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Nasalization
In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lang ..., nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the soft palate, velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth. An archetypal nasal sound is . In the International Phonetic Alphabet, nasalization is indicated by printing a tilde diacritic above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: is the nasalized equivalent of , and is the nasalized equivalent of . A subscript diacritic , called an ogonek or ''nosinė'', is sometimes seen, especially when the vowel bears tone (linguistics), tone marks that would interfere with the superscript tilde. For example, are more legible in most fonts than . Nasal vowels Many languages have nasal vowel ...
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Oral Vowel
A nasal vowel is a vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ... that is produced with a lowering of the soft palate The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was origin ... (or velum) so that the air flow escapes through the nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for Respiration (physiology), respiration alongside the mouth. Behind the nose are the olfactory mucosa and the Paranasal sinus, sinuses. Be ... and the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of ...
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Nasal Consonant
In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lang ..., a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive or nasal stop in contrast with an oral stop or nasalized consonant, is an occlusive In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ... consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ... produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. The ...
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Vowel
A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables *Abugida, writing system us ... speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract The vocal tract is the cavity in human bodies and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx The larynx (), commonly called the voice box, is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group .... Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sig .... Vowels vary in quality, in loudness In , loudne ...
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Stop Consonant
In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lang ..., a plosive, also known as an occlusive In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ... or simply a stop, is a pulmonic consonant A pulmonic consonant is a consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongu ... in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow Airflow, or air flow, is the movement of air. The primary cause of airflow is the ...
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semanti ...ic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscan civilizat .... It was devised by the International Phonetic Association The International Phonetic Association (IPA; French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ... in the late 19th century as a standardized repr ...
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Soft Palate
The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...s, the soft tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... constituting the back of the roof of the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is .... The soft palate is part of the palate The palate () is the roof of the mou ...
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Velopharyngeal Frication
A velopharyngeal fricative, also known as a posterior nasal fricative or a velopharyngeal snort, is a sound produced by some children with speech disorders, including some with a cleft palate, as a substitute for Sibilant, sibilants (), which cannot be produced with a cleft palate. It results from "the approximation but inadequate closure of the upper border of the velum and the posterior pharyngeal wall."Martin Duckworth, George Allen, William Hardcastle & Martin Ball (1990) ‘Extensions to the Internatinal Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech.’ Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 4: 4, p. 276. To produce a velopharyngeal fricative, the soft palate approaches the pharynx, pharyngeal wall and narrows the velopharyngeal port, such that the restricted port creates fricative turbulence in air forced through it into the nasal cavity. The articulation may be aided by a posterior positioning of the tongue and may involve velar trill, velar flutter (a snorting so ...
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Nasal Palatal Approximant
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , that is, a j with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j~, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is . The nasal palatal approximant is sometimes called a ''nasal yod''; and may be called nasal glides. Features Features of the nasal palatal approximant: * It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, in this case in addition to through the mouth. Occurrence , written ''ny'', is a common realization of before nasal vowels in many languages of West Africa that do not have a phonemic distinction between voiced nasal and oral stops, such as Ewe language, Ewe and Bini language, Bini. See also * Palatal nasal * Nasal labio-velar approximant * Labiodental nasal, which may be an approximant in the one language in which it is phonemic * Voiceless nasal glottal app ...
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Ogonek
The (; Polish: , "little tail", diminutive of ) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages. It is also placed on the lower right corner of consonants in some Latin transcriptions of various indigenous languages of the Caucasus mountains. An ogonek can also be attached to the bottom of a vowel in Old Norse–Icelandic to show length or vowel affection (linguistics), affection. For example, in Old Norse, ''ǫ'' represents the Old Norwegian vowel , which in Old Icelandic merges with ''ø'' ‹ö›. Use * Abaza language, Abaza (''s̨'', ''z̨'', ''c̨'', ''c̨, ''j̨'') * Abkhaz language, Abkhaz (''s̨'', ''s̨u'', ''z̨'', ''z̨u'', ''c̨'', ''c̨u'', ''c̨, ''c̨'u'', ''j̨'', ''j̨u'') * Adyghe language, Adyghe (''s̨'', ''z̨'') * Archi language, Archi (''ł̨'', ''ɫ̨'') * Numerous Athabaskan languages, including Navajo langu ...
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Portuguese Language
Portuguese ( or, in full, ) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Brazil, while having co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, and Macau. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (). As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese-based creole languages, Portuguese creole speakers is also found around the world. Portuguese is part of the Iberian Romance languages, Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, and has kept some Gallaecian language, Celtic phonology in its lexicon. With approximately 215 to 220 million native speakers and 50 million L2 speakers, Portuguese has approximat ...
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Tilde
The tilde (
in the American Heritage dictionary
), or , is a
grapheme In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...

grapheme
with several uses. The name of the character came into English from