ANGKOR (Khmer : អង្គរ, "Capital City") was the capital
city of the
Khmer Empire , which flourished from approximately the 9th
to 15th centuries.
Angkor was a megacity supporting at least 0.1% of
the global population during 1010-1220. The city houses the
Angkor Wat , one of Cambodia's popular tourist
Angkor is derived from the
Sanskrit nagara (नगर),
meaning "city". The Angkorian period began in AD 802, when the Khmer
Jayavarman II declared himself a "universal monarch" and
"god-king" , and lasted until the late 14th century, first falling
under Ayutthayan suzerainty in 1351. A Khmer rebellion against Siamese
authority resulted in the 1431 sacking of
Angkor by Ayutthaya, causing
its population to migrate south to
The ruins of
Angkor are located amid forests and farmland north of
the Great Lake (
Tonlé Sap ) and south of the Kulen Hills , near
Siem Reap city (13°24′N, 103°51′E), in Siem Reap
Province . The temples of the
Angkor area number over one thousand,
ranging in scale from nondescript piles of brick rubble scattered
through rice fields to the
Angkor Wat, said to be the world's largest
single religious monument. Many of the temples at
Angkor have been
restored, and together, they comprise the most significant site of
Khmer architecture . Visitors approach two million annually, and the
entire expanse, including
Angkor Wat and
Angkor Thom is collectively
protected as a
World Heritage Site . The popularity of the site
among tourists presents multiple challenges to the preservation of the
In 2007, an international team of researchers using satellite
photographs and other modern techniques concluded that
Angkor had been
the largest pre-industrial city in the world, with an elaborate
infrastructure system connecting an urban sprawl of at least 1,000
square kilometres (390 sq mi) to the well-known temples at its core.
Angkor is considered to be a "hydraulic city" because it had a
complicated water management network, which was used for
systematically stabilizing, storing, and dispersing water throughout
the area. This network is believed to have been used for irrigation
in order to offset the unpredictable monsoon season and to also
support the increasing population. Although the size of its
population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identified
agricultural systems in the
Angkor area may have supported up to one
* 1 Historical overview
* 1.1 Seat of the
* 1.2 Construction of
* 1.5 End of the Angkorian period
* 1.5.1 War with the
* 1.5.2 Erosion of the state religion
* 1.5.3 Neglect of public works
* 1.5.4 Natural disaster
* 1.6 Restoration, preservation, and threats
* 1.6.1 Water-table dropping
* 1.6.3 Unsustainable tourism
* 2 Religious history
* 2.1 Pre-Angkorian religion
Shiva and the lingam
* 2.6 Religious pluralism
* 3 Archaeological sites
* 4 Terms and phrases
* 5 See also
* 6 Footnotes
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
Angkor Thom Map of the
Angkor Wat at sunrise
SEAT OF THE KHMER EMPIRE
The Angkorian period may have begun shortly after 800 AD, when the
Jayavarman II announced the independence of Kambujadesa
Cambodia ) from
Java and established his capital of
known as Roluos) at the northern end of
Tonlé Sap . Through a program
of military campaigns, alliances, marriages and land grants, he
achieved a unification of the country bordered by
China to the north,
Champa (now Central Vietnam) to the east, the ocean to the south and a
place identified by a stone inscription as "the land of cardamoms and
mangoes " to the west. In 802, Jayavarman articulated his new status
by declaring himself "universal monarch" (chakravartin) and, in a move
that was to be imitated by his successors and that linked him to the
cult of Siva , taking on the epithet of "god-king" (devaraja ).
Cambodia had consisted of a number of politically
independent principalities collectively known to the Chinese by the
names Funan and
In 889, Yasovarman ascended to the throne. A great king and an
accomplished builder, he was celebrated by one inscription as "a
lion-man; he tore the enemy with the claws of his grandeur; his teeth
were his policies; his eyes were the Veda." Near the old capital of
Hariharalaya, Yasovarman constructed a new city, called Yaśodharapura
. :350 In the tradition of his predecessors, he also constructed a
massive reservoir called baray . The significance of such reservoirs
has been debated by modern scholars, some of whom have seen in them a
means of irrigating rice fields, and others of whom have regarded them
as religiously charged symbols of the great mythological oceans
Mount Meru , the abode of the gods. The mountain, in turn,
was represented by an elevated temple, in which the "god-king" was
represented by a lingam . In accordance with this cosmic symbolism,
Yasovarman built his central temple on a low hill known as Phnom
Bakheng , surrounding it with a moat fed from the baray. He also built
Hindu temples and ashrams , or retreats for ascetics.
Over the next 300 years, between 900 and 1200, the Khmer Empire
produced some of the world's most magnificent architectural
masterpieces in the area known as Angkor. Most are concentrated in an
area approximately 15 miles (24 km) east to west and 5 miles (8.0 km)
north to south, although the
Angkor Archaeological Park, which
administers the area, includes sites as far away as
Kbal Spean , about
30 miles (48 km) to the north. Some 72 major temples or other
buildings are found within this area, and the remains of several
hundred additional minor temple sites are scattered throughout the
landscape beyond. Because of the low-density and dispersed nature of
the medieval Khmer settlement pattern,
Angkor lacks a formal boundary,
and its extent is therefore difficult to determine. However, a
specific area of at least 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi) beyond the major
temples is defined by a complex system of infrastructure, including
roads and canals that indicate a high degree of connectivity and
functional integration with the urban core. In terms of spatial extent
(although not in terms of population), this makes it the largest urban
agglomeration in recorded history prior to the
Industrial Revolution ,
easily surpassing the nearest claim by the Mayan city of
Tikal . At
its peak, the city occupied an area greater than modern
Paris , and
its buildings use far more stone than all of the Egyptian structures
CONSTRUCTION OF ANGKOR WAT
For more details on this topic, see
Angkor Wat . Buddhist monks
The principal temple of the Angkorian region,
Angkor Wat , was built
between 1113 and 1150 by King
Suryavarman II . Suryavarman ascended to
the throne after prevailing in a battle with a rival prince. An
inscription says that, in the course of combat, Suryavarman leapt onto
his rival's war elephant and killed him, just as the mythical bird-man
Garuda slays a serpent.
After consolidating his political position through military
campaigns, diplomacy, and a firm domestic administration, Suryavarman
launched into the construction of
Angkor Wat as his personal temple
mausoleum. Breaking with the tradition of the Khmer kings, and
influenced perhaps by the concurrent rise of
Vaisnavism in India, he
dedicated the temple to
Vishnu rather than to Siva . With walls nearly
half a mile long on each side,
Angkor Wat grandly portrays the Hindu
cosmology, with the central towers representing
Mount Meru , home of
the gods; the outer walls, the mountains enclosing the world; and the
moat, the oceans beyond. The traditional theme of identifying the
Khmer devaraja with the gods, and his residence with that of the
celestials, is very much in evidence. The measurements themselves of
the temple and its parts in relation to one another have cosmological
significance. Suryavarman had the walls of the temple decorated with
bas reliefs depicting not only scenes from mythology, but also from
the life of his own imperial court. In one of the scenes, the king
himself is portrayed as larger in size than his subjects, sitting
cross-legged on an elevated throne and holding court, while a bevy of
attendants make him comfortable with the aid of parasols and fans.
Jayavarman VII Portrait of
Jayavarman VII on
Musee Guimet ,
Following the death of Suryavarman around 1150 AD, the kingdom fell
into a period of internal strife. Its neighbors to the east, the Cham
of what is now southern Vietnam, took advantage of the situation in
1177 to launch a water-borne invasion up the
Mekong River and across
Tonlé Sap . The Cham forces were successful in sacking the Khmer
Yaśodharapura and in killing the reigning king. However, a
Khmer prince who was to become King
Jayavarman VII rallied his people
and defeated the Cham in battles on the lake and on the land. In 1181,
Jayavarman assumed the throne. He was to be the greatest of the
Angkorian kings. Over the ruins of Yaśodharapura, Jayavarman
constructed the walled city of
Angkor Thom , as well as its geographic
and spiritual center, the temple known as the
Bayon depict not only the king's battles with the Cham, but also
scenes from the life of Khmer villagers and courtiers. Jayavarman
oversaw the period of Angkor's most prolific construction, which
included building of the well-known temples of
Ta Prohm and Preah Khan
, dedicating them to his parents. This massive program of
construction coincided with a transition in the state religion from
Mahayana Buddhism , since Jayavarman himself had adopted
the latter as his personal faith. During Jayavarman's reign, Hindu
temples were altered to display images of the Buddha , and
briefly became a Buddhist shrine. Following his death, the revival of
Hinduism as the state religion included a large-scale campaign of
desecrating Buddhist images, and continued until
became established as the land's dominant religion from the 14th
The year 1296 marked the arrival at
Angkor of the Chinese diplomat
Zhou Daguan . Zhou's one-year sojourn in the Khmer capital during the
reign of King
Indravarman III is historically significant, because he
penned a still-surviving account, The Customs of
Cambodia , of
approximately 40 pages detailing his observations of Khmer society.
Some of the topics he addressed in the account were those of religion,
justice, kingship, agriculture, slavery, birds, vegetables, bathing,
clothing, tools, draft animals, and commerce. In one passage, he
described a royal procession consisting of soldiers, numerous servant
women and concubines, ministers and princes, and finally, "the
sovereign, standing on an elephant, holding his sacred sword in his
hand." Together with the inscriptions that have been found on
Angkorian stelae , temples and other monuments, and with the
bas-reliefs at the
Angkor Wat , Zhou's journal is the most
important source of information about everyday life at Angkor. Filled
with vivid anecdotes and sometimes incredulous observations of a
civilization that struck Zhou as colorful and exotic, it is an
entertaining travel memoir as well.
BAS-RELIEFS OF ANGKOR
END OF THE ANGKORIAN PERIOD
The end of the Angkorian period is generally set as 1431, the year
Angkor was sacked and looted by Ayutthaya invaders, though the
civilization already had been in decline in the 13th and 14th
centuries. :139–140 :236–237 During the course of the 15th
century, nearly all of
Angkor was abandoned, except for
Angkor Wat ,
which remained a Buddhist shrine. Several theories have been advanced
to account for the decline and abandonment of Angkor:
War With The Ayutthaya Kingdom
Map of the
Khmer Empire (in red) in 900 AD
It is widely believed that the abandonment of the Khmer capital
occurred as a result of Ayutthaya invasions. Ongoing wars with the
Siamese were already sapping the strength of
Angkor at the time of
Zhou Daguan toward the end of the 13th century. In his memoirs, Zhou
reported that the country had been completely devastated by such a
war, in which the entire population had been obligated to participate.
After the collapse of
Angkor in 1431, many statues were taken to the
Ayutthaya capital of Ayutthaya in the west, :139–140 while others
departed for the new center of Khmer society at
Longvek further south,
though the official capital later moved, first to
Oudong around 45
kilometres (28 mi) from
Phnom Penh in
Ponhea Leu District , and then
to the present site of Phnom Penh.
Erosion Of The State Religion
Some scholars have connected the decline of
Angkor with the
conversion of the
Khmer Empire to
Theravada Buddhism following the
Jayavarman VII , arguing that this religious transition
Hindu conception of kingship that undergirded the Angkorian
civilization. According to
George Coedès , Theravada
Buddhism's denial of the ultimate reality of the individual served to
sap the vitality of the royal personality cult which had provided the
inspiration for the grand monuments of Angkor. The vast expanse of
temples required an equally large body of workers to maintain them; at
Ta Prohm , a stone carving states that 12,640 people serviced that
single temple complex. Not only could the spread of
eroded this workforce, but it could have also affected the estimated
300,000 agricultural workers required to feed them all.
Neglect Of Public Works
George Coedès , the weakening of Angkor's royal
government by ongoing war and the erosion of the cult of the devaraja
undermined the government's ability to engage in important public
works, such as the construction and maintenance of the waterways
essential for irrigation of the rice fields upon which Angkor's large
population depended for its sustenance. As a result, Angkorian
civilization suffered from a reduced economic base, and the population
was forced to scatter.
Chau Say Tevoda
Other scholars attempting to account for the rapid decline and
Angkor have hypothesized natural disasters such as
disease (Bubonic Plague), earthquakes, inundations, or drastic climate
changes as the relevant agents of destruction. A study of tree rings
in Vietnam, produced a record of early monsoons that passed through
this area. From this study, we can tell that during the 14th-15th
centuries monsoons were weakened and eventually followed by extreme
flooding. Their inability to adapt their flooding infrastructure may
have led to its eventual decline. Recent research by Australian
archaeologists suggests that the decline may have been due to a
shortage of water caused by the transition from the Medieval Warm
Period to the
Little Ice Age . LDEO dendrochronological research has
established tree-ring chronologies indicating severe periods of
drought across mainland Southeast Asia in the early 15th century,
raising the possibility that Angkor's canals and reservoirs ran dry
and ended expansion of available farmland.
RESTORATION, PRESERVATION, AND THREATS
A 16th century Portuguese friar ,
António da Madalena , was the
first European visitor that visited
Angkor Wat in 1586. By 17th
Angkor Wat was not completely abandoned. Fourteen
inscriptions from the 17th century testify to Japanese settlements
alongside those of the remaining Khmer. The best-known inscription
Ukondafu Kazufusa , who celebrated the
Khmer New Year there
Angkor was known to the local Khmer and was shown to European
Henri Mouhot in 1860 and
Anna Leonowens in 1865, it
remained cloaked by the forest until the end of the 19th century.
European archeologists such as
Louis Delaporte and ethnologists such
Adolf Bastian visited the site and popularized the site in Europe.
This eventually led to a long restoration process by French
archaeologists. From 1907 to 1970, work was under the direction of the
École française d\'Extrême-Orient , which cleared away the forest,
repaired foundations, and installed drains to protect the buildings
from water damage. In addition, scholars associated with the school
George Coedès ,
Maurice Glaize ,
Paul Mus , Philippe Stern
and others initiated a program of historical scholarship and
interpretation that is fundamental to the current understanding of
Work resumed after the end of the
Cambodian Civil War and, since
1993, has been jointly co-ordinated by India, Germany, Japan and
UNESCO through the International Co-ordinating Committee on the
Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of
while Cambodian work is carried out by the Authority for the
Protection and Management of
Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap
APSARA ), created in 1995. Some temples have been carefully taken
apart stone by stone and reassembled on concrete foundations, in
accordance with the method of anastylosis .
World Monuments Fund has
Preah Khan , the Churning of the Sea of Milk (a 49-meter-long
bas-relief frieze in
Ta Som , and
Phnom Bakheng .
International tourism to
Angkor has increased significantly in recent
years, with visitor numbers reaching around 2 million a year by 2014;
this poses additional conservation problems but has also provided
financial assistance to the restoration effort.
With the increased growth in tourism at Angkor, new hotels and
restaurants are being built to accommodate such growth. Each new
construction project drills underground to reach the water table ,
which has a limited storage capacity. This demand on the water table
could undermine the stability of the sandy soils under the monuments
at Angkor, leading to cracks, fissures and collapses. Making matters
worse, the peak tourist season corresponds with Cambodia's dry season,
which leads to excessive pumping of ground water when it is least
Looting has been an ever-growing threat to the
landscape. According to APSARA, the official Cambodian agency charged
with overseeing the management of Angkor, "vandalism has multiplied at
a phenomenal rate, employing local populations to carry out the actual
thefts, heavily armed intermediaries transport objects, often in tanks
or armored personnel carriers, often for sale across the Cambodian
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The increasing number of tourists, around two million per year,
exerts pressure on the archaeological sites at
Angkor by walking and
climbing on the (mostly) sandstone monuments at Angkor. This direct
pressure created by unchecked tourism is expected to cause significant
damage to the monuments in the future.
In sites such as Angkor, tourism is inevitable. Therefore, the site
management team cannot exclusively manage the site. The team has to
manage the flow of people. Millions of people visit
Angkor each year,
making the management of this flow vital to the quickly decaying
structures. Western tourism to
Angkor began in the 1970s. The
sandstone monuments and
Angkor are not made for this type of
heightened tourism. Moving forward,
UNESCO and local authorities at
the site are in the process of creating a sustainable plan for the
future of the site. Since 1992,
UNESCO has moved towards conserving
Angkor. Thousands of new archaeological sites have been discovered by
UNESCO, and the organization has moved towards protected cultural
zones. Two decades later, over 1000 people are employed full-time at
the site for cultural sensitivity reasons. Part of this movement to
limit the impacts of tourism has been to only open certain areas of
the site. However, much of the 1992 precautionary measures and calls
for future enforcement have fallen through. Both globally and locally
the policy-making has been successful, but the implementation has
failed for several reasons. First, there are conflicts of interest in
Cambodia. While the site is culturally important to them,
a poor country. Its GDP is marginally larger than Afghanistan’s.
Tourism is a vital part to the Cambodian economy, and shutting down
parts of Angkor, the largest tourist destination in the country, is
not an option. A second reason stems from the government’s inability
to organize around the site. The Cambodian government has failed in
organizing a robust team of cultural specialists and archaeologists to
service the site.
Angkor was more than a site for religious art and
architecture. It was the site of vast cities that served all the needs
of the Khmer people. Aside from a few old bridges, however, all of the
remaining monuments are religious edifices. In Angkorian times, all
non-religious buildings, including the residence of the king himself,
were constructed of perishable materials, such as wood, "because only
the gods had a right to residences made of stone." Similarly, the
vast majority of the surviving stone inscriptions are about the
religious foundations of kings and other potentates. As a result, it
is easier to write the history of Angkorian state religion than it is
to write that of just about any other aspect of Angkorian society.
Several religious movements contributed to the historical development
of religion at Angkor:
* Indigenous religious cults mixed with
Shaivism , including those
centered on worship of the ancestors and of the lingam ;
* A royal cult of personality , identifying the king with the deity,
characteristic not only of Angkor, but of other
Hindu civilizations in
southeast Asia, such as
Hinduism , especially
Shaivism , the form of
Hinduism focused on
the worship of
Shiva and the lingam as the symbol of Shiva, but also
Vaishnavism , the form of
Hinduism focussed on the worship of
Buddhism , in both its
Rajendravarman in 948 A.D.,
Baksei Chamkrong is a
temple-pyramid that housed a statue of
The religion of pre-Angkorian Cambodia, known to the Chinese as Funan
(1st century AD to ca. 550) and
Chenla (ca. 550 - ca. 800 AD),
included elements of Hinduism,
Buddhism and indigenous ancestor cults.
Temples from the period of
Chenla bear stone inscriptions, in both
Sanskrit and Khmer , naming both
Hindu and local ancestral deities,
Shiva supreme among the former. The cult of
Buddhism was not, because, as reported by the Chinese
pilgrim Yi Jing , a "wicked king" had destroyed it. Characteristic of
the religion of
Chenla also was the cult of the lingam, or stone
phallus that patronized and guaranteed fertility to the community in
which it was located.
SHIVA AND THE LINGAM
The Khmer king
Jayavarman II , whose assumption of power around 800
AD marks the beginning of the Angkorian period, established his
capital at a place called
Hariharalaya (today known as
Roluos ), at
the northern end of the great lake,
Tonlé Sap .
Harihara is the name
of a deity that combines the essence of
Vishnu (Hari) with that of
Shiva (Hara) and that was much favored by the Khmer kings. Jayavarman
II's adoption of the epithet "devaraja" (god-king) signified the
monarch's special connection with Shiva.
The beginning of the Angkorian period was also marked by changes in
religious architecture. During the reign of Jayavarman II, the
single-chambered sanctuaries typical of
Chenla gave way to temples
constructed as a series of raised platforms bearing multiple towers.
Increasingly impressive temple pyramids came to represent
Mount Meru ,
the home of the
Hindu gods, with the moats surrounding the temples
representing the mythological oceans. An 11th- or 12th-century
Cambodian bronze statue of
Typically, a lingam served as the central religious image of the
Angkorian temple-mountain. The temple-mountain was the center of the
city, and the lingam in the main sanctuary was the focus of the
temple. The name of the central lingam was the name of the king
himself, combined with the suffix -esvara, which designated Shiva.
Through the worship of the lingam, the king was identified with Shiva,
Shaivism became the state religion. Thus, an inscription dated
881 AD indicates that king
Indravarman I erected a lingam named
Indresvara. Another inscription tells us that Indravarman erected
eight lingams in his courts and that they were named for the "eight
elements of Shiva". Similarly,
Rajendravarman , whose reign began in
944 AD, constructed the temple of
Pre Rup , the central tower of which
housed the royal lingam called Rajendrabhadresvara.
In the early days of Angkor, the worship of
Vishnu was secondary to
Shiva . The relationship seems to have changed with the
Angkor Wat by King
Suryavarman II as his personal
mausoleum at the beginning of the 12th century. The central religious
Angkor Wat was an image of Vishnu, and an inscription
identifies Suryavarman as "Paramavishnuloka," or "he who enters the
heavenly world of Vishnu." Religious syncretism , however, remained
thoroughgoing in Khmer society: the state religion of
Shaivism was not
necessarily abrogated by Suryavarman's turn to Vishnu, and the temple
may well have housed a royal lingam. Furthermore, the turn to
Vaishnavism did not abrogate the royal personality cult of Angkor. by
which the reigning king was identified with the deity. According to
Georges Coedès , "
Angkor Wat is, if you like, a
vaishnavite sanctuary, but the
Vishnu venerated there was not the
Hindu deity nor even one of the deity's traditional
incarnations, but the king
Suryavarman II posthumously identified with
Vishnu, consubstantial with him, residing in a mausoleum decorated
with the graceful figures of apsaras just like
Vishnu in his celestial
palace." Suryavarman proclaimed his identity with Vishnu, just as his
predecessors had claimed consubstantiation with Shiva. Face
towers of the
Bayon represent the king as the
In the last quarter of the 12th century, King
Jayavarman VII departed
radically from the tradition of his predecessors when he adopted
Mahayana Buddhism as his personal faith. Jayavarman also made Buddhism
the state religion of his kingdom when he constructed the Buddhist
temple known as the
Bayon at the heart of his new capital city of
Angkor Thom. In the famous face towers of the Bayon, the king
represented himself as the bodhisattva
Avalokiteshvara moved by
compassion for his subjects. Thus, Jayavarman was able to perpetuate
the royal personality cult of Angkor, while identifying the divine
component of the cult with the bodhisattva rather than with Shiva.
Hindu restoration began around 1243 AD, with the death of
Jayavarman VII's successor,
Indravarman II . The next king, Jayavarman
VIII , was a Shaivite iconoclast who specialized in destroying
Buddhist images and in reestablishing the
Hindu shrines that his
illustrious predecessor had converted to Buddhism. During the
Bayon was made a temple to Shiva, and its central 3.6
meter tall statue of the Buddha was cast to the bottom of a nearby
well. Everywhere, cultist statues of the Buddha were replaced by
When Chinese traveller
Zhou Daguan came to
Angkor in AD 1296, he
found what he took to be three separate religious groups. The dominant
religion was that of
Theravada Buddhism. Zhou observed that the monks
had shaven heads and wore yellow robes. The Buddhist temples
impressed Zhou with their simplicity. He noted that the images of
Buddha were made of gilded plaster. The other two groups identified
by Zhou appear to have been those of the Brahmans and of the Shaivites
. About the Brahmans, Zhou had little to say, except that they were
often employed as high officials. Of the Shaivites, whom he called
Taoists ", Zhou wrote, "the only image which they revere is a block
of stone analogous to the stone found in shrines of the god of the
soil in China."
During the course of the 13th century,
Theravada Buddhism transmitted
through the Mon kingdoms of
Haripunchai made its
appearance at Angkor. Gradually, it became the dominant religion of
Cambodia, displacing both
Mahayana Buddhism and Shaivism. The
Theravada Buddhism at
Angkor continues until this day.
The area of
Angkor has many significant archaeological sites,
including the following:
Angkor Thom ,
Angkor Wat ,
Baksei Chamkrong ,
Banteay Kdei ,
Banteay Samré ,
Banteay Srei ,
Baphuon , the
Chau Say Tevoda ,
East Baray ,
East Mebon ,
Kbal Spean , the Khleangs
Krol Ko ,
Neak Pean ,
Phnom Bakheng , Phnom
Krom , Prasat
Ak Yum ,
Prasat Kravan ,
Preah Khan ,
Preah Ko , Preah
Preah Pithu ,
Pre Rup ,
Spean Thma ,
Srah Srang ,
Ta Nei ,
Ta Prohm ,
Ta Som ,
Ta Keo ,
Terrace of the Elephants , Terrace of the
Leper King ,
West Baray ,
West Mebon . Another city at
Mahendraparvata was discovered in 2013.
TERMS AND PHRASES
* ANGKOR (អង្គរ) is a Khmer word meaning "city". It is a
corrupted form of nokor which derives from the
* BANTEAY (បន្ទាយ) is a Khmer term meaning "citadel " or
"fortress" that is also applied to walled temples.
* BARAY (បារាយណ៍) literally means "open space" or
"wide plain" but in
Khmer architecture refers to an artificial
* ESVARA, or ISVARA, (ឦស្វរៈ ~ ឥស្សរៈ) is a
suffix referring to the god
Shiva , especially its omnipotence,
freedom and independence.
* GOPURA is a
Sanskrit term (गोपुर) meaning "entrance
pavilion" or "gateway".
* JAYA (ជយ ~ ជ័យ) is a prefix derived from Sanskrit
* PHNOM (ភ្នំ) is a Khmer word meaning "mountain".
* PRASAT (ប្រាសាទ) is a Khmer term derived from
Sanskrit prāsāda and usually meaning "monument" or "palace" and, by
extension, "ancient temple".
* PREAH (ព្រះ) is a Khmer term meaning "God", "King" or
"exalted". It can also be a prefix meaning "sacred" or "holy". Derived
Sanskrit vara. (
Preah Khan means "sacred sword".)
* SREI (ស្រី) is a Khmer term with two possible meanings.
Sanskrit strī (ស្រ្តី) it means "woman",
Sanskrit sirī (សិរី) it means "beauty",
"splendor" or "glory".
* TA (តា) is a Khmer word meaning "grandfather," or under some
circumstances "ancestor." (
Ta Prohm means "Ancestor Brahma". Neak ta
means "ancestors" or "ancestral spirits".)
* THOM (ធំ) is a Khmer word meaning "large". (
Angkor Thom means
* VARMAN (វរ្ម័ន) is a suffix, from
meaning "shield" or "protector". (Suryavarman means "protected by
Surya, the sun-god".)
* WAT (វត្ត) is a Khmer word, derived from the Pali
वत्त, vatta, meaning (Buddhist) "temple". (
Angkor Wat means
Angkor National Museum
* Architecture of
Hindu temple architecture
* ^ A B Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang,
Lim Hak; Chun, Chen. 1977. Cambodian-English Dictionary. Bureau of
Special Research in Modern Languages. The Catholic University of
America Press. Washington, D.C. ISBN 0-8132-0509-3
* ^ Chuon Nath Khmer Dictionary (1966, Buddhist Institute, Phnom
* ^ Benfey, Theodor (1866). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: With
References to the Best Edition of
Sanskrit Author and Etymologies and
Camparisons of Cognate Words Chiefly in Greek, Latin, Gothic, and
Anglo-Saxon (reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. pp. 453, 464.
ISBN 8120603702 . Retrieved 17 January 2016.
* ^ A B C Evans et al., A comprehensive archaeological map of the
world\'s largest pre-industrial settlement complex at Angkor,
Cambodia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA,
August 23, 2007.
* ^ Evans, D., Pottier, C., Fletcher, R., Hensley, S., Tapley, I.,
Milne, A., Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.34 ff.
* ^ Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.26; Coedès, Pour mieux
comprendre Angkor, p.4.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, pp.63 ff.
* ^ Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.40.
* ^ A B C Higham, C., 2001, The Civilization of Angkor, London:
Weidenfeld Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.38 f.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, pp.112 ff.; Chandler, A
History of Cambodia, p.49.
* ^ Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.50 f.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, pp.120 ff.
* ^ Tom St John Gray,
Angkor Wat: Temple of Boom Archived March 17,
2013, at the
Wayback Machine ., World Archeology, 7 November 2011.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.116.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, pp.134 ff.; Chandler, A
History of Cambodia, pp.71 ff.
* ^ Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast
Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681 .
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.32.
* ^ Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.78 ff.
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, pp.64-65.
* ^ Richard Stone, Divining Angkor, National Geographic, July 2009.
* ^ A B Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.30.
* ^ Buckley, B. M., Anchukaitis, K. J., Penny, D., Fletcher, R.,
Cook, E. R., Sano, M., ... & Hong, T. M. (2010). Climate as a
contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia. Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, 107(15), 6748-6752.
* ^ AAP (14 March 2007). "Climate change killed ancient city".
NEWS.com.au. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved
12 November 2009.
* ^ Nelson, Andy (10 November 2009). "The secret life of ancient
trees". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 12
November 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
* ^ Masako Fukawa, Stan Fukawa (6 Nov 2014). "Japanese Diaspora -
Cambodia". Discover Nikkei. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
* ^ "History of Cambodia, Post-
Angkor Era (1431 - present day)".
Cambodia Travel. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
* ^ Leonowens, Anna, An Englishwoman in the Siamese Court, 1870
* ^ Lawrie, Ben. "Beyond Angkor: How lasers revealed a lost city".
bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
* ^ "Tourist invasion threatens to ruin glories of Angkor," The
* ^ Sharp, Rob (14 March 2008). "Heritage Site in Peril:
is Falling Down".
The Independent .
* ^ A B Ben Doherty, Private water raiding threatens Angkor\'s
temples built on sand, The Guardian, 27 September 2010
* ^ Perlez, Jane (March 21, 2005). "
Siem Reap Journal; A Cruel Race
to Loot the Splendor That Was Angkor".
The New York Times .
* ^ Watson, Paul (July 19, 2008). "Too Much Adoration at
Los Angeles Times .
* ^ Wagner, Jonathan C. (1995). "Environmental planning for a world
heritage site: Case study of Angkor, Cambodia.". Journal of
Environmental Planning & Management Vol. 38(3)
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.18.
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.2.
* ^ Chandler, A History of Cambodia, pp.19-20.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.46.
* ^ Coedès, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, p.73f.
* ^ A B Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.20.
* ^ A B Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.57.
* ^ Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.34.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.9, 60.
* ^ Stern, "Le temple-montagne khmèr," p.615.
* ^ Stern, "Le temple-montagne khmèr," p.612.
* ^ A B Stern, "Le temple-montagne khmèr," p.616.
* ^ A B Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.63.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, pp.73ff.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.118.
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.63.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.121.
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.62.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.133.
* ^ Higham, The Civilization of Angkor, p.137.
* ^ A B C Chandler, A History of Cambodia, p.72.
* ^ Coedès, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, p.19.
* ^ Murdoch, Lindsay (2013-06-14). "The lost city".
The Age .
* Audric, John (1972).
Angkor and the Khmer Empire. London: R. Hale.
ISBN 0-7091-2945-9 .
* Chandler, David (1992). A History of Cambodia. Boulder: Westview
* Coedès, George (1968). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia.
Honolulu: East West Center Press.
* Coedès, George (1943). Pour mieux comprendre Angkor. Hanoi:
Imprimerie d'Extrême Orient.
* Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). Angkor, Eighth Wonder of the
World. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B0085RYW0O
* Freeman, Michael; Jacques, Claude (1999). Ancient Angkor.
Trumbull, Conn.: Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-0426-3 .
* Higham, Charles (2001). The Civilization of Angkor. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
* Petrotchenko, Michel (2014). Focusing on the
Angkor Temples: The
Guidebook, 383 pages, Amarin Printing and Publishing, 3rd edition,
ISBN 978 616 361 118 5
* Stern, Philippe (1934). "Le temple-montagne khmèr, le culte du
linga et le Devaraja", Bulletin de l'École française
d’Extrême-Orient 34, pp. 611–616.
* National Review: In Pol Pot Land: Ruins of varying types Sept 29,
* UNESCO: International Programme for the Preservation of Angkor
Accessed 17 May 2005.
* "Climate change killed ancient city". The Australian. 2007-03-14.
Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-16.
* Smith, Justine (2007-02-25). "Tourist invasion threatens to ruin
glories of Angkor". London: The Observer.
* Dayton, Leigh (2007-08-14). "
Angkor engineered own end". The
Australian. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
* "Map reveals ancient urban sprawl". BBC News. 2007-08-14.
* Pescali, Piergiorgio (2010). Indocina. Bologna: Emil. ISBN
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* David L. Snellgrove (2001). Khmer Civilization and Angkor. Orchid
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History of the Khmers. Orchid Press. ISBN 978-974-524-041-4 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ANGKOR .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ANGKOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK .
* Google Maps Map centered on
Angkor Wat , with the
Tonle Sap at the