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Anhui , (; formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire ...
of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population exceeding 1.4 billion, slig ...
, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
. The province is located across the basins of the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ; ) is the longest list of rivers of Asia, river in Asia, the list of rivers by length, third-longest in the world, and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in th ...
and the Huai River, bordering
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; pinyin: Jiāngsū, Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an Eastern China, eastern coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is o ...
to the east,
Zhejiang Zhejiang ( or , ; , also romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countri ...
to the southeast,
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in East China, the east of the China, People's Republic of China. Its major cities include Nanchang and Jiujiang. Spannin ...
to the south,
Hubei Hubei (; ; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring t ...
to the southwest,
Henan Henan (; or ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literall ...
to the northwest, and
Shandong Shandong ( , ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in His ...
for a short section in the north. With a population of 63.65 million, Anhui is the 8th most populous province in China. It is the 22nd largest Chinese province based on area, and the 12th most densely-populated region of all 34 Chinese provincial regions. Anhui's population is mostly composed of
Han Chinese The Han Chinese () or Han people (), are an East Asian ethnic group native to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by populat ...
. Languages spoken within the province include Jianghuai Mandarin, Wu, Hui, Gan and small portion of Zhongyuan Mandarin Chinese. The name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities:
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...
and Huizhou (now Huangshan City). The abbreviation for Anhui is "" after the historical State of Wan, Mount Wan, and the Wan river. The administration of Anhui is composed of the provincial administrative system, led by the Governor, Provincial Congress, the People's Political Consultative Conference, and the Provincial Higher People's Court. Anhui is known as a province with political tradition in China's government system. Aside from managing provincial government departments, the provincial government manages 16 cities, 62 counties, 43 county-level districts and 1,522 townships. The total GDP of Anhui Province ranked 11th among China's 31 provincial regions .


History

Anhui Province was established in the sixth year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty ( ), officially the Great Qing,, was a Manchu people, Manchu-led Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China and the last orthodox dynasty in Chinese history. It emerged from the Later Jin (1616–1636), La ...
(1667); before that, there was no coherent concept of "Anhui". The province also has another name, "Wan", because, during the
Spring and Autumn Period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in History of China, Chinese history from approximately 770 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period' ...
(722–481 B.C.), a small country named "Wan" was here and a mountain called "Wanshan" (aka Mount Tianzhu) is in the province. Before Anhui was established, this land had a long history. 20,000 years ago, human beings inhabited this area, proven by some findings in Fanchang County. Archaeologists have identified the cultural domains of Yangshao and Longshan, dated to the Neolithic Age (between 4,000 and 10,000 years ago). In relation to these cultures, archeologists have discovered through excavation a 4500-year-old city called the Nanchengzi Ruins in Guzhen County, after they discovered a Neolithic city wall and a moat that was part of a much larger and integrated city in the region during their 2013 disinterment. There are many historic sites found in the province from the period of the
Xia dynasty The Xia dynasty () is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Emperor Shun, Shun, the last of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, ...
(2070 B.C.) to the Warring Kingdoms (475–221 B.C.). After the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty ( ; zh, c=秦朝, p=Qín cháo, w=), or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles romanization ( zh, c=, p=, w=Ch'in ch'ao), was the first dynasty of Imperial China. Named for its heartland in Qin state (modern Gansu Gansu (, ; ...
unified China, this area belonged to different prefectures such as the Jiujiang, Zhang, Tang and Sishui Prefectures. Anhui became parts of Yang, Yu, and Xu prefectures during Han dynasties. In the period of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the dynastic states of Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu. The Three Kingdoms period was preceded by the Han dynasty#Eastern Han, Eastern Han dynasty and wa ...
(222–280 A.D.), Anhui was separately dominated by the Wu State and Wei State. During the Jin dynasty, Northern and Southern dynasties and the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China that lasted from 581 to 618. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties, thus ending the long period of division following the fall of the Western Jin dynasty, and la ...
, Anhui was part of Yang, Xu and Yu prefectures, respectively. Later on, the Hui area flourished quickly and the economy and culture of Hui Prefecture created great influence during the Song Dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty, ruled by the Mongolian emperor, Anhui area was a part of Henan province. During the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last ort ...
, the area was directly managed by the administration of the Capital of
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city, a megacity, and t ...
. Shortly after the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty ( ), officially the Great Qing,, was a Manchu people, Manchu-led Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China and the last orthodox dynasty in Chinese history. It emerged from the Later Jin (1616–1636), La ...
was established, this area and Jiangsu province were merged as one province until the sixth year (1666 or 1667) of the Kangxi Emperor's reign in the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty ( ), officially the Great Qing,, was a Manchu people, Manchu-led Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China and the last orthodox dynasty in Chinese history. It emerged from the Later Jin (1616–1636), La ...
. Later during the Qing dynasty, Anhui played an important role in the Self-Strengthening Movement led by Li Hongzhang, an important Prime Minister during the later Qing Dynasty. At this time, many western weapons, factories and modern government concepts were introduced into China. Over the next 50 years, Anhui became one of the most aggressive areas with liberal thought. Within this environment, many ideologists appeared in Anhui. Several of them impacted the future of China including, Hu Shih, a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat, and Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist Party and the first General Secretary of the CCP. In 1938, the north and central areas of the province were heavily damaged because
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary, and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China (ROC) from 192 ...
, the then-President of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a Country, country in East Asia, at the junction of the East China Sea, East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the n ...
, broke the dam of
Yellow River The Yellow River or Huang He (Chinese: , Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in the world at th ...
, hoping this strategy could slow down the invasion by the
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The also known as the Japanese Empire or Imperial Japan, was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until t ...
. Within only ten days of the dam breaking, the water and sands drowned all of north and middle area of this province, 500,000 to 900,000 Chinese people died, along with an unknown number of Japanese soldiers. The flood prevented the Japanese Army from taking
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...
. Following the end of the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) or War of Resistance (Chinese term) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese ...
in 1945, the capital city of Anhui province moved to what was then a small town,
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
. At the same time, the provincial government made significant investments to develop this new capital city, which has become a China Top 25 city (of 660 cities over all of China) in the 2010s. After 1949, the government also launched many Water Projects to repair damage from World War II. In addition, many other areas of China supported Anhui's development. In the later 1990s, the province has become one of the fastest growing provinces in China. In the 2010s, the province became a part of China Yangtze River Delta Economic Area which is the most developed area of China. And the capital city, Hefei, is set as the sub-central city of this Economic Area, only after Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou. In terms of culture, Northern Anhui was firmly a part of the North China Plain together with modern-day
Henan Henan (; or ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literall ...
province, northern
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; pinyin: Jiāngsū, Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an Eastern China, eastern coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is o ...
and southern
Shandong Shandong ( , ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in His ...
provinces. Central Anhui was densely populated and constituted mostly of fertile land from the Huai River watershed. In contrast, the culture of Southern Anhui, bordered mostly along the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ; ) is the longest list of rivers of Asia, river in Asia, the list of rivers by length, third-longest in the world, and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in th ...
, was closer to
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in East China, the east of the China, People's Republic of China. Its major cities include Nanchang and Jiujiang. Spannin ...
and southern
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; pinyin: Jiāngsū, Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an Eastern China, eastern coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is o ...
provinces. The hills of southeastern Anhui formed a unique and distinct cultural sphere of its own.


Geography

Anhui is topographically diverse. The north is part of the North China Plain while the north-central areas are part of the Huai River watershed. Both regions are flat, and densely populated. The land becomes more uneven further south, with the Dabie Mountains occupying much of southwestern Anhui and a series of hills and ranges cutting through southeastern Anhui, between which is the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ; ) is the longest list of rivers of Asia, river in Asia, the list of rivers by length, third-longest in the world, and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in th ...
. The highest peak in Anhui is Lotus Peak, part of Huangshan in southeastern Anhui. It has an altitude of 1873 m. Major rivers include the Huai River in the north and the Yangtze in the south. The largest lake is Lake Chaohu situated in the center of the province, with an area of about . The southeastern part of the province near the Yangtze River has many lakes as well. As with topography, the province differs in climate from north to south. The north is more temperate with more distinct seasons. January temperatures average at around −1 to 2 °C north of the Huai River, and 0 to 3 °C south of the Huai River; in July temperatures average 27 °C or above. Plum rains occur in June and July and may cause flooding. Anhui has 16 cities. Economically, top 3 cities are,
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
, Wuhu and
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...
. *
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
* Wuhu *
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...
* Huangshan City * Tongling * Ma'anshan * Huainan * Bengbu * Bozhou


Ecology

The Anhui elm'', Ulmus'' ''gaussenii'' W. C. Cheng, is a medium size
deciduous In the fields of horticulture and Botany, the term ''deciduous'' () means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, af ...
tree whose natural range is restricted to the valleys of the Langya limestone mountains of Chu Xian.Geographical Names: Chu Xian, Anhui, satellite photograph
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Bethesda, MD, USA
The tree was most commonly found on the flood plains, indicating a tolerance of periodic inundation. ''U. gaussenii'' is now the world's rarest and most endangered elm species, with only approximately 30 trees known to survive in the wild in 2009.Grimshaw, J. & Bayton, R. (2009). ''New Trees - Recent Introductions to Cultivation''. RBG Kew, London. The province is also home to the Chinese alligator (''Alligator sinensis'', ), also known as the Yangtze alligator, China alligator, or historically the muddy dragon, a critically endangered crocodilian.


Administrative divisions

Anhui is divided into sixteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities: These 16 prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 105
county-level division The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and depe ...
s (44
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, counties, several municipality, municipa ...
s, 6 county-level cities, and 55 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,845 township-level divisions (972
town A town is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a minuscule number of dwellings group ...
s, 634 townships, nine
ethnic township The asterisk ( ), from Late Latin , from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divid ...
s, and 230 subdistricts).


Urban areas


Government

The Politics of Anhui Province is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Anhui () is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Anhui. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Anhui
Chinese Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CCP emerged victoriou ...
Provincial Committee Secretary (), colloquially termed the "Anhui Party Chief". Most provincial government departments and the Governor office are located at No.1 Zhongshan Road, moved from old downtown of Hefei since 2016. Provincial government is responsible to manage 16 prefecture-level cities, 105 counties, 1845 townships and different departments in Anhui. The National People's Congress (NPC) is just located near provincial government. The
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC, zh, 中国人民政治协商会议), also known as the People's PCC (, ) or simply the PCC (), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China and a central part of ...
(C.P.P.C.C.) is located at No.317, Suzhou Road. The Provincial Higher People's Court is located at no. 472 Changjiang Rd. Typically, annual provincial congress meeting is held in the first quarter of each year shortly before national congress meeting and the annual meeting of C.P.P.C.C. is held in the first quarter or the fourth quarter of each year.


Economy

Agriculture in Anhui varies according to the climate zones. To the north of the Huai River,
wheat Wheat is a Poaceae, grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. The Taxonomy of wheat, many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum'' ; the most widely grown is common wheat ...

wheat
and
sweet potato
sweet potato
es are grown, while to the south it is
rice
rice
and wheat instead. Natural resources of Anhui include
iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 element, group 8 of the periodic table. It is, Abundance ...

iron
in Ma'anshan,
coal
coal
in Huainan, and
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...

copper
in Tongling. There are industries related to these natural resources (e.g. steel industry at Ma'anshan). One of the famous Anhui-based corporations is the automobile company
Chery
Chery
, which is based in Wuhu. Compared to its more prosperous neighbours to the east,
Zhejiang Zhejiang ( or , ; , also romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countri ...
and
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; pinyin: Jiāngsū, Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an Eastern China, eastern coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is o ...
, Anhui has lagged markedly behind in economic development, with a GDP per capita around half of those two provinces in 2017 rapidly improved from 1/3 of those two provinces in 2010. However, the provincial GDP per capita is based on the population registered in the province (that is, with local Hukou), but not necessarily residing there. There is significant regional disparity, where much of the wealth is concentrated in industrial regions close to the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ; ) is the longest list of rivers of Asia, river in Asia, the list of rivers by length, third-longest in the world, and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in th ...
, such as
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
, Wuhu, and Ma'anshan. Anhui's nominal GDP for 2016 was approximately 2.4 trillion yuan (US$365.8 billion) in the year of 2016. It is considered as a mid-size economy in terms of economic output. The province is home to a large cluster of white goods manufacture such as Haier, Hisense, Whirlpool, Gree, Royalstar, and Meling.


Major economic and technological development zones


Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone is located in the southwest of Hefei and was established in 1993. It is located close to Hefei Luogang International Airport.


Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in October 1990 and approved by the State Council as a state-level Development Zone in March 1991. In 1997, the Development Zone was ratified as an APEC Science and Technology Industrial Park, with special open policies to APEC and EU members. Hefei High Tech Park was also approved as a National High Tech Export Base in 2000 and obtained the award of an Advanced High Tech Zone under the Torch Program in 2003. So far, more than 100 hi-tech enterprises have entered the zone. Industries encouraged in the zone include chemical production and processing, electronics assembly & manufacturing, instruments & industrial equipment, medical Equipment and telecommunications.


Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in 1993, Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone was the first state-level development zone approved by central government in Anhui, utilising the transportation advantage of the Yangtse Delta at Wuhu.


Wuhu Export Processing Zone

Wuhu Export Processing Zone was approved to be a national level export processing zone, with a total planned area of .


Transportation

Historically, Anhui's transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ; ) is the longest list of rivers of Asia, river in Asia, the list of rivers by length, third-longest in the world, and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in th ...
, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Anhui, the Tongling Yangtze River Bridge, was completed in 1995. As of October 2014, Anhui had four bridges across the Yangtze, at Ma'anshan,
Wuhu
Wuhu
, Tongling, and
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...

Anqing
.


Rail

Anhui lacked a developed railway network until this century: most cities are now connected by a high-speed train system.
Hefei South railway station
Hefei South railway station
is the high-speed train hub.


Highway system

The province set an ambitious plan from 2015 to 2025 for highways including: G3 Beijing-Taipei Expressway G40 Shanghai-Xi'an Expressway G42 Shanghai-Chengdu Expressway S24 Changshu-Hefei Expressway


Subway

Hefei and Wuhu have subway systems. The Hefei Metro has 2 completed lines, 3 lines under construction and another 10 lines planned. The Wuhu Metro has 2 subway lines under construction and another 3 lines planned.


Aviation

The province has 5 major commercial airports and another 4 are under construction. Hefei Xinqiao International Airport and Huangshan International Airport are the 2 international airports. The 5 airports in operation are: * Hefei Xinqiao International Airport * Huangshan Tunxi International Airport * Fuyang Xiguan Airport * Anqing Tianzhushan Airport * Chizhou Jiuhuashan Airport


Demographics

Han Chinese The Han Chinese () or Han people (), are an East Asian ethnic group native to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by populat ...
make up the vast majority of the population. The Hui and She are the two largest minorities. Anhui has a highly unbalanced gender ratio. According to a 2009 study published in the '' British Medical Journal'', in the 1–4 age group, there are 138 boys for every 100 girls, making it among the most unbalanced of provinces in China.


Religion

The predominant religions in Anhui are
Chinese folk religion Chinese folk religion, also known as Chinese popular religion comprehends a range of traditional religious practices of Han Chinese, including the Chinese diaspora. Vivienne Wee described it as "an empty bowl, which can variously be filled ...
s, Taoist traditions and
Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 4.64% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 5.30% of the population identifies as Christian. According to a 2010 survey, Muslims constitute 0.58% of the population of Anhui.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
. Data from: Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 89.48% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects.


Culture

Anhui spans many geographical and cultural regions. The northern, flatter parts of the province, along the Huai River and further north, are most akin to neighboring provinces like
Henan Henan (; or ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literall ...
,
Shandong Shandong ( , ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in His ...
and northern
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; pinyin: Jiāngsū, Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an Eastern China, eastern coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is o ...
. In contrast, the southern, hilly parts of the province are more similar in culture and dialect to other southern, hilly provinces, like
Zhejiang Zhejiang ( or , ; , also romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countri ...
and
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in East China, the east of the China, People's Republic of China. Its major cities include Nanchang and Jiujiang. Spannin ...
. Mandarin dialects are spoken over the northern and central parts of the province, north of the Yangtze river. Dialects to the north (e.g. Bengbu dialect) are classified as Zhongyuan Mandarin, together with dialects in provinces such as Henan and Shandong; dialects in the central parts (e.g. Hefei dialect) are classified as Jianghuai Mandarin, together with dialects in the central parts of neighboring
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; pinyin: Jiāngsū, Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Kiangsu or Chiangsu) is an Eastern China, eastern coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is o ...
province. Non-Mandarin dialects are spoken to the south of the Yangzi: dialects of Wu are spoken in Xuancheng prefecture-level city, though these are rapidly being replaced by Jianghuai Mandarin; dialects of Gan are spoken in a few counties in the southwest bordering Jiangxi province; and the Huizhou Chinese, Huizhou dialects are spoken in about ten counties in the far south, a small but highly diverse and unique group of Chinese dialects. Huangmeixi, which originated in the environs of
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...
in southwestern Anhui, is a form of traditional Chinese opera popular across China. Huiju, a form of traditional opera originating in the Huizhou Chinese, Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, is one of the major precursors of Beijing Opera; in the 1950s, Huiju (which had disappeared) was revived. Lu opera, Luju is a type of traditional opera found across central Anhui, from east to west. Anhui cuisine is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. Combining elements of cooking from northern Anhui, south-central Anhui, and the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, Anhui cuisine is known for its use of wild game and herbs, both land and sea, and comparatively simple methods of preparation. Anhui has a high concentration of traditional products related to calligraphy: Xuanzhou (today Xuancheng) and Huizhou (today Huangshan City) are revered for producing Xuan Paper and Hui Ink, respectively, which are traditionally considered the best types of paper and ink for Calligraphy, Chinese calligraphy. She County, Anhui, She County is famous for the She Inkstone, one of the most preferred types of inkstones (a required tool in traditional calligraphy).


Education

Anhui has some good universities. Most universities in Anhui are located in Hefei, Wuhu, Bengbu, Maanshan, some of them are pretty well known. Specifically,
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
is one of the most important research central cities in China with leading basic scientific research capability.


Public universities

*University of Science & Technology of China, One of China's top University as well as world renowned research and engineering institution. *Hefei University of Technology, China well-known Engineering School *Anhui University, China Key University *Anhui Agricultural University, in
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
*Anhui Medical University *Anhui Normal University, in Wuhu *Anhui University of Finance and Economics, in Bengbu *Anhui University of Technology, in Ma'anshan *Anhui University of Technology and Science, in Wuhu City *Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine *Anhui University of Science & Technology, in Huainan *Anqing Teachers College, in
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...
*Fuyang Teachers College, in Fuyang *Hefei Normal University, in Hefei *Wannan Medical College, in Wuhu City *Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences in
Hefei Hefei (; ) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Provinces of China, Province, China, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 202 ...
*Beihang University (BUAA) - Hefei Campus *Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU) - Hefei Campus *Tianjin University (TJU) - Hefei Graduate School *Peking University (PKU) - Hefei Graduate School *Tsinghua University (THU) - Hefei Institute of Public Safety Research


Military universities

*National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) - Hefei Campus * PLA Artillery University * PLA Armoured Force University * PLA Vehicle University * PLA Air Force Flight Academy(13th) * Armed Police Command College(Hefei)


Tourism

Anhui's principal tourism sites include the following: * Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun (World Heritage Sites, World Heritage Site). * Chao Lake * Jing Ting Mountain * Mount Huangshan (World Heritage Site) * Mount Jiuhua * Mount Langya (Anhui), Mount Langya * Mount Qiyun * Mount Tianzhu * Old Town of Tunxi * Taiji Cave, the longest karst cave in East China. * Zhenfeng Pagoda, a Ming Dynasty pagoda in
Anqing Anqing (, also Nganking, formerly Hwaining, now the name of Huaining County) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province of China, province, People's Republic of China. Its population was 4,165,284 as of the 2020 census, with 804 ...
City. * Zuiweng Pavilion, named after the poet Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072 AD).


Development

In 2008, Tourism in France, France helped the Anhui Provincial Tourism Bureau develop a rural tourism demonstration project.


Notable people

*Xia Jun (economist), Xia Jun, economist, telecom researcher and university professor


See also

*Major national historical and cultural sites (Anhui), Major national historical and cultural sites in Anhui


Notes


References


External links


Anhui Government websiteAnhui Provincial Tourism Administration Official Site
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC * {{Authority control Anhui, Provinces of the People's Republic of China East China 17th-century establishments in China