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Anglic (or English):   English   Scots Frisian:   West Frisian   North Frisian   Saterland Frisian Hatched areas indicate where multilingualism is common.

The Anglo- Frisian languages
Frisian languages
are the West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian. The Anglo- Frisian languages
Frisian languages
are distinct from other West Germanic languages due to several sound changes: the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, Anglo-Frisian brightening, and palatalization of /k/:

English cheese and West Frisian tsiis, but Dutch kaas, Low German Kees, and German Käse English church and West Frisian tsjerke, but Dutch kerk, Low German Kerk, Kark, and German Kirche

The early Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon
Old Saxon
were spoken by intercommunicating populations, which led to shared linguistic traits through assimilation. English and Frisian have a proximal ancestral form in common before their divergence as geography isolated the settlers of the island from mainland Europe except contact with communities capable of open water navigation which resulted in Old Norse and Norman French
Norman French
influences on Modern English whereas Modern Frisian was subject to contact with the southernly Germanic populations restricted to the continent.

Contents

1 Classification 2 Anglo-Frisian developments 3 Comparisons

3.1 Numbers in Anglo-Frisian languages 3.2 Words in English, West Frisian, Dutch and German

4 Alternative grouping 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading

Classification[edit] The Anglo-Frisian family tree is:

Anglo-Frisian

Anglic (or English)

English Scots Yola (extinct) Fingalian (extinct)

Frisian

West Frisian East Frisian

Saterland Frisian (last remaining dialect of East Frisian)

North Frisian

Anglo-Frisian developments[edit] The following is a summary of the major sound changes affecting vowels in chronological order.[2] For additional detail, see Phonological history of Old English.

Backing and nasalization of West Germanic a and ā before a nasal consonant Loss of n before a spirant, resulting in lengthening and nasalization of preceding vowel The present and preterite plurals reduced to a single form A-fronting: WGmc a, ā → æ, ǣ, even in the diphthongs ai and au (see Anglo-Frisian brightening) palatalization of Proto-Germanic *k and *g before front vowels (but not phonemicization of palatals) A-restoration: æ, ǣ → a, ā under the influence of neighboring consonants Second fronting: OE dialects (except West Saxon) and Frisian ǣ → ē A-restoration: a restored before a back vowel in the following syllable (later in the Southumbrian dialects); Frisian æu → au → Old Frisian ā/a OE breaking; in West Saxon palatal diphthongization follows i-mutation followed by syncope; Old Frisian breaking follows Phonemicization of palatals and assibilation, followed by second fronting in parts of West Mercia Smoothing and back mutation

Comparisons[edit] Numbers in Anglo-Frisian languages[edit] These are the words for the numbers one to ten in the Anglo-Frisian languages:

Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

English one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

Scots[3] ane ae* twa three fower five sax seiven aicht nine ten

Yola oan twye dhree vour veeve zeese zeven ayght neen dhen

West Frisian ien twa trije fjouwer fiif seis sân acht njoggen tsien

Saterland Frisian aan twäi twäin twoo träi fjauwer fieuw säks soogen oachte njugen tjoon

North Frisian (Mooring dialect) iinj ån tou tuu trii tra fjouer fiiw seeks soowen oocht nüügen tiin

* Ae /eː/, /jeː/ is the adjectival form used before nouns.[4] Words in English, West Frisian, Dutch and German[edit]

English West Frisian Dutch German

day dei dag Tag

rain rein regen Regen

way wei weg Weg

nail neil nagel Nagel

butter bûter boter Butter

cheese tsiis kaas Käse

church tsjerke kerk Kirche

door doar deur Tür

fork foarke vork Gabel

sibling[note 1] sibbe sibbe (dated) Sippe

together tegearre samen tezamen zusammen

morn(ing) moarn morgen Morgen

until oant tot bis

key kaai sleutel Schlüssel

have been (was) ha west ben geweest bin gewesen

two sheep twa skiep twee schapen zwei Schafe

have hawwe hebben haben

us ús ons uns

horse hynder paard ros (dated) Pferd Ross (dated)

bread brea brood Brot

hair hier haar Haar

ear ear oor Ohr

green grien groen Grün

sweet swiet zoet süß

through troch door durch

wet wiet nat nass

eye each oog Auge

dream dream droom Traum

it goes on it giet oan het gaat door es geht weiter/los

Alternative grouping[edit] Main article: Ingvaeonic languages Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea
North Sea
Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
that comprises Old Frisian, Old English[5] and Old Saxon.[6] It is not thought of as a monolithic proto-language, but rather as a group of closely related dialects that underwent several areal changes in relative unison.[7] The grouping was first proposed in Nordgermanen und Alemannen (1942) by the German linguist and philologist Friedrich Maurer (1898–1984), as an alternative to the strict tree diagrams which had become popular following the work of the 19th-century linguist August Schleicher
August Schleicher
and which assumed the existence of an Anglo-Frisian group.[8] See also[edit]

High German languages Low Franconian languages

Notes[edit]

^ Original meaning was "relative" which has become "brother or sister" in English.

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Anglo-Frisian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Robert D. Fulk, “The Chronology of Anglo-Frisian Sound Changes”, Approaches to Old Frisian Philology, eds., Rolf H. Bremmer Jr., Thomas S.B. Johnston, and Oebele Vries (Amsterdam: Rodopoi, 1998), 185. ^ Depending on dialect 1. en, jɪn, in, wan *e:, je: 2. twɑ:, twɔ:, twe:, twa: 3. θrəi, θri:, tri: 4. 'fʌu(ə)r, fuwr 5. fai:v, fɛv 6. saks 7. 'si:vən, 'se:vən, 'səivən 8. ext, ɛçt 9. nəin, nin 10. tɛn ^ Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p.105 ^ Also known as Anglo-Saxon. ^ Some include West Flemish. Cf. Bremmer (2009:22). ^ For a full discussion of the areal changes involved and their relative chronologies, see Voyles (1992). ^ "Friedrich Maurer (Lehrstuhl für Germanische Philologie - Linguistik)". Germanistik.uni-freiburg.de. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 

Further reading[edit]

Friedrich Maurer (1942), Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur Sprachgeschichte, Stammes- und Volkskunde, Strasbourg: Hünenburg. Wolfram Euler (2013), Das Westgermanische [subtitle missing] (West Germanic: from its Emergence in the 3rd up until its Dissolution in the 7th Century CE: Analyses and Reconstruction). 244 p., in German with English summary, Verlag Inspiration Un Ltd., London/Berlin, ISBN 978-3-9812110-7-8. Ringe, Donald R. and Taylor, Ann (2014). The Development of Old English - A Linguistic History of English, vol. II, 632p. ISBN 978-0199207848. Oxford.

v t e

Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and dialects

West Germanic

Anglo- Frisian

Anglic

English

dialects Yola Fingallian

Scots

Frisian

East Frisian

Saterland Frisian Wangerooge Frisian Wursten Frisian

North Frisian

Söl'ring Fering Öömrang Heligolandic Mooring Halligen Frisian Strand Frisian Eiderstedt Frisian

West Frisian

Clay Frisian Wood Frisian

Low German

East Low German

Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian

Mecklenburgish West Pomeranian

Brandenburgisch East Pomeranian-West Prussian

Western East Pomeranian Eastern East Pomeranian Bublitzisch Pommerellisch

Central Pomeranian

West Central Pomeranian

Low Prussian

Mennonite Low German

West Low German

Dutch Low Saxon

Stellingwarfs Tweants Gronings Drèents Gelders-Overijssels

Achterhooks Sallaans Urkers

Veluws

Northern Low Saxon

East Frisian Low Saxon Schleswigsch Holsteinisch Hamburgisch Ollnborger North Hanoveranian Dithmarsch Emsländisch

Westphalian Eastphalian

Low Franconian

Standard variants

Dutch Afrikaans

West Low Franconian

Hollandic West Flemish

French Flemish

Zeelandic East Flemish Brabantian Surinamese Dutch Jersey Dutch Mohawk Dutch Stadsfries Bildts Yiddish
Yiddish
Dutch

East Low Franconian

Meuse-Rhenish

Limburgish

Southeast Limburgish

South Guelderish

Transitional

Low Dietsch

High German

 

German

Namibian German Namibian Black German Brazilian German Unserdeutsch Barossa German Belgranodeutsch Parana Volga German

Yiddish

Eastern Western Litvish Poylish Ukrainish Galitzish Scots Yiddish Alsatian Yiddish Klezmer-loshn Ganovim Balagole Katsoves Lachoudisch

Yenish Rotwelsch

Lotegorisch

Central German

West Central German

Central Franconian

Ripuarian

Colognian

Moselle Franconian

Luxembourgish Transylvanian Saxon Hunsrückisch

Rhine Franconian

Lorraine Franconian Palatine

Volga German Pennsylvania German

Hessian

Amana

East Central German

Thuringian Upper Saxon Lusatian-Neumarkish

Berlinerisch

Silesian High Prussian Wymysorys Pragerisch

High Franconian

South Franconian East Franconian

Main Franconian Vogtlandian

Upper German

Alemannic

Low Alemannic

Alsatian Coloniero

High Alemannic

Swiss German

Highest Alemannic

Walser German

Swabian

Bavarian

Northern Bavarian Central Bavarian

Viennese German

Southern Bavarian

South Tyrolean Cimbrian Mòcheno Hutterite German

Langobardic

Standard German

German Standard German Austrian Standard German Swiss Standard German

North Germanic

West Scandinavian

Norwegian

Bokmål

Bergensk Kebabnorsk Sognamål Trøndersk Valdris Vestlandsk Vikværsk

Nynorsk

Elfdalian Insular Scandinavian

Faroese Icelandic Gronlandsk Norn

East Scandinavian

Swedish

Åland Estonian Finlandic Gotlandic Jamtlandic Kalix Kiruna Luleå Norrland Ostrobothnian Småländska South Swedish

Scanian

Stockholm Rinkeby Uppländska Västgötska Westrobothnian

Danish

Bornholmsk Gøtudanskt Insular Danish Jutlandic South Jutlandic Perkerdansk

Dalecarlian

East Germanic

Gothic

Crimean Gothic

Burgundian Vandalic

Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 3 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

v t e

History of English

Proto-Indo-European Proto-Germanic Proto-West-Germanic Anglo-Frisian languages Old English Anglo-Norman language Middle English Early Modern English Modern English

Phonological history

General

Old English

Vowels

Great Vowel Shift low unrounded vowels low back vowels high back vowels high front vowels diphthongs changes before historic /l/ changes before historic /r/ trisyllabic laxing

Consonants

rhoticity flapping t-glottalization l-vocalization consonant clusters h-dropping wh th th-fronting ð (eth) þ (

.