The Info List - Antiochus IV

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Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(/ænˈtaɪ.əkəs ɛˈpɪfəniːz/, alternatively /ænˈti.ɒkəs/ ; Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος Δ΄ ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos D' ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest";[1] c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.[2][3][4] He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithradates (alternative form Mithridates); he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.[citation needed] Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt, his persecution of the Jews
of Judea
and Samaria, and the rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees. Antiochus was the first Seleucid king to use divine epithets on coins, perhaps inspired by the Bactrian Hellenistic kings who had earlier done so, or else building on the ruler cult that his father Antiochus the Great had codified within the Seleucid Empire. These epithets included Θεὸς Ἐπιφανής "manifest god", and, after his defeat of Egypt, Νικηφόρος "bringer of victory".[5] However, Antiochus also tried to interact with common people by appearing in the public bath houses and applying for municipal offices, and his often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes ("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes.[1][6]


1 Biography

1.1 Rise to power 1.2 Wars against Egypt 1.3 Persecution of Jews, Maccabean revolt 1.4 Final years

2 Legacy

2.1 Jewish tradition

3 Genealogy 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Biography[edit] Rise to power[edit]

Coin depicting Antiochus IV, Greek inscription reads ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (King Antiochus, image of God, bearer of victory)

Antiochus was a member of the Hellenistic Greek Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
and was the son and potential successor of King Antiochus III,[7][8][4] and as such he became a political hostage of the Roman Republic following the Peace of Apamea
Peace of Apamea
in 188 BC. His older brother Seleucus IV followed his father onto the throne in 187 BC, and Antiochus was exchanged for his nephew Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I Soter
(the son and heir of Seleucus). King Seleucus was assassinated by the usurper Heliodorus in 175 BC, but Antiochus in turn ousted him. Seleucus' legitimate heir Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I Soter
was still a hostage in Rome, so Antiochus seized the throne for himself with the help of King Eumenes II
Eumenes II
of Pergamum, proclaiming himself co-regent with another son of Seleucus, an infant named Antiochus (whom he then murdered a few years later).[9] Wars against Egypt[edit] Main article: Sixth Syrian War The guardians of King Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VI Philometor
demanded the return of Coele- Syria
in 170 BC, but Antiochus launched a preemptive strike against Egypt, conquering all but Alexandria
and capturing King Ptolemy. To avoid alarming Rome, Antiochus allowed Ptolemy VI to continue ruling as a puppet king. Upon Antiochus' withdrawal, the city of Alexandria
chose a new king, one of Ptolemy's brothers, also named Ptolemy (VIII Euergetes). The Ptolemy brothers agreed to rule Egypt jointly instead of fighting a civil war.[citation needed] In 168 BC, Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and also sent a fleet to capture Cyprus. Before he reached Alexandria, his path was blocked by a single elderly Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas who delivered a message from the Roman Senate directing Antiochus to withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus
or consider himself in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochus said he would discuss it with his council, whereupon the Roman envoy drew a line in the sand around Antiochus and said: "Before you leave this circle, give me a reply that I can take back to the Roman Senate." This implied Rome
would declare war if the King stepped out of the circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately. Weighing his options, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him.[10] Persecution of Jews, Maccabean revolt[edit]

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Bust of Antiochus IV at the Altes Museum
Altes Museum
in Berlin.

The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean revolt.[11]:238 According to the authors of the Books of the Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem
during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 168 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem
and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.[12]

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem
by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery. — 2 Maccabees

Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews
in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus
as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews
and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra. The date of Antiochus's persecution of the Jews
in Jerusalem
is variously given as 168 or 167 BC. In their commentary on Daniel, Newsom and Breed argue for 167, although they state that good arguments can be made for either chronology.[13]

Mina of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

Traditionally, as expressed in the First and Second Books of the Maccabees, the Maccabean Revolt
Maccabean Revolt
was painted as a national resistance to a foreign political and cultural oppression. In modern times, however, scholars have argued that the king was instead intervening in a civil war between the traditionalist Jews
in the country and the Hellenized Jews
in Jerusalem.[14][15][16] According to Joseph P. Schultz:

Modern scholarship on the other hand considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp.[17]

It seems that the traditionalists, with Hebrew/Aramaic names such as Onias, contested with the Hellenizers, with Greek names such as Jason and Menelaus, over who would be the High Priest.[18] Other authors have pointed to the possibility of socioeconomic motives, as well as religious ones, as having been primary drivers of the civil war.[19] What began in many respects as a civil war escalated when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria
sided with the Hellenizing Jews
in their conflict with the traditionalists.[20] As the conflict escalated, Antiochus took the side of the Hellenizers by prohibiting the religious practices around which the traditionalists had rallied. This could explain why the king banned the traditional religion of a whole people, in a total departure from typical Seleucid practice in other settings.[21] Final years[edit]

This section needs expansion with: The quote is accurate but stops too soon, omitting a lot more about his death. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017)

King Mithridates I of Parthia
Mithridates I of Parthia
took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat
in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.[citation needed] Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC. [22] According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.[23] According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he was horrifically injured in the following manner, which eventually led to his death:

Punishment of Antiochus, engraving by Gustave Doré

But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures - and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions. Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.[24]

Legacy[edit] Jewish tradition[edit] Antiochus IV ruled the Jews
from 175 to 164 BC. He is remembered as a major villain and persecutor in the Jewish traditions associated with Hanukkah, including the books of Maccabees
and the "Scroll of Antiochus".[25] Rabbinical sources refer to him as הרשע harasha ("the wicked"); the Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
concluded that "[s]ince Jewish and heathen sources agree in their characterization of him, their portrayal is evidently correct", summarizing this portrayal as one of a cruel and vainglorious ruler who tried to force on all the peoples of his realm a Hellenic culture, "the true essence of which he can scarcely be said to have appreciated".[26] Whether Antiochus's policy was directed at extermination of Judaism
as a culture and a religion, though, is debatable on the grounds that his persecution was limited to Judea
and Samaria
( Jews
in the diaspora were exempt), and that Antiochus was hardly an ideologically motivated Hellenizer. Erich S. Gruen suggests that, instead, he was driven more by pragmatics such as the need to gather income from Judea.[11] Genealogy[edit]

Ancestors of Antiochus IV Epiphanes

16. (=28.)Antiochus I Soter

8. (=14.)Antiochus II Theos

17. (=29.)Princess Stratonice of Syria

4. Seleucus II Callinicus

18. (=20., 30.)Achaeus

9. (=15.)Laodice

2. Antiochus III the Great

20. (=18., 30.)Achaeus

10. Andromachus

5. Laodice

1. Antiochus IV Epiphanes

24. Mithridates I, King of Pontus

12. Ariobarzanes, King of Pontus

6. Mithridates II, King of Pontus

3. Princess Laodice of Pontus

28. (=16.)Antiochus I Soter

14. (=8.)Antiochus II Theos

29. (=17.)Princess Stratonice of Syria

7. Princess Laodice of the Seleucid Empire

30. (=18., 20.)Achaeus

15. (=9.)Laodice

See also[edit]


Abomination of desolation List of people who have been considered deities List of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Syrian history


^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Antiochus IV Epiphanes ^ Coogan, Michael David (2007). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press. p. 1253. ISBN 9780195288803. ... through Persian rule, to the time of Alexander the Great, and finally to the attacks against Judaism
and Jerusalem
by the Syrian-Greek ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
in the early second century bce.  ^ Jacobson, Diane L. (1991). A Beginner's Guide to the Books of the Bible. Augsburg Books. p. 59. ISBN 9781451406580. Though set in Babylon over a seventy-year period (606-536 b.c.) that includes the exile, Daniel actually dates from around 167— 164 during the Jewish persecution by the Greek king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(175-163).  ^ a b Goodman, Ellen (1995). The Origins of the Western Legal Tradition: From Thales to the Tudors. Federation Press. p. 69. ISBN 9781862871816. Under the leadership of Antiochus IV (a Seleucid Greek) a Greek-style polis was established in Jerusalem.  ^ C. Habicht, "The Seleucids and their rivals", in A. E. Astin, et al., Rome
and the Mediterranean to 133 B.C., The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 8, p. 341 ^ Polybius 26.10 ^ Nelson, Thomas (2014). NIV, The Chronological Study Bible, eBook. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 1078. ISBN 9781401680138. Antiochus iV—Epiphanes or Epimanes? (da 11:21–31) Thirteen kings of the Greek Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
from Syria
bore the name of Antiochus. Antiochus III (223–187 b.c.), the great conqueror …  ^ Samuels, Ruth (1967). Pathways through Jewish history. Ktav Pub. House. p. 98. OCLC 899113. Antiochus IV spared no pains to defend his empire against the growing power of Rome. Proud of his Greek ancestry and determined to unite all the peoples of the ancient world under his rule, he had sought to force his subjects to follow the Greek way of life to the exclusion of all others.  ^ M. Zambelli, "L'ascesa al trono di Antioco IV Epifane di Siria," Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 38 (1960) 363–389 ^ Polybius 29.27.4, Livy 45.12.4ff. ^ a b Gruen, Erich S. (1993). "Hellenism and Persecution: Antiochus IV and the Jews". In Green, Peter. Hellenistic History and Culture. University of California Press. pp. 250–252.  ^ Josephus, Wars of the Jews
1:1:1–2 ^ Newsom, Carol Ann; Breed, Brennan (2014). Daniel: A Commentary. Presbyterian Publish Corp. p. 26 ^ Telushkin, Joseph (1991). Jewish Literacy: The Most Important Things to Know about the Jewish Religion, Its People, and Its History. W. Morrow. p. 114. ISBN 0-688-08506-7.  ^ Johnston, Sarah Iles (2004). Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Harvard University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-674-01517-7.  ^ Greenberg, Irving (1993). The Jewish Way: Living the Holidays. Simon & Schuster. p. 29. ISBN 0-671-87303-2.  ^ Schultz, Joseph P. (1981). Judaism
and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-8386-1707-7.  ^ Gundry, Robert H. (2003). A Survey of the New Testament. Zondervan. p. 9. ISBN 0-310-23825-0.  ^ Freedman, David Noel; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 837. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.  ^ Wood, Leon James (1986). A Survey of Israel's History. Zondervan. p. 357. ISBN 0-310-34770-X.  ^ Tchrikover, Victor. Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews. ^ Merrins, Edward M. "The Deaths Of Antiochus IV., Herod The Great, And Herod Agrippa I" Bibiothica Sacra BSAC 061:243 (Jul 1904) ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/2830773/jewish/Megilat-Antiochus-The-Scroll-of-the-Hasmoneans.htm ^ http://www.livius.org/maa-mam/maccabees/2macc09.html ^ Vedibarta Bam — And You Shall Speak of Them: Megilat Antiochus The Scroll of the Hasmoneans Archived February 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Antiochus IV., Epiphanes". Jewish Encyclopedia. Volume I: Aach–Apocalyptic literature. Funk and Wagnalls. 1925. pp. 634–635. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

Antiochus IV Ephiphanes entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
at livius.org Antiochus IV entry in 'Seleucid Genealogy'

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Seleucid dynasty Born: 215 BC Died: 164 BC

Preceded by Seleucus IV
Seleucus IV
Philopator Seleucid King (King of Syria) 175–164 BC Succeeded by Antiochus V Eupator

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Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)


Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra
III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra
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VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion

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Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV
Seleucus IV
Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus


Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos


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Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III


Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I


Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

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Kings of Commagene

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Kings of Cappadocia

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Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates III Cotys I

v t e




Menorah (Hanukiah) Dreidel
(Sevivon) Gelt Public menorah


Latkes (Levivot) Sufganiyah Buñuelos


" Ma'oz Tzur
Ma'oz Tzur
(Rock of Ages)" " Dreidel
Song" "Oh Chanukah" "The Chanukah Song"


Chrismukkah Thanksgivukkah Hanukkah

Maccabean Revolt


Seleucid Empire Temple in Jerusalem Maccabees Hasmonean Kingdom

Historical accounts

1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Miracle of the cruse of oil


Mattathias Simeon Eleazar Jonathan Judah Antiochus IV Epiphanes List of rulers


Ma'aleh Levona Beth Horon Emmaus Beth Zur Beth Zechariah Adasa Dathema Elasa

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 1146153248105261567 LCCN: n81098844 GND: 11850341