 7th
century B.C. The plan measured 19,00 x 16,70 m and it was not
peripteral. The walls were solid, made from limestone, and there was
single door on the east side.
Thermon (West Greece): The Doric temple of
Apollo Thermios, was built
in the middle of the 7th century B.C. It was built on an older
curvilinear building dating perhaps from the 10th century B.C., on
which a peristyle was added. The temple was narrow, and the number of
pteron columns (probably wooden) was 5 x 15. There was a single row of
inner columns. It measures 12.13 x 38.23 m at the stylobate, which was
made from stones.
Floor plan of the temple of Apollo, Corinth
Corinth: A Doric temple was built in the 6th century B.C. The temple's
stylobate measures 21.36 x 53.30 m, and the number of pteron columns
was 6 x 15. There was a double row of inner columns. The style is
similar with the Temple of
Alcmeonidae at Delphi. The Corinthians
were considered to be the inventors of the Doric order.
Napes (Lesbos): An Aeolic temple probably of
Apollo Napaios was built
in the 7th century B.C. Some special capitals with floral ornament
have been found, which are called Aeolic, and it seems that they were
borrowed from the East.
Cyrene, Libya: The oldest Doric temple of
Apollo was built in c. 600
B.C. The number of pteron columns was 6 x 11, and it measures 16.75 x
30.05 m at the stylobate. There was a double row of sixteen inner
columns on stylobates. The capitals were made from stone.
Naukratis: An Ionic temple was built in the early 6th century B.C.
Only some fragments have been found and the earlier, made from
limestone, are identified among the oldest of the Ionic order.
Floor plan of the temple of Apollo, Syracuse
Syracuse, Sicily: A Doric temple was built at the beginning of the 6th
century B.C. The temple's stylobate measures 21.47 x 55.36 m and the
number of pteron columns was 6 x 17. It was the first temple in Greek
west built completely out of stone. A second row of columns were
added, obtaining the effect of an inner porch.
Selinus (Sicily):The Doric Temple C dates from 550 B.C., and it was
probably dedicated to Apollo. The temple's stylobate measures 10.48 x
41.63 m and the number of pteron columns was 6 x 17. There was portico
with a second row of columns, which is also attested for the temple at
Delphi: The first temple dedicated to Apollo, was built in the 7th
century B.C. According to the legend, it was wooden made of laurel
branches. The "Temple of Alcmeonidae" was built in c. 513 B.C. and it
is the oldest Doric temple with significant marble elements. The
temple's stylobate measures 21.65 x 58.00 m, and the number of pteron
columns as 6 x 15. A fest similar with Apollo's fest at Thebes,
Greece was celebrated every nine years. A boy was sent to the temple,
who walked on the sacred road and returned carrying a laurel branch
(dopnephoros). The maidens participated with joyful songs.
Chios: An Ionic temple of
Apollo Phanaios was built at the end of the
6th century B.C. Only some small parts have been found and the
capitals had floral ornament.
Abae (Phocis). The temple was destroyed by the Persians in the
invasion of Xerxes in 480 B.C., and later by the Boeotians. It was
rebuilt by Hadrian. The oracle was in use from early Mycenaean
times to the Roman period, and shows the continuity of Mycenaean and
Classical Greek religion.
Floor plan of the Temple of
Apollo at Bassae
Bassae (Peloponnesus):A temple dedicated to
Apollo Epikourios ("Apollo
the helper"), was built in 430 B.C. and it was designed by Iktinos.It
combined Doric and Ionic elements, and the earliest use of column with
a Corinthian capital in the middle. The temple is of a relatively
modest size, with the stylobate measuring 14.5 x 38.3 metres
containing a Doric peristyle of 6 x 15 columns. The roof left a
central space open to admit light and air.*Delos: A temple probably
Apollo and not peripteral, was built in the late 7th
century B.C., with a plan measuring 10,00 x 15,60 m. The Doric Great
temple of Apollo, was built in c. 475 B.C. The temple's stylobate
measures 13.72 x 29.78 m, and the number of pteron columns as 6 x 13.
Marble was extensively used.
Ambracia: A Doric peripteral temple dedicated to
Apollo Pythios Sotir
was built in 500 B.C., and It is lying at the centre of the Greek city
Arta. Only some parts have been found, and it seems that the temple
was built on earlier sanctuaries dedicated to Apollo. The temple
measures 20,75 x 44,00 m at the stylobate. The foundation which
supported the statue of the god, still exists.
Temple of Apollo, Didyma
Didyma (near Miletus): The gigantic Ionic temple of
started around 540 B.C. The construction ceased and then it was
restarted in 330 B.C. The temple is dipteral, with an outer row of 10
x 21 columns, and it measures 28.90 x 80.75 m at the stylobate.
Clarus (near ancient Colophon): According to the legend, the famous
seer Calchas, on his return from Troy, came to Clarus. He challenged
the seer Mopsus, and died when he lost. The Doric temple of
Apollo Clarius was probably built in the 3rd century B.C., and it was
peripteral with 6 x 11 columns. It was reconstructed at the end of the
Hellenistic period, and later from the emperor
Hadrian but Pausanias
claims that it was still incomplete in the 2nd century B.C.
Hamaxitus (Troad): In Iliad,
Chryses the priest of Apollo, addresses
the god with the epithet Smintheus (Lord of Mice), related with the
god’s ancient role as bringer of the disease (plague). Recent
excavations indicate that the Hellenistic temple of
was constructed at 150–125 B.C., but the symbol of the mouse god was
used on coinage probably from the 4th century B.C. The temple
measures 40,00 x 23,00 m at the stylobate, and the number of pteron
columns was 8 x 14.
Etruscan and Roman temples
Veii (Etruria): The temple of
Apollo was built in the late 6th century
B.C. and it indicates the spread of Apollo’s culture (Aplu) in
Etruria. There was a prostyle porch, which is called Tuscan, and a
triple cella 18,50 m wide.
Falerii Veteres (Etruria): A temple of
Apollo was built probably in
the 4th-3rd century B.C. Parts of a teraccotta capital, and a
teraccotta base have been found. It seems that the Etruscan columns
were derived from the archaic Doric. A cult of
Apollo Soranus is
attested by one inscription found near Falerii.
Plan of the Temple of
Pompeii (Italy): The cult of
Apollo was widespread in the region of
Campania since the 6th century B.C. The temple was built in 120 B.V,
but its beginnings lie in the 6th century B.C. It was reconstructed
after an earthquake in A.D. 63. It demonstrates a mixing of styles
which formed the basis of Roman architecture. The columns in front of
the cella formed a Tuscan prostyle porch, and the cella is situated
unusually far back. The peripteral colonnade of 48 Ionic columns was
placed in such a way that the emphasis was given to the front
Rome: The temple of
Apollo Sosianus and the temple of
The first temple building dates to 431 B.C., and was dedicated to
Apollo Medicus (the doctor), after a plague of 433 B.C. It was
rebuilt by Gaius Sosius, probably in 34 B.C. Only three columns with
Corinthian capitals exist today. It seems that the cult of
existed in this area since at least to the mid-5th century B.C.
Rome:The temple of
Apollo Palatinus was located on the Palatine hill
within the sacred boundary of the city. It was dedicated by Augustus
on 28 B.C. The façade of the original temple was Ionic and it was
constructed from solid blocks of marble. Many famous statues by Greek
masters were on display in and around the temple, including a marble
statue of the god at the entrance and a statue of
Apollo in the
Melite (modern Mdina, Malta): A Temple of
Apollo was built in the city
in the 2nd century A.D. Its remains were discovered in the 18th
century, and many of its architectural fragments were dispersed among
private collections or reworked into new sculptures. Parts of the
temple's podium were rediscovered in 2002.
Main article: Greek mythology
Apollo (left) and Artemis.
Brygos (potter signed), tondo of an Attic
red-figure cup c. 470 BC, Musée du Louvre.
When Zeus' wife
Hera discovered that
Leto was pregnant and that Zeus
was the father, she banned
Leto from giving birth on terra firma. In
Leto found the newly created floating island of Delos,
which was neither mainland nor a real island. She gave birth there and
was accepted by the people, offering them her promise that her son
would be always favourable toward the city. Afterwards,
Delos to the bottom of the ocean. This island later became sacred
It is also stated that
Hera kidnapped Eileithyia, the goddess of
childbirth, to prevent
Leto from going into labor. The other gods
Hera into letting her go by offering her a necklace of amber 9
yards or 8.2 meters long.
Mythographers agree that
Artemis was born first and subsequently
assisted with the birth of Apollo, or that
Artemis was born on the
Ortygia and that she helped
Leto cross the sea to
next day to give birth to Apollo.
Apollo was born on the seventh day
(ἑβδομαγενής, hebdomagenes) of the month Thargelion
—according to Delian tradition—or of the month Bysios—according
to Delphian tradition. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new
and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him.
Four days after his birth,
Apollo killed the chthonic dragon Python,
which lived in
Delphi beside the Castalian Spring. This was the spring
which emitted vapors that caused the oracle at
Delphi to give her
Hera sent the serpent to hunt
Leto to her death across the
world. To protect his mother,
Hephaestus for a bow and
arrows. After receiving them,
Apollo cornered Python in the sacred
cave at Delphi.
Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for
it, since Python was a child of Gaia.
Hera then sent the giant
Tityos to rape Leto. This time
aided by his sister
Artemis in protecting their mother. During the
Zeus finally relented his aid and hurled
Tityos down to
Tartarus. There, he was pegged to the rock floor, covering an area of
9 acres (36,000 m2), where a pair of vultures feasted daily on
Marble Bust of
Apollo after the
Apollo Belvedere. Circa 1675
Apollo shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment
Trojan War in retribution for Agamemnon's insult to
Chryses, a priest of
Apollo whose daughter
Chryseis had been captured.
He demanded her return, and the Achaeans complied, indirectly causing
the anger of Achilles, which is the theme of the Iliad.
In the Iliad, when
Diomedes injured Aeneas,
Apollo rescued him. First,
Aphrodite tried to rescue
Diomedes injured her as well.
Aeneas was then enveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to
Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy.
Apollo aided Paris in the killing of
Achilles by guiding the arrow of
his bow into Achilles' heel. One interpretation of his motive is that
it was in revenge for Achilles' sacrilege in murdering Troilus, the
god's own son by Hecuba, on the very altar of the god's own temple.
Zeus struck down Apollo's son
Asclepius with a lightning bolt for
resurrecting Hippolytus from the dead (transgressing
stealing Hades's subjects),
Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclopes, who
had fashioned the bolt for Zeus.
Apollo would have been banished
Tartarus forever for this, but was instead sentenced to one year of
hard labor, due to the intercession of his mother, Leto. During this
time he served as shepherd for King
Pherae in Thessaly.
Apollo well, and, in return, the god conferred great
benefits on Admetus.
Admetus win Alcestis, the daughter of King
later convinced the Fates to let
Admetus live past his time, if
another took his place. But when it came time for
Admetus to die, his
parents, whom he had assumed would gladly die for him, refused to
Alcestis took his place, but
Heracles managed to
"persuade" Thanatos, the god of death, to return her to the world of
Apollo Piercing Niobe's Children with their Arrows by
Jacques-Louis David, Dallas Museum of Art
Niobe, the queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, boasted of her
Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven
male and seven female, while
Leto had only two.
Apollo killed her
Artemis her daughters.
Artemis used poisoned
arrows to kill them, though according to some versions of the myth, a
number of the
Niobids were spared (Chloris, usually). Amphion, at the
sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo
after swearing revenge.
Niobe fled to Mount Sipylos in
Asia Minor and turned into
stone as she wept. Her tears formed the river Achelous.
turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the
Niobids until the ninth day after their death, when the gods
themselves entombed them.
Consorts and children
Love affairs ascribed to
Apollo are a late development in Greek
mythology. Their vivid anecdotal qualities have made some of them
favorites of painters since the Renaissance, the result being that
they stand out more prominently in the modern imagination.
Apollo and Daphne
Apollo and Daphne
Apollo and Daphne by
Bernini in the Galleria Borghese
Daphne was a nymph, daughter of the river god Peneus, who had scorned
Apollo. The myth explains the connection of
Apollo with δάφνη
(daphnē), the laurel whose leaves his priestess employed at
Delphi. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Phoebus
toying with a weapon more suited to a man, whereupon
Cupid wounds him
with a golden dart; simultaneously, however,
Cupid shoots a leaden
arrow into Daphne, causing her to be repulsed by Apollo. Following a
spirited chase by Apollo,
Daphne prays to her father
Peneus for help
and he changes her into the laurel tree, sacred to Apollo.
Artemis Daphnaia, who had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a
place called Hypsoi in Antiquity, on the slopes of Mount
Cnacadion near the Spartan frontier, had her own sacred laurel
Eretria the identity of an excavated 7th- and
6th-century temple to
Apollo Daphnephoros, "Apollo, laurel-bearer", or
"carrying off Daphne", a "place where the citizens are to take the
oath", is identified in inscriptions.
Leucothea was daughter of
Orchamus and sister of Clytia. She fell in
Apollo who disguised himself as Leucothea's mother to gain
entrance to her chambers. Clytia, jealous of her sister because she
Apollo for herself, told
Orchamus the truth, betraying her
sister's trust and confidence in her. Enraged,
Leucothea to be buried alive.
Apollo refused to forgive
betraying his beloved, and a grieving
Clytia wilted and slowly died.
Apollo changed her into an incense plant, either heliotrope or
sunflower, which follows the sun every day.
Marpessa was kidnapped by
Idas but was loved by
Apollo as well. Zeus
made her choose between them, and she chose
Idas on the grounds that
Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.
Castalia was a nymph whom
Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove
into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos, which was
then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used
to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses. In the last
oracle is mentioned that the "water which could speak", has been lost
Apollo had a son named Aristaeus, who became the patron god
of cattle, fruit trees, hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping. He was
also a culture-hero and taught humanity dairy skills, the use of nets
and traps in hunting, and how to cultivate olives.
Hecuba was the wife of King
Priam of Troy, and
Apollo had a son with
her named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that
Troy would not be
defeated as long as
Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was
ambushed and killed by Achilleus.
Cassandra, was daughter of
Hecuba and Priam, and Troilus' half-sister.
Apollo fell in love with
Cassandra and promised her the gift of
prophecy to seduce her, but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged,
Apollo indeed gave her the ability to know the future, with a curse
that she could only see the future tragedies and that no one would
ever believe her.
Coronis, was daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths. Pregnant with
Asclepius, Coronis fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A crow
Apollo of the affair. When first informed he disbelieved the
crow and turned all crows black (where they were previously white) as
a punishment for spreading untruths. When he found out the truth he
sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis (in other stories, Apollo
himself had killed Coronis). As a result, he also made the crow sacred
and gave them the task of announcing important deaths.
the baby and gave it to the centaur
Chiron to raise.
irate after the death of his daughter and burned the Temple of Apollo
Apollo then killed him for what he did.
In Euripides' play Ion,
Apollo fathered Ion by Creusa, wife of Xuthus.
Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, but
Hermes to save
the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi, where he was raised
by a priestess.
Acantha, was the spirit of the acanthus tree, and
Apollo had one of
his other liaisons with her. Upon her death,
Apollo transformed her
into a sun-loving herb.
According to the Biblioteca, the "library" of mythology mis-attributed
to Apollodorus, he fathered the
Corybantes on the
Consorts and children: extended list
Naxos, eponym of the island Naxos
Amphissa / Isse, daughter of Macareus
Anchiale / Acacallis
Areia, daughter of Cleochus / Acacallis / Deione
Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus
Celaeno, daughter of Hyamus /
Melaina / Thyia
Chione / Philonis / Leuconoe
Danais, Cretan nymph
Dia, daughter of Lycaon
Euboea (daughter of Macareus of Locris)
Evadne, daughter of Poseidon
Hestia (wooed her unsuccessfully)
Hypermnestra, wife of Oicles
Lycia, nymph or daughter of Xanthus
Ceos, eponym of the island Ceos
Cicon, eponym of the tribe Cicones
Syllis / Hyllis
Muse / Rhetia, nymph
Themisto, daughter of Zabius of Hyperborea
Urea, daughter of Poseidon
Wife of Erginus
Acraepheus, eponym of the city Acraephia
Marathus, eponym of Marathon
Pisus, founder of
Pisa in Etruria
Apollo and Hyacinthus, 16th-century Italian engraving by Jacopo
Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's male lovers. He was a
Spartan prince, beautiful and athletic. The pair was practicing
throwing the discus when a discus thrown by
Apollo was blown off
course by the jealous
Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head,
killing him instantly.
Apollo is said to be filled with grief: out of
Apollo created a flower named after him as a
memorial to his death, and his tears stained the flower petals with
the interjection αἰαῖ, meaning alas. The Festival of
Hyacinthus was a celebration of Sparta.
Another male lover was Cyparissus, a descendant of Heracles. Apollo
gave him a tame deer as a companion but
Cyparissus accidentally killed
it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth. Cyparissus
Apollo to let his tears fall forever.
Apollo granted the request
by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be
a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.
Other male lovers of
Atymnius, otherwise known as a beloved of Sarpedon
Branchus (alternately, a son of Apollo)
Sicyon (not the same as Hippolytus, the son of
Leucates, who threw himself off a rock when
Apollo attempted to carry
Phorbas (probably the son of Triopas)
Apollo with his lyre. Statue from Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
Hermes was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. The story is told in the
Homeric Hymn to Hermes. His mother, Maia, had been secretly
impregnated by Zeus. Maia wrapped the infant in blankets but Hermes
escaped while she was asleep.
Hermes ran to Thessaly, where
Apollo was grazing his cattle. The
Hermes stole a number of his cows and took them to a cave in
the woods near Pylos, covering their tracks. In the cave, he found a
tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the
cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made the first lyre.
Apollo complained to Maia that her son had stolen his cattle, but
Hermes had already replaced himself in the blankets she had wrapped
him in, so Maia refused to believe Apollo's claim.
and, claiming to have seen the events, sided with Apollo.
began to play music on the lyre he had invented. Apollo, a god of
music, fell in love with the instrument and offered to allow exchange
of the cattle for the lyre. Hence,
Apollo then became a master of the
Apollo in the Oresteia
Clytemnestra kills her husband, King
Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter
proceed forward with the Trojan war, and Cassandra, a prophetess of
Apollo gives an order through the
Agamemnon's son, Orestes, is to kill
Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, her
Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently
Orestes is pursued by the
Erinyes or Furies (female personifications
Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified;
Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and
avenging his father, whereas the
Erinyes say that the bond of blood
between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.
They invade his temple, and he says that the matter should be brought
Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as
become Apollo's supplicant.
Orestes at the trial, and
Athena rules in favor of Apollo.
Apollo killed the
Aloadae when they attempted to storm Mt. Olympus.
Callimachus sang that
Apollo rode on the back of a swan to the
land of the Hyperboreans during the winter months.
Apollo turned Cephissus into a sea monster.
Another contender for the birthplace of
Apollo is the Cretan islands
Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of
to challenge Apollo, the god of the kithara, the mountain-god Tmolus
was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic
melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower,
Midas, who happened to be present. Then
Apollo struck the strings of
Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but
Midas agreed with the judgment. He dissented and questioned the
justice of the award.
Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of
ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey.
Marsyas under Apollo's punishment, İstanbul Archaeology Museum
Apollo has ominous aspects aside from his plague-bringing,
Marsyas was a satyr who challenged
Apollo to a
contest of music. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away
after being invented by
Athena because it made her cheeks puffy. The
contest was judged by the Muses.
After they each performed, both were deemed equal until
they play and sing at the same time. As
Apollo played the lyre, this
was easy to do.
Marsyas could not do this, as he only knew how to use
the flute and could not sing at the same time.
Apollo was declared the
winner because of this.
Marsyas alive in a cave near
Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god. He then nailed
Marsyas' shaggy skin to a nearby pine-tree. Marsyas' blood turned into
the river Marsyas.
Another variation is that
Apollo played his instrument (the lyre)
Marsyas could not do this with his instrument (the
flute), and so
Apollo hung him from a tree and flayed him alive.
Apollo also had a lyre-playing contest with Cinyras, his son, who
committed suicide when he lost.
Head of Apollo, marble, Roman copy of a Greek original of the 4th
century BCE, from the collection of Cardinal Albani
The Roman worship of
Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. As a
quintessentially Greek god,
Apollo had no direct Roman equivalent,
although later Roman poets often referred to him as Phoebus.
There was a tradition that the Delphic oracle was consulted as early
as the period of the kings of Rome during the reign of Tarquinius
On the occasion of a pestilence in the 430s BCE, Apollo's first temple
at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older
cult site there known as the "Apollinare". During the Second
Punic War in 212 BCE, the
Ludi Apollinares ("Apollonian Games") were
instituted in his honor, on the instructions of a prophecy attributed
to one Marcius. In the time of Augustus, who considered himself
under the special protection of
Apollo and was even said to be his
son, his worship developed and he became one of the chief gods of
After the battle of Actium, which was fought near a sanctuary of
Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the
spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.
He also erected a new temple to the god on the Palatine hill.
Sacrifices and prayers on the Palatine to
Apollo and Diana formed the
culmination of the Secular Games, held in 17 BCE to celebrate the dawn
of a new era.
The chief Apollonian festivals were the Boedromia, Carneia, Carpiae,
Daphnephoria, Delia, Hyacinthia, Metageitnia, Pyanepsia,
Attributes and symbols
Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other
attributes of his included the kithara (an advanced version of the
common lyre), the plectrum and the sword. Another common emblem was
the sacrificial tripod, representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian
Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi. The bay
laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown
of victory at these games.
Gold stater of the
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter (reigned 281–261
BCE) showing on the reverse a nude
Apollo holding his key attributes:
two arrows and a bow
The palm tree was also sacred to
Apollo because he had been born under
one in Delos. Animals sacred to
Apollo included wolves, dolphins, roe
deer, swans, cicadas (symbolizing music and song), hawks, ravens,
crows, snakes (referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy),
mice and griffins, mythical eagle–lion hybrids of Eastern
Apollo Citharoedus ("
Apollo with a kithara"), Musei Capitolini, Rome
As god of colonization,
Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies,
especially during the height of colonization, 750–550 BCE. According
to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the
city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence
which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention a
Minor Asian god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the
Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now
generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most
scholars. In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can
simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's
supposed link with wolves (possibly a folk etymology).
In literary contexts,
Apollo represents harmony, order, and
reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus, god of
wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder. The contrast between the
roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and
Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as
complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when
Apollo at winter
left for Hyperborea, he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus.
This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese
Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek
ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony.
Apollo in the arts
Apollo Sauroctonos, Roman copy after
Praxiteles (360 BC)
Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of
the Renaissance. The earliest Greek word for a statue is "delight"
(ἄγαλμα, agalma), and the sculptors tried to create forms which
would inspire such guiding vision. Greek art puts into
highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined. The sculptors
derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied
in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.
The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the
body that was essentially a religious activity. The muscular frames
and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for
health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard
Greek environment. The statues of
Apollo embody beauty, balance and
inspire awe before the beauty of the world.
The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions
from the almost static formal
Kouros type in early archaic period, to
the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late
archaic period. In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the
illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to
the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a
method created by Polykleitos. Finally
Praxiteles seems to be released
from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a
mixture of naturalism with stylization.
Art and Greek philosophy
The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek
philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy
Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.
for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind
the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older
animism. This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute
representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified
Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was
the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based
on a transcendental mathematical relation. The forms on earth,
are imperfect imitations (εἰκόνες, eikones, "images") of the
celestial world of numbers. His ideas had a great influence on
post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always
trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the
esthetic perfection. (canon).
In classical Greece,
Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason (mind)
gave order to the seeds of the universe, and
Plato extended the Greek
belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms (ideai,
"ideas"). The forms on earth are imperfect duplicates of the
intellectual celestial ideas. The Greek words oida (οἶδα, "(I)
know") and eidos (εἶδος, "species"), a thing seen, have the same
root as the word idea (ἰδέα), a thing ἰδείν to
see. indicating how the Greek mind moved from the gift of
the senses, to the principles beyond the senses. The artists in
Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a
mixture of naturalism with stylization. The Greek sculptors considered
the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the
sensible with the intellectual.
Sacred Gate Kouros, marble (610–600 BC),
Museum in Athens
Kouros (male youth) is the modern term given to those representations
of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in
Greece. This type served certain religious needs and was first
proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of
Apollo. The first statues are certainly still and formal.
The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian
precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason. The sculptors had a
clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of
good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body,
dignity, and youthful happiness. When they tried to depict the most
abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the
unchanging gods. The adoption of a standard recognizable type for
a long time, is probably because nature gives preference in survival
of a type which has long be adopted by the climatic conditions, and
also due to the general Greek belief that nature expresses itself in
ideal forms that can be imagined and represented. These forms
Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance
and order. His shrine in Delphi, that he shared in winter with
Dionysius had the inscriptions: γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi
seautón="know thyself") and μηδὲν ἄγαν (mēdén ágan,
"nothing in excess"), and ἐγγύα πάρα δ'ἄτη (eggýa
pára d'atē, "make a pledge and mischief is nigh").
New York Kouros, Met. Mus. 32.11.1, marble (620–610 BC),
Metropolitan Museum of Art
In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period
(640–580 BC), the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into
the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as
lifeless masses, but as being full of life. The Greeks maintained,
until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the
statues are in some sense alive. This embodies the belief that the
image was somehow the god or man himself. A fine example is the
statue of the
Kouros which was found at the cemetery of
Dipylon Kouros). The statue is the "thing in
itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an
intellectual eternity. According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon
master was named Daedalus, and in his statues the limbs were freed
from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move. It
is considered that he created also the New York kouros, which is the
oldest fully preserved statue of
Kouros type, and seems to be the
incarnation of the god himself.
Piraeus Apollo, archaic-style bronze, Archaeological Museum of Piraeus
The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality,
is sanctified in the
Homeric poems and in Greek myths, in stories of
Hephaestus (Phaistos) and the mythic
Daedalus (the builder of
the labyrinth) that made images which moved of their own accord. This
kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was
the representation of motion in a specific moment. These
free-standing statues were usually marble, but also the form rendered
in limestone, bronze, ivory and terracotta.
The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two
figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos. Such statues
were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these
were found at the sanctuaries of
Apollo with more than one hundred
from the sanctuary of
Boeotia alone. The last
stage in the development of the
Kouros type is the late archaic period
(520–485 BC), in which the Greek sculpture attained a full knowledge
of human anatomy and used to create a relative harmonious whole.
Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece
Piraeus Apollo. It was found in Piraeus, the harbour of Athens.
The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of
pouring libation in its right hand. It probably comes from
north-eastern Peloponnesus. The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it
is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty
relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art. The
statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an
independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts
Ionian influence in Athens. Finally, this is the germ from which the
Polykleitos was to grow two or three generations later.
Apollo of the "Mantoua type", marble Roman copy after a 5th-century
BCE Greek original attributed to Polykleitos, Musée du Louvre
At the beginning of the Classical period, it was considered that
beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry
and proportions. The artists tried also to represent motion in a
specific moment (Myron), which may be considered as the reappearance
of the dormant Minoan element. Anatomy and geometry are fused in
one, and each does something to the other. The Greek sculptors tried
to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they
sought some reality behind appearances.
Polykleitos in his Canon wrote
that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements
(materials), but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with
one another and with the whole. It seems that he was influenced by the
theories of Pythagoras. The famous
Apollo of Mantua and its
variants are early forms of the
Apollo Citharoedus statue type, in
which the god holds the cithara in his left arm. The type is
represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or
early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made
in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to
Polykleitos but more archaic. The
Apollo held the cythara
against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a
fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his
Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal
of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone.
The statues of
Apollo were thought to incarnate his living presence,
and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep
roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek
speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age. Just as
the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by
concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses
clear form, and the form of a work of art. Spiritual life is
incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the
arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in
mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied
wherever the conditions were the same. Artists and sculptors tried to
find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed
that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate
intellect, as to the whole sentient self. Things as we see them,
and as they really are, are one, that each stresses the nature of the
other in a single unity.
Pediments and friezes
Apollo, West Pediment Olympia. Munich, copy from original, 460 BCE at
the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece.
In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a
problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with
acute angles at the base.
Siphnian Treasury in
Delphi was one of the first Greek buildings
utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and
to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting
or kneeling. The pediment shows the story of
Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular
inspiration. Their two figures hold the centre. In the pediment of the
Zeus in Olympia, the single figure of
Apollo is dominating
Head of the
These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye
for their own visible sake. They care for the schematic arrangements
of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole. While each
scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the
general sequence to which it belongs. In these archaic pediments the
sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy
battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical
pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a
greater freedom and economy.
Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a
Apollo Citharoedus) or bow in his hand, or reclining on a
Apollo Lykeios and
Apollo Sauroctonos types). The Apollo
Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th
century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity
for Europeans, from the
Renaissance through the 19th century. The
marble is a Hellenistic or Roman copy of a bronze original by the
Greek sculptor Leochares, made between 350 and 325 BCE.
The life-size so-called "Adonis" found in 1780 on the site of a villa
suburbana near the
Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is
identified as an
Apollo by modern scholars. In the late 2nd century CE
floor mosaic from El Djem, Roman Thysdrus, he is identifiable as
Helios by his effulgent halo, though now even a god's divine
nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions
of modesty in the later Empire.
Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum, is in the museum at
Sousse. The conventions of this representation, head tilted, lips
slightly parted, large-eyed, curling hair cut in locks grazing the
neck, were developed in the 3rd century BCE to depict Alexander the
Great. Some time after this mosaic was executed, the earliest
depictions of Christ would also be beardless and haloed.
Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature. Percy
Bysshe Shelley composed a "Hymn of Apollo" (1820), and the god's
instruction of the
Muses formed the subject of Igor Stravinsky's
Apollon musagète (1927–1928). In 1978, the Canadian band Rush
released an album with songs "Apollo: Bringer of Wisdom"/"Dionysus:
Bringer of Love".
In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the
Apollonian and Dionysian
Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with
imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity.
Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most
desirable. Carl Jung's
Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the
disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional
Charles Handy, in Gods of Management (1978) uses Greek gods as a
metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture. Apollo
represents a 'role' culture where order, reason and bureaucracy
In spaceflight, the
NASA program for landing astronauts on the Moon
was named Apollo.
Surya on a quadriga,
Bodh Gaya relief, India. Right: Classical
example of Phoebus
Apollo on quadriga.
The Overthrow of
Apollo and the Pagan Gods, watercolour from William
Blake's illustrations of On the Morning of Christ's Nativity (1809)
Apollo's family tree 
Greek mythology portal
^ Krauskopf, I. 2006. "The Grave and Beyond." The Religion of the
Etruscans. edited by N. de Grummond and E. Simon. Austin: University
of Texas Press. p. vii, p. 73-75.
^ For the iconography of the Alexander–
Helios type, see H. Hoffmann,
1963. "Helios", in Journal of the American Research Center in
pp. 117–23; cf. Yalouris 1980, no. 42.
^ Joseph Fontenrose, "
Apollo and Sol in the Latin poets of the first
century BC", Transactions of the American Philological Association 30
(1939), pp 439–55; "
Apollo and the Sun-God in Ovid", American
Journal of Philology 61 (1940) pp 429–44; and "
Apollo and Sol in the
Aeneas and Latinus" Classical Philology 38.2 (April 1943),
^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p.
^ Herda, Alexander (2008). "Apollon Delphinios – Apollon Didymeus:
Zwei Gesichter eines milesischen Gottes und ihr Bezug zur Kolonisation
Milets in archaischer Zeit". Internationale Archäologie (in German).
Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Symposium, Tagung, Kongress. Band 11:
Kult(ur)kontakte. Apollon in Milet/Didyma, Histria, Myus, Naukratis
und auf Zypern. Akten des Table Ronde in Mainz vom 11.–12. März
2004: 16. ISBN 978-3-89646-441-5.
^ "KN 842 E", DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo, University of
Oslo. Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and
^ a b c van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter
Willem (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Brill.
p. 73. ISBN 978-90-04-11119-6.
^ "The young men became grown-up kouroi, and Apollon was the "megistos
kouros" (The Great Kouros) : Jane Ellen Harrison (2010): Themis:
A study to the Social origins of Greek Religion Cambridge University
Press. pp. 439–441, ISBN 1108009492
^ Visible Religion. Volume IV–V. Approaches to Iconology. Leiden, E.
J. Brill, 1985 p. 143 
^ a b The word usually appears in plural: Hesychius: ἀπέλλαι
(apellai), σηκοί ("folds"), ἐκκλησίαι ("assemblies"),
ἀρχαιρεσίαι ("elections"): Nilsson, Vol. I, p. 556
Doric Greek verb: ἀπέλλάζειν ("to assemble"), and the
festival ἀπέλλαι (apellai), which surely belonged to Apollo.
Nilsson, Vol I, p. 556.
^ Beekes, 2009, pp. 115 and 118–119.
^ Mike Campbell. "Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Apollo".
Behind the Name. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
^ The ἁπλοῦν suggestion is repeated by
the sense of "unity".
^ a b c Freese 1911, p. 184.
^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p.
^ Πέλλα / Pella, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
^ Nilsson Vol I, p.558
^ Martin Nilsson, Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion, vol. I (C.
H. Beck), 1955:555–564.
^ The reading of
Apaliunas and the possible identification with Apollo
is due to
Emil Forrer (1931). It was doubted by Kretschmer, Glotta
XXIV, p. 250. Martin Nilsson (1967), Vol I, p. 559
^ a b de Grummond, Nancy Thomson (2006) Etruscan Myth, Sacred History,
and Legend. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology); Mackenzie, Donald A. (2005)
^ Angel, John L.; Mellink, Machteld Johanna (1986).
Troy and the
Trojan War: A Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984. Bryn
Mawr Commentaries. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-929524-59-7.
^ Melchert, Harold Craig (1994). Anatolian Historical Phonology.
Rodopi. ISBN 905183697X.
^ Immerwahr, Sara Anderson; Chapin, Anne Proctor (2004). Charis:
Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr. Amer School of Classical.
p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87661-533-1.
^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p.
^ Apollonius of Rhodes, iv. 1730; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Biblioteca, i.
9. § 26
^ a b c d Álvaro Jr., Santos, Allan. Simbolismo divino. Allan
Álvaro, Jr., Santos.
^ Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 4. 4 (A.F. Scholfield, tr.)
Metamorphoses xiii. 715
^ Strabo, x. p. 451
^ Wiliam Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
^ a b Σμινθεύς in Liddell and Scott
^ The epithet "Smintheus" has historically been confused with
σμίνθος, "mouse", in association with Apollo's role as a god of
^ Smith, William (1873). "Acesius". Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Biography and Mythology. London. At the
^ Euripides, Andromache 901
^ Μουσαγέτας in Liddell and Scott.
^ Miranda J. Green, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and
Hudson Ltd, 1997
^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII, 1863–1986; A. Ross, Pagan
Celtic Britain, 1967; M.J. Green, The Gods of the Celts, 1986, London
^ J. Zwicker, Fontes Historiae Religionis Celticae, 1934–36, Berlin;
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V, XI, XII, XIII; J. Gourcest, "Le
culte de Belenos en Provence occidentale et en Gaule", Ogam 6.6
(1954:257–262); E. Thevonot, "Le cheval sacre dans la Gaule de
l'Est", Revue archeologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est (vol 2), 1951;
, "Temoignages du culte de l'Apollon gaulois dans l'Helvetie
romaine", Revue celtique (vol 51), 1934.
^ W.J. Wedlake, The Excavation of the Shrine of
Apollo at Nettleton,
Wiltshire, 1956–1971, Society of Antiquaries of London, 1982.
^ M. Szabo, The Celtic Heritage in Hungary (Budapest 1971)
^ a b Divinites et sanctuaires de la Gaule, E. Thevonat, 1968, Paris
^ a b La religion des Celtes, J. de Vries, 1963, Paris
^ J. Le Gall, Alesia, archeologie et histoire (Paris 1963).
^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII
^ Martin Nilsson (1967)".Die Geschicte der Giechischen Religion.Vol
I".C.F.Beck Verlag.Munchen. p 529
^ Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion, 1985:144.
^ a b Martin Nilsson. Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion Vol I,
^ Paieon (Παιήων) puts pain-relieving medicines on the wounds of
Ilias E401). This art is related with Egypt:
Odyssey D232): M. Nilsson Vol I, p. 543
^ Schofield, Louise (2007). The Mycenaeans. The British Museum Press.
p. 160. ISBN 978-0-89236-867-9.
^ "KN V 52+". Deaditerranean: Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear
^ Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-521-29037-6. At Google
^ Ἐπὶ καταπαύσει λοιμῶν καὶ νόσων
ᾄδόμενος. Which is sung to stop the plagues and the diseases.
Proklos: Chrestom from Photios Bibl. code. 239, p. 321: Martin
Nilsson. Die Geschicthe der Griechischen religion. Vol I, p. 543
^ a b "The conception that the diseases come from invisible shots sent
by magicians or supernatural beings is common in primitive people and
also in European folklore. In North-Europe they speak of the
"Elf-shots". In Sweden where the Lapps were called magicians, they
speak of the "Lappen-shots". Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 541
Ilias A 314. Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 543
^ : Harper's Dictionary of classical antiquity
^ Pausanias VIII 41, 8-IV 34, 7-Sittig. Nom P. 48. f-Aristoph. Vesp.
V. 61-Paus. I 3, 4. Martin Nilsson (1967) Vol I, p. 540, 544
^ Graf, Fritz (2008). Apollo. Taylor & Francis. p. 66.
Apollo Victorious over the Python". The Walters Art Museum.
Retrieved 21 June 2013.
^ Graf, Apollo, pp. 104–113; Burkert also notes in this context
Archilochus Fr. 94.
Walter Burkert (1985) Greek Religion. Harvard University Press. p.
^ Jane Ellen Harrison (2010): Themis: A study to the Social origins of
Greek Religion. Cambridge University Press. p. 441.
^ Compare: Baetylus. In Semitic: sacred stone
^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I. p. 556
^ Herbert W. Park (1956). The delphic oracle. Vol.I, p. 3
^ Lewis Farnel(1909)The cult of the city states. Clarendon Press.
VIII. pp. 8–10
^ "Many pictures show the serpent Python living in amity with Apollo
and guarding the Omphalos.
Karl Kerenyi (1951). ed. 1980: The gods of
the Greeks, pp. 36–37
^ "In a Pompeian fresco Python is lying peacefully on the ground and
the priests with the sacred double axe in their hand bring the bull
(bouphronion). Jane. H. Harisson (1912): Themis. A study of the social
origins of the Greek religion. Cambridge University Press. pp.
^ In Minoan religion the serpent is the protector of the household
(underground stored corn). Also in Greek religion, "snake of the
house" (οἰκουρὸς ὄφις) in the temple of
Acropolis, etc., and in Greek folklore. Martin Nilsson, Vol.I, pp.
^ Nordig sagas. Hittite myth of Illuyankas. Also in the Bible:
Leviathan. W. Porzig (1930).
Illuyankas and Typhon. Kleinasiatische
Forschung, pp. 379–386
^ a b . Martin Nilsson (1967), Vol I, pp. 499–500
^ Hall, Alaric. 2005. 'Getting Shot of Elves: Healing, Witchcraft and
Fairies in the Scottish Witchcraft Trials', , 116 (2005),
^ For Śarva as a name of
Shiva see: Apte, p. 910.
^ For association between
Rudra and disease, with Rigvedic references,
see: Bhandarkar, p. 146.
^ Huxley (1975). Cretan Paewones. Roman and Byzantine studies,
^ H.G.Wunderlich. The secret of
Creta Souvenir Press Ltd. London
^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 554 A4
^ Hugh Bowden (2005). Classical
Athens and the Delphic oracle, pp.
^ William J. Broad (2006). The oracle: the lost secrets and hidden
message of ancient Delphi. Penguin Group USA. p. 32.
^ μάντις in Liddell and Scott.
Walter Burkert (1985).The Greek religion. p. 116
^ F.Schachermeyer (1964). p. 128
^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, pp. 543–545
^ Plutarch, Life of Solon, 12; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 1.
Paul Kretschmer (1936). Glotta XXIV p. 250. Martin Nilsson (1967).
Vol I, p. 559.
^ "EDIANA - Corpus". www.ediana.gwi.uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved
^ "The Archaeological Exploration of Sardis". sardisexpedition.org.
^ Martin Nilsson, Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. vol. I (C.
H. Beck), 1955:563f.
^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 561.
^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I. pp. 559–560.
Apollo Smintheus, let my tears become your arrows against the
Danaans, for revenge".
Iliad 1.33 (A 33).
^ An ancient aetiological myth connects sminthos with mouse and
suggests Cretan origin.
Apollo is the mouse-god (
^ "Sminthia" in several areas of Greece. In
Rhodes (Lindos) they
Apollo and Dionysos who have destroyed the rats that were
swallowing the grapes". Martin Nilsson (1967). pp. 534–535.
^ Burkert 1985:143.
^ Herodotus, 1.46.
De Dea Syria
De Dea Syria 35–37.
^ To know what a thing is, we must know the look of it": Rhys
Carpenter: The esthetic basis of Greek art. Indiana University Press.
^ a b C. M. Bowra (1957). The Greek experience, p. 166.
^ William Dinsmoor (1950),The architecture of Ancient Greece, p. 218,
^ a b William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John
Murray, London, 1875. p. 384
^ Hellenic Ministry of culture, Temple of
Apollo Daphnephoros Archived
12 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Rufus B. Richardson, "A Temple in Eretria" The American Journal of
Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 10.3 (July –
^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Vol I, p. 529
^ Robertson pp. 56 and 323
^ a b Spivey, p. 112
^ Robertson p. 87
^ a b c d D.S Robertson(1945):A handbook of Greek and Roman
architecture, Cambridge University Press pp. 324-329
^ Robertson, p. 98
^ Mertens 2006, pp. 104–109.
^ IG XIV 269
^ Temple of
Apollo at Delphi, Ancient-Greece.org
^ Smith, William (1850). New classical dictionary of biography,
mythology, and geography. p. 1. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
^ See reports of the German Archaeological Institute in Archaeological
Reports for 2008/9 43-45
^ Hellenic Ministry of Culture: The Temple of Epicurean Apollo.
^ Temple of
Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, World Heritage Site.
^ Ministry of culture. Temple of
Apollo Pythios Sotir Archived 2
December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Peter Schneider: Neue Funde vom archaischen Apollontempel in Didyma.
In: Ernst-Ludwig Schwandner (ed.): Säule und Gebälk. Zu Struktur und
Wandlungsprozeß griechisch-römischer Architektur.
Bauforschungskolloquium in Berlin vom 16.-18. Juni 1994. Diskussionen
zur Archäologischen Bauforschung
^ perseus tufts Clarus
^ Prophecy centre of
^ Bresson (2007) 154-5, citing the excavations reports of Özgünel
^ Robertson p.333
^ a b Robertson pp. 200-201
Perseus tufts: Falerii Veteres
^ Davidson CSA :Temple of Apollo,
Pompeii Archived 6 January 2015
at the Wayback Machine.
^ A topographical dictionary of Ancient Rome
^ Testa, Michael (19 March 2002). "New find at
Mdina most important so
far in old capital". Times of Malta. Archived from the original on 13
^ ἑβδομαγενής in Liddell and Scott.
^ Children of the Gods by Kenneth McLeish, page 32.
^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliothke iii. 10.4.
^ "The love-stories themselves were not told until later." Karl
Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks 1951:140.
^ The ancient
Daphne episode is noted in late narratives, notably in
Ovid, Metamorphoses, in Hyginus, Fabulae, 203 and by the
fourth-century-CE teacher of rhetoric and Christian convert, Libanius,
^ G. Shipley, "The Extent of Spartan Territory in the Late Classical
and Hellenistic Periods", The Annual of the British School at Athens,
^ Pausanias, 3.24.8 (on-line text); Lilius Gregorius Gyraldus,
Historiae Deorum Gentilium, Basel, 1548, Syntagma 10, is noted in this
connection in Benjamin Hederich, Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon,
^ Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks, 1951:141
^ Rufus B. Richardson, "A Temple in Eretria" The American Journal of
Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 10.3 (July -
September 1895:326–337); Paul Auberson, Eretria. Fouilles et
Recherches I, Temple d'Apollon Daphnéphoros, Architecture (Bern,
1968). See also Plutarch, Pythian Oracle, 16.
^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.3.4. Other ancient sources, however,
Corybantes different parents; see Sir James Frazer's note on
the passage in the Bibliotheca.
^ Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1491 ff
Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1491 ff
^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10. 16. 5
^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 7. 1
^ Photius, Lexicon s. v. Linos
Servius on Virgil's Eclogue 1, 65
^ Photius, Lexicon, s. v. Eumolpidai
^ Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 7. 56 - 57 p. 196
Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 2. 498
Tzetzes on Lycophron, 77
Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius,
Argonautica 4.828, referring to
Megalai Ehoiai fr.
Tzetzes on Lycophron, 266
^ Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, 4. 26; not the same as
Servius on Aeneid, 3. 332
Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Patara
^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.10.6.
^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.10.6, 26.1.
^ Photius, Lexicon, s. v. Kynneios
^ Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, 4. 26
Etymologicum Magnum 507, 54, under Keios
Etymologicum Magnum 513, 37, under Kikones
^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Galeōtai
^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Akraiphia
Scholia on Pindar, Pythian
Ode 4. 181
Suda s. v. Marathōn
Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium s. v Megara
^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8. 25. 4
Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Ogkeion
Servius on Aeneid, 10. 179
^ αἰαῖ, αἴ in Liddell and Scott.
^ Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo, 49.
^ a b Plutarch, Life of Numa, 4. 5.
^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 11. 258; 19. 181.
^ Philostratus, Letters, 5. 3.
^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 23.
Servius on Aeneid, 3. 279.
^ Plutarch, Life of Numa, 4. 5, cf. also Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy,
^ Clement of Rome, Homilia, 5. 15.
Homeric Hymn to
Hermes (IV, 1-506)". Perseus. Retrieved 18 March
^ Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo2.5
^ Man Myth and Magic by Richard Cavendish
^ a b c d Freese 1911, p. 185.
^ "Koronis". Theoi. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
Livy 3.63.7, 4.25.3.
^ J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz (1979). Continuity and Change in Roman
Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–85.
Cassius Dio 51.1.1–3.
Cassius Dio 53.1.3.
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 5050, translated by Beard, Mary;
North, John; Price, Simon (1998). Religions of Rome: Volume 2: A
Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5.7b.
^ a b c E. Homann-Wedeking. Transl. J.R. Foster (1968). Art of the
world. Archaic Greece, Methuen & Co Ltd. London, pp. 63–65, 193.
^ a b R. Carpenter (1975). The esthetic basis of Greek art. Indiana
University Press. pp. 55–58.
^ ”The same root of looking or seeing” . R. Carpenter (1975). The
esthetic basis of Greek art. Indiana University Press. p.107.
^ V.I. Leonardos(1895). Archaelogiki Ephimeris, Col 75, n 1.
^ Lechat (1904). La sculpture Attic avant Phidias, p. 23.
^ a b c C. M. Bowra (1957). The Greek experience, pp. 144–152.
^ See ἄτη in Liddell and Scott.
^ C.M. Bowra. The Greek experience, p. 159.
^ a b F. Schachermeyer (1964). Die Minoische Kultur des alten Creta,
Kohlhammer Stuttgart, pp. 242–244.
^ J. Ducat (1971). Les Kouroi des Ptoion.
^ Homann-Wedeking (1966). Art of the World. Archaic Greece, pp.
^ "Each part (finger, palm, arm, etc.) transmitted its individual
existence to the next, and then to the whole" : Canon of
Polykleitos, also Plotinus, Ennead I vi. i: Nigel Spivey (1997). Greek
art, Phaidon Press Ltd. London. pp. 290–294.
^ "Mosaics in Tunisia:
Apollo and the Muses". Web.archive.org. 8 July
2008. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 30 July
^ Bieber 1964, Yalouris 1980.
^ British Library: Management and Business Studies Portal, Charles
Handy Archived 12 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine., accessed 12
^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
^ According to Homer,
Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338,
Hephaestus was apparently the son of
Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
^ According to Hesiod,
Hephaestus was produced by
Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
^ According to Hesiod's
Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his
Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be
Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later
gave birth to
Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
^ According to Hesiod,
Aphrodite was born from
Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
^ According to Homer,
Aphrodite was the daughter of
Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (
Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz,
Hesiod, Theogony, in The
Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English
Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard
University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version
Perseus Digital Library.
Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in
two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William
Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the
Perseus Digital Library.
Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D.
in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London,
William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the
Palaephatus, On Unbelievable Tales 46. Hyacinthus (330 BCE)
Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by
Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA,
Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online
version at the
Perseus Digital Library.
Metamorphoses 10. 162–219 (1–8 CE)
Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation
by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes.
Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann
Ltd. 1918. Online version at the
Perseus Digital Library.
Philostratus the Elder, Images i.24 Hyacinthus (170–245 CE)
Philostratus the Younger, Images 14. Hyacinthus (170–245 CE)
Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 14 (170 CE)
First Vatican Mythographer, 197. Thamyris et Musae
M. Bieber, 1964.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in Greek and Roman Art. Chicago.
Hugh Bowden, 2005. Classical
Athens and the Delphic Oracle: Divination
and Democracy. Cambridge University Press.
Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard University Press)
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Freese, John Henry (1911). "Apollo". In
Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. pp. 184–186.
Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic
Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes:
ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3
Fritz Graf (2009). Apollo. Taylor & Francis US.
Robert Graves, 1960. The Greek Myths, revised edition. Penguin.
Miranda J. Green, 1997. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames
Karl Kerenyi, 1953. Apollon: Studien über Antiken Religion und
Humanität revised edition.
Karl Kerenyi, 1951. The Gods of the Greeks
Mertens, Dieter; Schutzenberger, Margareta. Città e monumenti dei
Greci d'Occidente: dalla colonizzazione alla crisi di fine V secolo
a.C.. Roma L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2006. ISBN 88-8265-367-6.
Martin Nilsson, 1955. Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion, vol. I.
Pauly–Wissowa, Realencyclopädie der klassischen
Altertumswissenschaft: II, "Apollon". The best repertory of cult sites
Pfeiff, K.A., 1943. Apollon: Wandlung seines Bildes in der
griechischen Kunst. Traces the changing iconography of Apollo.
D.S.Robertson (1945) A handbook of Greek and Roman Architecture
Cambridge University Press
Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology,
London (1873). "Apollo"
Spivey Nigel (1997) Greek art Phaedon Press Ltd.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Apollo.
Apollo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Apollo at the Greek
Mythology Link, by Carlos Parada
The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1650 images of Apollo
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