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Anti-Shi'ism
Anti-Shi'ism
is the prejudice against or hatred of Shia Muslims
Shia Muslims
based on their religion and heritage. The term was first defined by Shia Rights Watch in 2011, but has been used in informal research and scholarly articles for decades.[1][2] The dispute over the right successor to Muhammad
Muhammad
resulted in the formation of two main sects, the Sunni, and the Shia. The Sunni, or followers of the way, followed the caliphate and maintained the premise that any member of Quraysh
Quraysh
could potentially become the successor to the Prophet if accepted by the majority. The Shia however, maintain that only the person selected by God through the Prophet ( Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm) could become his successor, thus Imam Ali
Imam Ali
became the religious authority for the Shia
Shia
people. Militarily established and holding control over the Umayyad government, many Sunni
Sunni
rulers perceived the Shia
Shia
as a threat – both to their political and religious authority.[3] The Sunni
Sunni
rulers under the Umayyads sought to marginalize the Shia minority. The persecution of Shias
Shias
throughout history by Sunni co-religionists has often been characterized by brutal and genocidal acts. Comprising only around 10-15% of the entire Muslim population, to this day, the Shia
Shia
remain a marginalized community in many Sunni Arab dominant countries without the rights to practice their religion freely or to become established as an organized denomination.[4]

Contents

1 Historical Persecution

1.1 Umayyads 1.2 Siege of Baghdad 1.3 Persecution under Seljuk/Ottoman Empire 1.4 India 1.5 China

2 Modern Times

2.1 Bangladesh 2.2 Bahrain

2.2.1 2011 uprising 2.2.2 Apartheid

2.3 Egypt 2.4 Indonesia 2.5 Malaysia 2.6 Pakistan 2.7 Saudi Arabia

3 See also 4 References

Historical Persecution[edit] Umayyads[edit] The grandson of Muhammad, Imam Hussein, refused to accept Yazid I's rule. Soon after in 680 C.E., Yazid sent thousands of Umayyad
Umayyad
troops to lay siege to Hussein’s caravan. During the Battle of Karbala, after holding off the Umayyad
Umayyad
troops for six days, Hussein and his seventy-two companions were killed, beheaded, and their heads were sent back to the caliph in Damascus. These seventy-two included Hussein's friends and family. The more notable of these characters are Habib (Hussein's elderly friend), Abbas (Hussein's loyal brother), Akbar (Hussein's 18-year-old son), and Asghar (Hussein's six month old infant). On the night of Ashura
Ashura
(which is called Sham-e-Gharibaan), the army of Yazid burned the tents which Hussein's family and friends had lived in. The only occupants of the tents after the war were the women, children, of Hussein's companions along with Hussein's last ill son named Zain-Ul-Abideen (who became the next Imam after Hussein). During the raid, Yazid's forces looted, burned, and tortured the women and children. They then took the heads of the martyrs, planting them on spearheads to parade. The women's shawls and headdresses were also stripped and they were forced to march beside their men's heads all the way to Damascus. They stayed in prison there for about a year. While Imam Hussein’s martydom ended the prospect of a direct challenge to the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphate, it also made it easier for Shiism to gain ground as a form of moral resistance to the Umayyads and their demands.[5] Siege of Baghdad[edit] After the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258, prejudice against Shias became more frequent, reminiscent of blaming Shias
Shias
for every problem.[6] Persecution under Seljuk/Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: Ottoman persecution of Alevis In response to the growth of Shiism, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
killed Shias in Anatolia. Hundreds of thousands of Shias
Shias
were killed in the Ottoman Empire, including the Alevis
Alevis
in Turkey, the Alawis
Alawis
in Syria and the Shi'a of Lebanon.[7] India[edit]

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In the past Shias
Shias
in India
India
faced persecution by some former Sunni rulers and Mughal Emperors, resulting in the death of Indian Shia scholars like Qazi Nurullah Shustari
Qazi Nurullah Shustari
(also known as Shaheed-e-Thaalis, the third "Martyr") and Mirza Muhammad Kamil Dehlavi
Mirza Muhammad Kamil Dehlavi
(also known as Shaheed-e- Rabay, the fourth "Martyr") who are two of the five martyrs of Shia
Shia
Islam. Shias
Shias
also faced persecution in India
India
in Kashmir
Kashmir
for centuries, by the Sunni
Sunni
invaders of the region which resulted in the killing of many Shias
Shias
and as a result most of them had to flee the region.[8] Shias
Shias
in Kashmir
Kashmir
in subsequent years had to pass through the most difficult period of their history. Plunder, looting and killing which came to be known as ‘Taarajs’ virtually devastated the community. History records 10 such Taarajs also known as ‘Taraj-e-Shia’ between 15th to 19th century in 1548, 1585, 1635, 1686, 1719, 1741, 1762, 1801, 1830, 1872 during which the Shia
Shia
habitations were plundered, people killed, libraries burnt and their sacred sites desecrated. The community, due to their difficulties, went into the practice of Taqya in order to preserve their lives.[9] Villages disappeared, with community members either migrating to safety further north or dissolving in the majority faith. The persecution suffered by Shias
Shias
in Kashmir
Kashmir
during the successive foreign rules was not new for the community. Many of the standard bearers of Shia’ism, like Sa’adaat or the descendants of the Prophet Mohammad and other missionaries who played a key role in spread of the faith in Kashmir, had left their home lands forced by similar situations. During Aurangzeb's rule, many Shia Muslims
Shia Muslims
from North Karnataka had to leave their cities to save themselves. They settled in Bangalore, Mysore, Alipur, Karnataka
Alipur, Karnataka
and other southern cities. Present day India
India
is a Secular state and adherents of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in India
India
are free to practice their faith freely. Additionally the day of Ashura, listed as Moharram, and the Birthdate of Ali
Ali
are recognized as public Holidays. However Shias
Shias
Muslims in Kashmir
Kashmir
are not allowed to practice mourning on the day of Ashura. The state government of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
has placed restrictions over Muharram Processions which is seen as opposite to the right to freedom of religion that is fundamental right of Indian Citizens. Every year clashes take place between the mourners and Indian guards on the eve of Karbala martyrdom anniversaries.[10] China[edit] Most foreign slaves in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
were Shia
Shia
Ismaili Mountain Tajiks of China. They were referred to by Sunni
Sunni
Turkic Muslims as Ghalcha, and enslaved because they were different from the Sunni
Sunni
Turkic inhabitants.[11] Shia Muslims
Shia Muslims
were sold as slaves in Khotan. The Muslims of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
traded Shias
Shias
as slaves.[12] Modern Times[edit]

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Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

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Muhammad
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Muhammad
Iqbal Ali
Ali
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Sayyid
Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali
Ali
Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

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v t e

Bangladesh[edit] There is limited violence against Shias
Shias
in Bangladesh. For example, on October 24, 2015 a Shia
Shia
mosque was blasted while 1 died and many injured as well.[13] Another most widely discussed attack took place at Haripur in Shibganj in Bogra. The Muazzin was shot dead in the Shiite mosque and at least four men including the Imam were injured while Magrib prayer was going on.[14] Bahrain[edit] Further information: Human rights in Bahrain See also: Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Bahrain A majority of Bahrain's population are Shia, with figures between 70-75% people.[15] The ruling Al Khalifa family, who are Sunni
Sunni
Muslim, arrived in Bahrain from Qatar
Qatar
at the end of the eighteenth century. Shiites alleged that the Al Khalifa failed to gain legitimacy in Bahrain and established a system of "political apartheid based on racial, sectarian, and tribal discrimination."[16] Vali Nasr, a leading Iranian expert on Middle East and Islamic world said "For Shi'ites, Sunni
Sunni
rule has been like living under apartheid".[17] 2011 uprising[edit] An estimated 1000 Bahrainis have been detained since the 2011 uprising and Bahraini and international human rights groups have documented hundreds of cases of torture and abuse of Shia
Shia
detainees.[18] According to csmonitor.org, the government has gone beyond the crushing of political dissent to what "appears" to be an attempt to "psychologically humiliating the island’s Shiite majority into silent submission."[18] Apartheid[edit] Discrimination against Shia Muslims
Shia Muslims
in Bahrain is severe and systematic enough for a number of sources (Time magazine,[19] Vali Nasr, Yitzhak Nakash, Counterpunch,[20] Bahrain Centre for Human Rights,[21] etc.) to have used the term “apartheid” in describing it. Ameen Izzadeen writing in the Daily Mirror asserts that

after the dismantling of the apartheid regime in South Africa, Bahrain remained the only country where a minority dictated terms to a majority. More than 70 percent of the Bahrainis are Shiite Muslims, but they have little or no say in the government.[22]

The Christian Science Monitor
Christian Science Monitor
describes Bahrain as practicing

a form of sectarian apartheid by not allowing Shiites to hold key government posts or serve in the police or military. In fact, the security forces are staffed by Sunnis from Syria, Pakistan, and Baluchistan who also get fast-tracked to Bahraini citizenship, much to the displeasure of the indigenous Shiite population.[23]

Egypt[edit] See also: Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Egypt While Shia
Shia
activists claim the number exceeds one million, the Salafists say there are only a few thousand.[24] Estimated numbers of Egypt’s Shias
Shias
range from 800,000[25] to about two to three million.[26][27] According to Brian Whitaker, in Egypt, the small Shia
Shia
population is harassed by the authorities and treated with suspicion, being arrested - ostensibly for security reasons - but then being subjected to torrents of abuse by state security officers for their religious beliefs. For decades, international organisations – including the UN, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International
Amnesty International
– have documented instances in which Egyptian Shias
Shias
have been targeted for their religious beliefs. A December 2012 report by UN refugee agency UNHCR highlighted the fact that Shias
Shias
still cannot openly practice their religious rituals in Egypt. Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui told the UNHCR that many groups were being prosecuted for alleged 'blasphemy'. US Commission on International Religious Freedom continues to label Egypt as a "country of particular concern" in terms of systematic violations of religious freedom. In December 2011, Egyptian security forces prevented hundreds of Shias
Shias
from observing Ashura
Ashura
religious celebrations in Cairo’s El-Hussein Mosque, a Shia
Shia
holy site. Police forcibly removed the Shia
Shia
worshippers from the mosque after Salafi groups accused them of performing barbaric rituals. Indonesia[edit] See also: Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Indonesia On December 29, 2011 in Nangkrenang, Sampang, Madura Island
Madura Island
a Shia Islamic boarding school, a school adviser's house and a school's principal house were burned by local villagers and people from outside. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim country in the world which is dominated by Sunnis. A day after the incident, a Jakarta Sunni
Sunni
preacher said: "It was their own fault. They have established a pesantren (Islamic school) in a Sunni
Sunni
area. Besides, being a Shiite is a big mistake. The true teaching is Sunni
Sunni
and God will only accept Sunni
Sunni
Muslims. If the Shiites want to live in peace, they have to repent and convert."[28][29] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
had recorded many cases of intimidation and violence against religious minorities in Indonesia by radical Islamic groups and urged the Indonesian government to provide protection for hundred of Shiites who have been forced to return to their village in East Java.[30] Malaysia[edit] See also: Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Malaysia Malaysia bans Shias
Shias
from promoting their faith.[31] 16 Shias
Shias
were arrested on the 24th of September 2013, for "spreading" their faith.[32](broken link) The Malaysian government is seeking to prevent Shia Islam
Shia Islam
from spreading—despite the country's hosting a 250,000-strong Shia population. Home Ministry secretary-general Datuk Seri Abdul Rahim Mohamad Radzi announced Last Year that Shia
Shia
followers who were only a small community of three camps 10 years ago are now a population of 250,000, including 10 active groups, across Malaysia. "The development of information technology is among the factors for their growth as the teachings are spreading through a range of social sites,” Radzi said, urging that the Shia
Shia
movement be rooted out The ISA was used on several occasions to target Shi‘a in Malaysia. Ten Shi‘a were arrested in 1997 under the ISA and another six suffered the same fate in October 2000. The federal system has also meant that adherence to the anti-Shi‘a fatwa has not been standardized, even among those states in which it carries legal force. In December 2010, for example, 200 Shi‘a were arrested by the Selangor Islamic Religious Department for celebrating ashura under the Selangor state shari‘a criminal enactment law. Four years later, 114 Shi‘a were arrested by the Perak Islamic Religious Affairs Department with assistance from the Malaysian police. Pakistan[edit] See also: Sectarian violence in Pakistan
Sectarian violence in Pakistan
and Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Pakistan Pakistan has been seeing a surge in violence against Shia Muslims
Shia Muslims
in the country in recent decades. Over 1,900 Shias
Shias
(including Hazaras and Ismailis) were killed in bomb blasts or targeted gun attacks from 2012 to May 2015[33] The violence has claimed lives of thousands of men, women and children. Shias
Shias
make up 5-20% of the Muslim population in Pakistan.[34][35] Doctors, businessmen and other professionals have been targeted in Karachi
Karachi
by Sunni
Sunni
Muslim militants on a regular basis. Hazara people
Hazara people
in Quetta, have lost nearly 8000 community members. Most have been targeted by terrorist attacks by Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
and Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
which are a Sunni
Sunni
militant organizations affiliated with Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
and Taliban. In the northern areas of Pakistan, such as Parachinar
Parachinar
and Gilgit-Baltistan, Muslim militants have continuously been attacking and killing Shias. On August 16, 2012, some 25 Shia
Shia
passengers were pulled out of four buses on Babusar road, when they were going home to celebrate Eid with their families. They were summarily executed by Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
affiliated Sunni
Sunni
Muslim militants. On the same day, three Hazara community members were shot dead in Pakistan's southwestern town of Quetta. Sunni
Sunni
extremists, aligned with Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
and the Taliban, are killing Shias
Shias
by the hundreds in Pakistan. Saudi Arabia[edit] See also: 2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests
2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests
and Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Saudi Arabia In modern-day Saudi Arabia, the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
rulers limit Shia
Shia
political participation to a few notable people. These notables benefit from their ties to power and in turn, are expected to control their community.[36] Saudi Shias
Shias
comprise roughly 15% of the 28 million Saudis (estimate 2012).[37][38] Although some live in Medina
Medina
(known as the Nakhawila), Mecca, and even Riyadh, the majority are concentrated in the oases of al-Hasa and Qatif
Qatif
in the oil-rich areas of the Eastern Province. They have faced long-term religious and economic discrimination. They have usually been denounced as heretics, traitors, and non-Muslims. Shias
Shias
were accused of sabotage, most notably for bombing oil pipelines in 1988. A number of Shias
Shias
have been executed. In response to Iran’s militancy, the Saudi government collectively punished the Shia
Shia
community in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
by placing restrictions on their freedoms and marginalizing them economically. The ulama (who adhere to Salafism) were given permission to sanction violence against the Shia. What followed were fatwas passed by the country’s leading cleric, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
which denounced the Shias
Shias
as apostates. Another by Adul-Rahman al-Jibrin, a member of the Higher Council of Ulama even sanctioned the killing of Shias. This call was reiterated in Salafi
Salafi
religious literature as late as 2002.[38] Unlike Iraq
Iraq
and Lebanon
Lebanon
which have a sizable number of wealthy Shia, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
does not. There have been no Shia
Shia
cabinet ministers. They are kept out of critical jobs in the armed forces and the security services. There are no Shia
Shia
mayors or police chiefs, and none of the three hundred Shia
Shia
girls’ schools in the Eastern Province have a Shia
Shia
principal.[38] The government has restricted the names that Shias
Shias
can use for their children in an attempt to discourage them from showing their identity. Saudi textbooks are hostile to Shiism
Shiism
often characterizing the faith as a form of heresy.[3] Salafi
Salafi
teachers frequently tell classrooms full of young Shia
Shia
schoolchildren that they are heretics.[39] In the city of Dammam, a quarter of whose residents are Shia, Ashura is banned, and there is no distinctly Shia
Shia
call to prayer. There is no Shia
Shia
cemetery for the nearly 25% of the 600,000 Shias
Shias
that live there. There is only one mosque for the city's 150,000 Shias. The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shias[40] because of the funding of the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
ideology which denounces the Shia
Shia
faith.[41] In March 2011, police opened fire on peaceful protesters in Qatif, and after Shia
Shia
unrest in October 2011 the Saudi government
Saudi government
promised to crush any further trouble in the eastern province with an "iron fist."[42] Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
continues its anti- Shia
Shia
campaign both domestically and abroad. According to the Independent, "Satellite television, internet, YouTube and Twitter content, frequently emanating from or financed by oil states in the Arabian peninsula, are at the centre of a campaign to spread sectarian hatred to every corner of the Muslim world, including places where Shia
Shia
are a vulnerable minority, such as Libya, Tunisia, Egypt and Malaysia."[43] Saudi Arabia's policy towards non- Wahhabi
Wahhabi
forms of religious expression has been described as religious apartheid.[44] Mohammad Taqi writes that

The Saudi regime is also acutely aware that, in the final analysis, the Shiite grievances are not merely doctrinal issues but stem from socioeconomic deprivation, as a result of religious repression and political marginalization bordering on apartheid.[45]

In January 2016, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
executed the prominent Shiite cleric Sheikh Nimr, who had called for pro-democracy demonstrations, along with 47 other Saudi citizens sentenced by the Specialized Criminal Court on terrorism charges.[46] Since May 2017[47][48][49][50][51] in response to protests against the government, the predominantly Shia
Shia
town of Al-Awamiyah
Al-Awamiyah
has been put under full siege by the Saudi military. Residents are not allowed to enter or leave, and military indiscriminately shells the neighborhoods with airstrikes, mortar[52] and artillery[53] fire along with snipers[54] shooting residents.[55][56][57][58] Dozens of Shia civilians were killed, includinga a three year old and[59] a two year-old children.[60][61] The Saudi government
Saudi government
claims it is fighting terrorists in al-Awamiyah. Residents also reported soldiers shooting at homes, cars and everyone in streets.[62][63] During the crackdown the Saudi government
Saudi government
demolished several historical sites and many other buildings and houses in Qatif.[64][65][66] On July 26, 2017, Saudi authorities began refusing to give emergency services to wounded civilians. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
has also not provided humanitarian help to trapped citizens of Awamiyah.[67] In August 2017, it was reported that the Saudi government
Saudi government
demolished 488 buildings in Awamiyah. This demolition came from a siege of the city by the Saudi government, as it continued to try to prevent the citizens of the city from gaining their rights.[68] 20,000 residents were forced to flee from their homes to survive.[69][70] President of Quran
Quran
Council[71] and two cousins of executed Nimr al-Nimr were also killed by Saudi security forces in Qatif
Qatif
in 2017.[72][73] See also[edit]

Anti-Islamism Anti-Catholicism Persecution of Hazara people Genocide
Genocide
of Yazidis by ISIL Shia
Shia
genocide

References[edit]

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Shia
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Anti-Shi'ism
in Iraq
Iraq
under the Monarchy". Middle Eastern Studies. 24 (2): 249–253. doi:10.1080/00263208808700740.  ^ The Origins of the Sunni/ Shia
Shia
split in Islam ^ Nasr, Vali (2006). The Shia
Shia
Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam
Islam
Will Shape the Future. W.W. Norton & Company Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-06211-3 p. 52-53 ^ Nasr(2006), p. 41 ^ Nasr(2006), p. 53 ^ Nasr(2006)p. 65-66 ^ " Shias
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– Socio Political Dilemmas". Kashmir
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Shia
Comes At Dangerous Time". Sky News. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ " Shia
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Arson
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monarchs back YouTube hate preachers: Anti- Shia
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propaganda threatens a sectarian civil war which will engulf the entire Muslim world". Independent.  ^ Patrick Bascio(2007). Defeating Islamic Terrorism: An Alternative Strategy. Branden Books. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8283-2152-5. [2]. Retrieved March 6, 2010. ^ Mohammad
Mohammad
Taqi, "Saudi Arabia: the prized domino"] March 10, 2011, Daily Times (Pakistan) ^ "Saudi execution of Shia
Shia
cleric sparks outrage in Middle East". The Guardian. 2 January 2016.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SKEW7RtQ_U ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDeDA9JRRrA ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CfwFS_Ynn7g ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3U8jHg-HNA ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0W5z-6zKt8 ^ ABNA24 (31 July 2017). "ABWA's satement on condemnation of Al Saud's crimes in Awamiyah".  ^ ABNA24, PressTV, (26 July 2017). "Saudi forces shell homes in Awamiyah, Two killed / Video & Pics".  ^ "Snipers Injure Scores of Civilians in Saudi Arabia's Qatif". 14 June 2017.  ^ "PressTV-Saudi forces shot dead youth in restive Qatif".  ^ "PressTV-Saudi regime offensive on Shia
Shia
town enters week 2".  ^ "'You might get shot any time': Saudi forces raid Shia
Shia
town as Riyadh
Riyadh
welcomes Trump".  ^ http://en.abna24.com/news/middle-east/saudi-shia-town-under-siege-from-kingdom’s-security-services-for-sixth-day_829902.html ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/awamiyah-saudi-arabia-boy-killed-sniper-gun-shot-wounds-family-shot-at-open-fire-qatif-shia-nimr-al-a7886136.html ^ "PressTV-Saudi forces kill toddler, young man in Qatif".  ^ "Saudi Forces Raid Al-Masoura in Awamiyah, Open Fire, Destroy Houses".  ^ https://www.rt.com/news/399222-saudi-forces-awamiyah-demolition/ ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-arabia-siege-town-own-citizens-government-kingdom-military-government-awamiyah-qatif-a7877676.html ^ Editorial, Reuters. "U.N. slams erasing of "cultural heritage" in Saudi Arabia".  ^ "PressTV- Saudi forces intensify attacks on Shia
Shia
town".  ^ "PressTV-' Riyadh
Riyadh
erasing cultural heritage in Shia
Shia
town'".  ^ "Al-Musawara neighborhood totally destroyed, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
says". Shiite News. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
demolishes 500 residential buildings in Awamiya". Shiite News. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-security-awamiya-idUSKBN1AJ217 ^ http://presstv.ir/Detail/2017/08/11/531369/UN-Saudi-Arabia-Awamiyah ^ "PressTV-Saudi forces kill head of Quran
Quran
council in Qatif".  ^ "Saudi regime forces kill Sheikh Nimr's cousins in Qatif: Report".  ^ "PressTV-'Saudi forces kill Nimr's cousins in Qatif'". 

Look up Shiaphobia or Shiaphobe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

v t e

Islam
Islam
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Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

Religious persecution
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and discrimination

By group

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modern era

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Methods

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Rape
during the Bangladesh Liberation War 1984 anti-Sikh riots Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire Soviet persecution

1917–1921 1921–1928 1928–1941 1958–1964 1970–1987 legislation

Persecution of Christians
Persecution of Christians
in the Eastern Bloc South Thailand insurgency Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus 2002 Gujarat riots Test Act Genocide
Genocide
of

.