The ANALECTS (Chinese : 論語;
Old Chinese :*RUN ŋ(R)Aʔ; pinyin :
LúNYǔ; literally: "Edited Conversations"), also known as the
ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed
to the Chinese philosopher
Confucius and his contemporaries,
traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius'
followers. It is believed to have been written during the Warring
States period (475–221 BC), and it achieved its final form during
Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD). By the early
Han dynasty the
Analects was considered merely a "commentary" on the
Five Classics ,
but the status of the
Analects grew to be one of the central texts of
Confucianism by the end of that dynasty.
During the late
Song dynasty (960–1279) the importance of the
Analects as a philosophy work was raised above that of the older Five
Classics, and it was recognized as one of the "
Four Books ". The
Analects has been one of the most widely read and studied books in
China for the last 2,000 years, and continues to have a substantial
influence on Chinese and East Asian thought and values today. They
were very important for
Confucianism and China's overall morals.
Confucius believed that the welfare of a country depended on the
moral cultivation of its people, beginning from the nation's
leadership. He believed that individuals could begin to cultivate an
all-encompassing sense of virtue through ren , and that the most basic
step to cultivating ren was devotion to one\'s parents and older
siblings. He taught that one's individual desires do not need to be
suppressed, but that people should be educated to reconcile their
desires via rituals and forms of propriety , through which people
could demonstrate their respect for others and their responsible roles
in society. He taught that a ruler's sense of virtue was his primary
prerequisite for leadership. His primary goal in educating his
students was to produce ethically well-cultivated men who would carry
themselves with gravity, speak correctly, and demonstrate consummate
integrity in all things.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Creation of the text
* 1.2 Importance within
* 1.3 Commentaries
* 2 Contents
* 2.1 Social philosophy
* 2.2 Political philosophy
* 2.3 Education
* 2.4 Chapters
* 3 Notable translations
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Footnotes
* 5.2 Works cited
* 6 Further reading
* 7 External links
CREATION OF THE TEXT
Portrait of Confucius, giving a lecture The
Östasiatiska Museet , Stockholm
Ban Gu , writing in the
Book of Han
Book of Han , the Analects
originated as individual records kept by Confucius' disciples of
conversations between the Master and them, which were then collected
and jointly edited by the disciples after Confucius' death in 473 BC.
The work is therefore titled Lunyu meaning "edited conversations" or
"selected speeches" (i.e. analects). This broadly forms the
traditional account of the genesis of the work accepted by later
generations of scholars, for example the
Song dynasty neo-Confucian
Zhu Xi stated that
Analects is the records of Confucius'
first- and second-generation pupils. The view however was challenged
by Qing dynasty philologist Cui Shu (崔述, 1740–1816) who argued
on linguistic ground that the last five books are much later than the
rest of the work. Many modern scholars now believe that the work was
compiled over a period of around two hundred years, with some
questioning the authenticity of some of the sayings. Because no
texts dated earlier than about 50 BC have been discovered, and because
Analects was not referred to by name in any existing source before
the early Han dynasty, some scholars have proposed dates as late as
140 BC for the text's compilation.
Regardless of how early the text of the
Analects existed, most
Analects scholars believe that, by the early
Han dynasty (206 BC–220
AD) the book was widely known and transmitted throughout China in a
mostly complete form, and the book acquired its final, complete form
during Han dynasty. A
Han dynasty writer
Wang Chong however claimed
Analects that existed during the
Han dynasty was incomplete
and formed only a part of a much larger work. A larger collection of
Confucius' teachings existed in the
Warring States period
Warring States period than has
been preserved directly in the Analects:
Mencius quotes a number of
sayings which occur with different wordings or in a different context
than the received text of Analects. At least three times the amount of
those do not exist in the
Analects at all.
According to the
Han dynasty scholar Liu Xiang , there were two
versions of the
Analects that existed at the beginning of the Han
dynasty: the "Lu version" and the "Qi version". The Lu version
contained twenty chapters, and the Qi version contained twenty-two
chapters, including two chapters not found in the Lu version. Of the
twenty chapters that both versions had in common, the Lu version had
more passages. Each version had its own masters, schools, and
transmitters. In the reign of
Emperor Jing of Han
Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 BC),
a third version (the "
Old Text " version) was discovered hidden in a
wall of the home then believed to be Confucius' when the home was in
the process of being destroyed by King Gong of Lu (r. 153–128 BC) in
order to expand the king's palace. The new version did not contain the
two extra chapters found in the Qi version, but it split one chapter
found in the Lu and Qi versions in two, so it had twenty-one chapters,
and the order of the chapters was different. The old text version got
its name because it was written in characters not used since the
Warring States period
Warring States period (i.e. before 221 BC), when it was
assumed to have been hidden. According to the
Han dynasty scholar
Huan Tan , the old text version had four hundred characters different
from the Lu version (from which the received text of the
mostly based), and it seriously differed from the Lu version in
twenty-seven places. Of these twenty-seven differences, the received
text only agrees with the old text version in two places.
Over a century later, the tutor of the
Analects to Emperor Cheng of
Han , Zhang Yu (d. 5 BC), synthesized the Lu and Qi versions by taking
the Lu version as authoritative and selectively adding sections from
the Qi version, and produced a composite text of the
Analects known as
the "Zhang Hou Lun". This text was recognized by Zhang Yu's
contemporaries and by subsequent Han scholars as superior to either
individual version, and is the text that is recognized as the Analects
today. The Qi version was lost for about 1 800 years but re-found
during the excavation of the tomb of
Marquis of Haihun that was found
2011. No complete copies of either the Lu version or the old text
version of the
Analects exist today, though fragments of the old text
version were discovered at Dunhuang .
Before the late twentieth century the oldest existing copy of the
Analects known to scholars was found in the "Stone Classics of the
Xinping Era", a copy of the Confucian classics written in stone in the
Han dynasty capital of
Luoyang around 175 AD.
Archaeologists have since discovered two handwritten copies of the
Analects that were written around 50 BC, during the Western Han
dynasty. They are known as the "
Dingzhou Analects", and the "Pyongyang
Analects", after the location of the tombs in which they were found.
Analects was discovered in 1973, but no transcription of
its contents was published until 1997. The
discovered in 1992. Academic access to the
Analects has been
highly restricted, and no academic study on it was published until
Analects was damaged in a fire shortly after it was
entombed in the Han dynasty. It was further damaged in an earthquake
shortly after it was recovered, and the surviving text is just under
half the size of the received text of the Analects. Of the sections
that survive, the
Analects is shorter than the received
Analects, implying that the text of the
Analects was still in the
process of expansion when the
Analects was entombed. There
was evidence that "additions" may have been made to the manuscript
after it had been completed, indicating that the writer may have
become aware of at least one other version of the
included "extra" material for the sake of completeness. The content of
Analects is similar to the
Dingzhou Analects; but,
because of the secrecy and isolationism of the North Korean
government, only a very cursory study of it has been made available to
international scholars, and its contents are not completely known
outside of North Korea. Scholars do not agree about whether either the
Analects or the
Analects represent the Lu version,
the Qi version, the old text version, or a different version that was
independent of these three traditions.
IMPORTANCE WITHIN CONFUCIANISM
During most of the Han period the
Analects was not considered one of
the principal texts of
Confucianism . During the reign of Han Wudi
(141–87 BC), when the Chinese government began promoting Confucian
studies, only the
Five Classics were considered by the government to
be canonical (jing), considered so because
Confucius was assumed to
have partially written, edited, and/or transmitted them. The Analects
was considered secondary as it was thought to be merely a collection
of Confucius' oral "commentary" (zhuan) on the Five Classics.
The political importance and popularity of
Confucius and Confucianism
grew throughout the Han dynasty, and by the Eastern Han the Analects
was widely read by schoolchildren and anyone aspiring to literacy, and
often read before the
Five Classics themselves. During the Eastern
Han, the heir apparent was provided a tutor specifically to teach him
the Analects. The growing importance of the
Analects was recognized
Five Classics was expanded to the "Seven Classics": the Five
Classics plus the
Analects and the
Classic of Filial Piety
Classic of Filial Piety , and its
status as one of the central texts of
Confucianism continued to grow
until the late
Song dynasty (960–1279), when it was identified and
promoted as one of the
Four Books by
Zhu Xi and generally accepted as
being more insightful than the older Five Classics.
A copy of He Yan's commentary on the Analects, with a
sub-commentary by Xing Bing , printed during the
Since the Han dynasty, Chinese readers have interpreted the Analects
by reading scholars' commentaries on the book. There have been many
commentaries on the
Analects since the Han dynasty, but the two which
have been most influential have been the Collected Explanations of the
Analects (Lunyu Jijie) by
He Yan (c. 195–249) and several
colleagues, and the Collected Commentaries of the
Zhu Xi (1130–1200). In his work,
He Yan collected,
selected, summarized, and rationalized what he believed to be the most
insightful of all preceding commentaries on the
Analects which had
been produced by earlier Han and Wei dynasty (220–265 AD) scholars.
His personal interpretation of the Lunyu was guided by his belief that
Confucianism complemented each other, so that by studying
both in a correct manner a scholar could arrive at a single, unified
truth. Arguing for the ultimate compatibility of Daoist and Confucian
teachings, he argued that "Laozi was in agreement with the Sage"
(sic). The Explanations was written in 248 AD, was quickly recognized
as authoritative, and remained the standard guide to interpreting the
Analects for nearly 1,000 years, until the early Yuan dynasty
(1271–1368). It is the oldest complete commentary on the Analects
that still exists.
He Yan's commentary was eventually displaced as the definitive,
standard commentary by Zhu Xi's commentary. Zhu Xi's work also brought
together the commentaries of earlier scholars (mostly from the Song
dynasty), along with his own interpretations. Zhu's work took part in
the context of a period of renewed interest in Confucian studies, in
which Chinese scholars were interested in producing a single "correct"
intellectual orthodoxy that would "save" Chinese traditions and
protect them from foreign influences, and in which scholars were
increasingly interested in metaphysical speculation.
In his commentary Zhu made a great effort to interpret the Analects
by using theories elaborated in the other Four Books, something that
He Yan had not done. Zhu attempted to give an added coherence and
unity to the message of the Analects, demonstrating that the
individual books of the Confucian canon gave meaning to the whole,
just as the whole of the canon gave meaning to its parts. In his
Zhu Xi stated, "he
Analects and the
Mencius are the most
important works for students pursuing the Way The words of the
Analects are all inclusive; what they teach is nothing but the
essentials of preserving the mind and cultivating nature." From the
first publication of the Commentaries, Zhu continued to refine his
interpretation for the last thirty years of his life. In the
fourteenth century, the Chinese government endorsed Zhu's commentary,
and until 1905 it was read and memorized along with the
all Chinese aspiring to literacy and employment as government
Very few reliable sources about
Confucius exist besides that of the
Analects. The principal biography available to historians is included
Sima Qian 's
Shiji , but, because the
Shiji contains a large amount
of (possibly legendary) material not confirmed by extant sources, the
biographical material on
Confucius found in the
Analects makes the
Analects arguably the most reliable source of biographical information
Confucius viewed himself as a "transmitter" of
social and political traditions originating in the early Zhou dynasty
(c. 1000–800 BC), and claimed not to have originated anything
Analects 7.1), but Confucius' social and political ideals were not
popular in his time.
Confucius' discussions on the nature of the supernatural (Analects
3.12; 6.20; 11.11) indicate that he believed while "ghosts" and
"spirits" should be respected, they are best kept at a distance.
Instead human beings should base their values and social ideals on
moral philosophy, tradition, and a natural love for others. Confucius'
social philosophy largely depended on the cultivation of ren by every
individual in a community. Later Confucian philosophers explained ren
as the quality of having a kind manner, similar to the English words
"humane", "altruistic", or "benevolent", but, of the sixty instances
Confucius discusses ren in the Analects, it is clear that
very few have these later meanings.
Confucius instead used the term
ren to describe an extremely general and all-encompassing state of
virtue, one which no living person had attained completely. (This use
of the term ren is peculiar to the Analects.)
Throughout the Analects, Confucius' students frequently request that
Confucius define ren and give examples of people who embody it, but
Confucius generally responds indirectly to his students' questions,
instead offering illustrations and examples of behaviours that are
associated with ren and explaining how a person could achieve it.
According to Confucius, a person with a well-cultivated sense of ren
would speak carefully and modestly (
Analects 12.3); be resolute and
Analects 12.20), courageous (
Analects 14.4), free from worry,
unhappiness, and insecurity (
Analects 9.28; 6.21); moderate their
desires and return to propriety (
Analects 12.1); be respectful,
tolerant, diligent, trustworthy and kind (
Analects 17.6); and love
Confucius recognized his followers'
disappointment that he would not give them a more comprehensive
definition of ren, but assured them that he was sharing all that he
To Confucius, the cultivation of ren involved depreciating oneself
through modesty while avoiding artful speech and ingratiating manners
that would create a false impression of one's own character (Analects
Confucius said that those who had cultivated ren could be
distinguished by their being "simple in manner and slow of speech". He
believed that people could cultivate their sense of ren through
Golden Rule : "Do not do to others what you would not
like done to yourself"; "a man with ren, desiring to establish
himself, helps others establish themselves; desiring to succeed
himself, helps others to succeed" (
Analects 12.2; 6.28). He taught
that the ability of people to imagine and project themselves into the
places of others was a crucial quality for the pursuit of moral
Analects 4.15; see also 5.12; 6.30; 15.24).
Confucius regarded the exercise of devotion to one\'s parents and
older siblings as the simplest, most basic way to cultivate ren.
Confucius believed that ren could best be cultivated by those who had
already learned self-discipline, and that self-discipline was best
learned by practicing and cultivating one's understanding of li :
rituals and forms of propriety through which people demonstrate their
respect for others and their responsible roles in society (Analects
Confucius said that one's understanding of li should inform
everything that one says and does (
Analects 12.1). He believed that
subjecting oneself to li did not mean suppressing one's desires, but
learning to reconcile them with the needs of one's family and broader
community. By leading individuals to express their desires within the
context of social responsibility,
Confucius and his followers taught
that the public cultivation of li was the basis of a well-ordered
Confucius taught his students that an
important aspect of li was observing the practical social differences
that exist between people in daily life. In Confucian philosophy these
"five relationships" include: ruler to ruled; father to son; husband
to wife; elder brother to younger brother; and friend to friend.
Ren and li have a special relationship in the Analects: li manages
one's relationship with one's family and close community, while ren is
practiced broadly and informs one's interactions with all people.
Confucius did not believe that ethical self-cultivation meant
unquestioned loyalty to an evil ruler. He argued that the demands of
ren and li meant that rulers could oppress their subjects only at
their own peril: "You may rob the Three Armies of their commander, but
you cannot deprive the humblest peasant of his opinion" (Analects
Confucius said that a morally well-cultivated individual would
regard his devotion to loving others as a mission for which he would
be willing to die (
Confucius' political beliefs were rooted in his belief that a good
ruler would be self-disciplined, would govern his subjects through
education and by his own example, and would seek to correct his
subjects with love and concern rather than punishment and coercion.
"If the people be led by laws, and uniformity among them be sought by
punishments, they will try to escape punishment and have no sense of
shame. If they are led by virtue, and uniformity sought among them
through the practice of ritual propriety, they will possess a sense of
shame and come to you of their own accord" (
Analects 2.3; see also
13.6). Confucius' political theories were directly contradictory to
the Legalistic political orientations of China's rulers, and he failed
to popularize his ideals among China's leaders within his own
Confucius believed that the social chaos of his time was largely due
to China's ruling elite aspiring to, and claiming, titles of which
they were unworthy. When the ruler of the large state of Qi asked
Confucius about the principles of good government, Confucius
responded: "Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the
minister being a minister, the father being a father, and the son
being a son" (
Analects 12.11). Confucius' analysis of the need to
raise officials' behavior to reflect the way that they identify and
describe themselves is known as the rectification of names , and he
stated that the rectification of names should be the first
responsibility of a ruler upon taking office (
Confucius believed that, because the ruler was the model for all who
were under him in society, the rectification of names had to begin
with the ruler, and that afterwards others would change to imitate him
Confucius judged a good ruler by his possession of de ("virtue"): a
sort of moral force that allows those in power to rule and gain the
loyalty of others without the need for physical coercion (Analects
Confucius said that one of the most important ways that a ruler
cultivates his sense of de is through a devotion to the correct
practices of li. Examples of rituals identified by
important to cultivate a ruler's de include: sacrificial rites held at
ancestral temples to express thankfulness and humility; ceremonies of
enfeoffment, toasting, and gift exchanges that bound nobility in
complex hierarchical relationships of obligation and indebtedness;
and, acts of formal politeness and decorum (i.e. bowing and yielding)
that identify the performers as morally well-cultivated.
The importance of education and study is a fundamental theme of the
Analects. For Confucius, a good student respects and learns from the
words and deeds of his teacher, and a good teacher is someone older
who is familiar with the ways of the past and the practices of
Confucius emphasized the need to find
balance between formal study and intuitive self-reflection (Analects
2.15). When teaching he is never cited in the
Analects as lecturing at
length about any subject, but instead challenges his students to
discover the truth through asking direct questions , citing passages
from the classics, and using analogies (
Analects 7.8). He sometimes
required his students to demonstrate their understanding of subjects
by making intuitive conceptual leaps before accepting their
understanding and discussing those subjects at greater levels of
His primary goal in educating his students was to produce ethically
well-cultivated men who would carry themselves with gravity, speak
correctly, and demonstrate consummate integrity in all things
Analects 12.11; see also 13.3). He was willing to teach anyone
regardless of social class, as long as they were sincere, eager, and
tireless to learn (
Analects 7.7; 15.38). He is traditionally credited
with teaching three thousand students, though only seventy are said to
have mastered what he taught. He taught practical skills , but
regarded moral self-cultivation as his most important subject.
The traditional titles given to each chapter are mostly an initial
two or three incipits . In some cases a title may indicate a central
theme of a chapter, but it is inappropriate to regard a title as a
description or generalization of the content of a chapter. Chapters in
Analects are grouped by individual themes, but the chapters are
not arranged in a way as to carry a continuous stream of thoughts or
ideas. The themes of adjacent chapters are completely unrelated to
each other. Central themes recur repeatedly in different chapters,
sometimes in exactly the same wording and sometimes with small
Chapter 10 contains detailed descriptions of Confucius' behaviors in
various daily activities.
Ezra Pound believed that this
chapter demonstrated how
Confucius was a mere human.
Simon Leys , who
recently translated the
Analects into English and French, said that
the book may have been the first in human history to describe the life
of an individual, historic personage.
Elias Canetti wrote: "Confucius'
Analects is the oldest complete intellectual and spiritual portrait of
a man. It strikes one as a modern book; everything it contains and
indeed everything it lacks is important."
Within these incipits a large number of passages in the Analects
begin with the formulaic ziyue, "The Master said," but without
punctuation marks in classical Chinese, this does not confirm whether
what follows ziyue is direct quotation of actual sayings of Confucius,
or simply to be understood as "the Master said that.." and the
Confucius by the compilers of the Analects.
Xue Er 學而
Wei Zheng 為政
The practice of government
This chapter explores the theme that political order is best gained
through the non-coercive influence of moral self-cultivation rather
than through force or excessive government regulation.
Ba Yi 八佾
Eight lines of eight dancers apiece
Ba Yi was a kind of ritual dance practiced in the court of the Zhou
king. In Confucius' time, lesser nobles also began staging these
dances for themselves. The main themes of this chapter are: criticism
of ritual impropriety (especially among China's political leadership),
and the need to combine learning with nature in the course moral
Chapters 3–9 may be the oldest in the Analects.
Li Ren 里仁
Living in brotherliness
This chapter explores the theme of ren, its qualities, and the
qualities of those who have it. A secondary theme is the virtue of
Gongye Chang 公冶長
The main theme of this chapter is Confucius' examination of others'
qualities and faults in order to illustrate the desirable course of
moral self-cultivation. This chapter has traditionally been
attributed to the disciples of Zigong, a student of Confucius. Gongye
Chang was Confucius' son-in-law.
Yong Ye 雍也
There is Yong
Yong is Ran Yong, also called Zhou Gong, a student of Confucius.
Shu Er 述而
Transmission, not invention .
Wu Taibo was the legendary founder of the state of Wu . He was the
oldest son of King Tai and the great-grandfather of King Wu of the
Zhou Dynasty .
Zi Han 子罕
The Master shunned
Confucius seldom spoke of advantage.
Xiang Dang 鄉黨
Among the Xiang and the Dang
A "xiang" was a group of 12,500 families; a "dang" a group of 500
families. This chapter is a collection of maxims related to ritual.
Xian Jin 先進
Those of former eras
The former generations. This chapter has traditionally been
attributed to the disciples of Min Ziqian, also known as Min Sun, a
student of Confucius.
Yan Yuan 顏淵
Yan Hui was a common name of Zi Yuan, a favorite disciple of
Zilu was a student of Confucius.
Xian Wen 憲問
This chapter has traditionally been attributed to the disciples of
Yuan Xian, also called both Yuan Si and Zisi, a student of Confucius.
Wei Ling Gong 衛靈公
Duke Ling of Wey
Duke Ling ruled from 534–493 BC in the state of Wey .
Ji Shi 季氏
Chief of the Ji Clan
Ji Sun was an official from one of the most important families in
Lu. This chapter is generally believed to have been written relatively
late; possibly compiled from the extra chapters of the Qi version of
Yang Huo 陽貨
Yang was an official of the Ji clan, an important family in Lu.
Weizi was the older half-brother of Zhou , the last king of the
Shang dynasty , and was founder of the state of Song . The writer of
this chapter was critical of Confucius.
Zizhang was a student of Confucius. This chapter consists entirely
of sayings by Confucius' disciples.
Yao Yue 堯曰
Yao was one of the traditional Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
of ancient China. This chapter consists entirely of stray sentences
resembling the style and content of the
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* ^ Waley 27–29
* ^ Gardner 52–53
* ^ Slingerland 34
* ^ A B C Riegel "3. Confucius' Political Philosophy"
* ^ A B Riegel 4 "
Confucius and Education"
* ^ Slingerland 19–20
* ^ Canetti 173
* ^ Roger T. Ames The
Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical
Translation 2010 p. 285 "A large number of passages in the Analects
begin with the formulaic ziyue 子曰, "The Master said," but because
there are no punctuation marks in classical Chinese, we must ask if
whatever follows ziyue is a literal transcription of speech, or a
paraphrase of it, or a method of transmitting ideas in a written
language which existed in important ways independently of the spoken
* ^ Slingerland 8
* ^ Slingerland 17
* ^ A B C D E F Waley 21
* ^ Slingerland 29
* ^ Slingerland 39
* ^ A B C D Legge 16
* ^ Legge 119
* Canetti, Elias. The Conscience of Words. Trans. Joachim
Neugroschel. Publisher: Farrar Straus Giroux. 1984. ISBN 0374518815 .
* Cheng, Anne (1993). "Lun yü 論語". In Loewe, Michael . Early
Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the
Study of Early China; Institute for East Asian Studies, University of
California, Berkeley. pp. 313–23. ISBN 1-55729-043-1 .
* Gardner, Daniel K. Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon,
Commentary, and the Classical Tradition. New York: Columbia University
Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12865-0
* Els, Paul van. "Confucius\' sayings entombed: On Two Han Dynasty
Analects Studies. Leiden: Brill. 2012.
Retrieved July 15, 2012.
* Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through
Western Han". In Owen, Stephen. The Cambridge History of Chinese
Literature, Volume 1: To 1375. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
pp. 1–115. ISBN 978-0-521-11677-0 .
* Knechtges, David R. ; Shih, Hsiang-ling (2010). "Lunyu 論語". In
Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping. Ancient and Early Medieval
Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part One. Leiden: Brill. pp.
645–50. ISBN 978-90-04-19127-3 .
* Lau, D.C. "Introduction". In The Analects. Trans. D.C. Lau. Hong
Kong: The Chinese University Press. 2002. ISBN 962-201-980-3 .
Retrieved June 26, 2012.
* Legge, James. "Prolegomena". In The Confucian Analects, The Great
Learning, and The Doctrine of the Mean. Trans. James Legge. New York,
NY: Cosimo. 2009. ISBN 978-1-60520-644-8 . Retrieved June 28, 2012.
* Riegel, Jeffrey. "Confucius", The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. Spring 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
* Kim, Tae Hyun; Csikszentmihalyi, Mark (2013). "Chapter 2". In
Olberding, Amy. Dao Companion to the Analects. Springer. pp. 21–36.
ISBN 9400771126 .
* Slingerland, Edward (2003). Analects: With Selections from
Indianapolis : Hackett . ISBN 9781603843454
* Waley, Arthur. "Terms". In The
Analects of Confucius. Trans.
Arthur Waley. New York: Vintage Books. 1938.
* Van Norden, Bryan W.
Confucius and the
Analects : New Essays.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press , 2001. ISBN 0195350820 , ISBN 978-0195350821
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