HOME
The Info List - Analects



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

The _ANALECTS_ (Chinese : 論語; Old Chinese
Old Chinese
:_*RUN ŋ(R)Aʔ_; pinyin : _LúNYǔ_; literally: "Edited Conversations"), also known as the _ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS_, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius
Confucius
and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius' followers. It is believed to have been written during the Warring States period (475–221 BC), and it achieved its final form during the mid- Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC–220 AD). By the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
the _Analects_ was considered merely a "commentary" on the Five Classics , but the status of the _Analects_ grew to be one of the central texts of Confucianism by the end of that dynasty.

During the late Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279) the importance of the _Analects_ as a philosophy work was raised above that of the older Five Classics, and it was recognized as one of the " Four Books ". The _Analects_ has been one of the most widely read and studied books in China for the last 2,000 years, and continues to have a substantial influence on Chinese and East Asian thought and values today. They were very important for Confucianism and China's overall morals.

Confucius
Confucius
believed that the welfare of a country depended on the moral cultivation of its people, beginning from the nation's leadership. He believed that individuals could begin to cultivate an all-encompassing sense of virtue through _ren _, and that the most basic step to cultivating _ren_ was devotion to one\'s parents and older siblings. He taught that one's individual desires do not need to be suppressed, but that people should be educated to reconcile their desires via rituals and forms of propriety , through which people could demonstrate their respect for others and their responsible roles in society. He taught that a ruler's sense of virtue was his primary prerequisite for leadership. His primary goal in educating his students was to produce ethically well-cultivated men who would carry themselves with gravity, speak correctly, and demonstrate consummate integrity in all things.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Creation of the text * 1.2 Importance within Confucianism * 1.3 Commentaries

* 2 Contents

* 2.1 Social philosophy * 2.2 Political philosophy * 2.3 Education * 2.4 Chapters

* 3 Notable translations * 4 See also

* 5 References

* 5.1 Footnotes * 5.2 Works cited

* 6 Further reading * 7 External links

HISTORY

CREATION OF THE TEXT

_ Portrait of Confucius, giving a lecture The Analects
Analects
of Confucius_, from Östasiatiska Museet , Stockholm

According to Ban Gu , writing in the _ Book of Han _, the _Analects_ originated as individual records kept by Confucius' disciples of conversations between the Master and them, which were then collected and jointly edited by the disciples after Confucius' death in 473 BC. The work is therefore titled _Lunyu_ meaning "edited conversations" or "selected speeches" (i.e. analects). This broadly forms the traditional account of the genesis of the work accepted by later generations of scholars, for example the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi stated that _Analects_ is the records of Confucius' first- and second-generation pupils. The view however was challenged by Qing dynasty philologist Cui Shu (崔述, 1740–1816) who argued on linguistic ground that the last five books are much later than the rest of the work. Many modern scholars now believe that the work was compiled over a period of around two hundred years, with some questioning the authenticity of some of the sayings. Because no texts dated earlier than about 50 BC have been discovered, and because the _Analects_ was not referred to by name in any existing source before the early Han dynasty, some scholars have proposed dates as late as 140 BC for the text's compilation.

Regardless of how early the text of the _Analects_ existed, most _Analects_ scholars believe that, by the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC–220 AD) the book was widely known and transmitted throughout China in a mostly complete form, and the book acquired its final, complete form during Han dynasty. A Han dynasty
Han dynasty
writer Wang Chong however claimed that the _Analects_ that existed during the Han dynasty was incomplete and formed only a part of a much larger work. A larger collection of Confucius' teachings existed in the Warring States period than has been preserved directly in the _Analects_: Mencius quotes a number of sayings which occur with different wordings or in a different context than the received text of _Analects._ At least three times the amount of those do not exist in the _Analects_ at all.

According to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
scholar Liu Xiang , there were two versions of the _Analects_ that existed at the beginning of the Han dynasty: the "Lu version" and the "Qi version". The Lu version contained twenty chapters, and the Qi version contained twenty-two chapters, including two chapters not found in the Lu version. Of the twenty chapters that both versions had in common, the Lu version had more passages. Each version had its own masters, schools, and transmitters. In the reign of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 BC), a third version (the " Old Text " version) was discovered hidden in a wall of the home then believed to be Confucius' when the home was in the process of being destroyed by King Gong of Lu (r. 153–128 BC) in order to expand the king's palace. The new version did not contain the two extra chapters found in the Qi version, but it split one chapter found in the Lu and Qi versions in two, so it had twenty-one chapters, and the order of the chapters was different. The old text version got its name because it was written in characters not used since the earlier Warring States period (i.e. before 221 BC), when it was assumed to have been hidden. According to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
scholar Huan Tan , the old text version had four hundred characters different from the Lu version (from which the received text of the _Analects_ is mostly based), and it seriously differed from the Lu version in twenty-seven places. Of these twenty-seven differences, the received text only agrees with the old text version in two places.

Over a century later, the tutor of the _Analects_ to Emperor Cheng of Han , Zhang Yu (d. 5 BC), synthesized the Lu and Qi versions by taking the Lu version as authoritative and selectively adding sections from the Qi version, and produced a composite text of the _Analects_ known as the "Zhang Hou Lun". This text was recognized by Zhang Yu's contemporaries and by subsequent Han scholars as superior to either individual version, and is the text that is recognized as the _Analects_ today. The Qi version was lost for about 1 800 years but re-found during the excavation of the tomb of Marquis of Haihun that was found 2011. No complete copies of either the Lu version or the old text version of the _Analects_ exist today, though fragments of the old text version were discovered at Dunhuang .

Before the late twentieth century the oldest existing copy of the _Analects_ known to scholars was found in the "Stone Classics of the Xinping Era", a copy of the Confucian classics written in stone in the old Eastern Han dynasty
Han dynasty
capital of Luoyang
Luoyang
around 175 AD. Archaeologists have since discovered two handwritten copies of the _Analects_ that were written around 50 BC, during the Western Han dynasty. They are known as the " Dingzhou _Analects_", and the " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
_Analects_", after the location of the tombs in which they were found. The Dingzhou _Analects_ was discovered in 1973, but no transcription of its contents was published until 1997. The Pyongyang _Analects_ was discovered in 1992. Academic access to the Pyongyang _Analects_ has been highly restricted, and no academic study on it was published until 2009.

The Dingzhou _Analects_ was damaged in a fire shortly after it was entombed in the Han dynasty. It was further damaged in an earthquake shortly after it was recovered, and the surviving text is just under half the size of the received text of the _Analects_. Of the sections that survive, the Dingzhou _Analects_ is shorter than the received _Analects_, implying that the text of the _Analects_ was still in the process of expansion when the Dingzhou _Analects_ was entombed. There was evidence that "additions" may have been made to the manuscript after it had been completed, indicating that the writer may have become aware of at least one other version of the _Analects_ and included "extra" material for the sake of completeness. The content of the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
_Analects_ is similar to the Dingzhou _Analects_; but, because of the secrecy and isolationism of the North Korean government, only a very cursory study of it has been made available to international scholars, and its contents are not completely known outside of North Korea. Scholars do not agree about whether either the Dingzhou _Analects_ or the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
_Analects_ represent the Lu version, the Qi version, the old text version, or a different version that was independent of these three traditions.

IMPORTANCE WITHIN CONFUCIANISM

During most of the Han period the _Analects_ was not considered one of the principal texts of Confucianism . During the reign of Han Wudi (141–87 BC), when the Chinese government began promoting Confucian studies, only the Five Classics were considered by the government to be canonical (_jing_), considered so because Confucius
Confucius
was assumed to have partially written, edited, and/or transmitted them. The _Analects_ was considered secondary as it was thought to be merely a collection of Confucius' oral "commentary" (_zhuan_) on the Five Classics.

The political importance and popularity of Confucius
Confucius
and Confucianism grew throughout the Han dynasty, and by the Eastern Han the _Analects_ was widely read by schoolchildren and anyone aspiring to literacy, and often read before the Five Classics themselves. During the Eastern Han, the heir apparent was provided a tutor specifically to teach him the _Analects_. The growing importance of the _Analects_ was recognized when the Five Classics was expanded to the "Seven Classics": the Five Classics plus the _Analects_ and the _Classic of Filial Piety _, and its status as one of the central texts of Confucianism continued to grow until the late Song dynasty (960–1279), when it was identified and promoted as one of the Four Books by Zhu Xi and generally accepted as being more insightful than the older Five Classics.

COMMENTARIES

_ A copy of He Yan's commentary on the Analects_, with a sub-commentary by Xing Bing , printed during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty

Since the Han dynasty, Chinese readers have interpreted the _Analects_ by reading scholars' commentaries on the book. There have been many commentaries on the _Analects_ since the Han dynasty, but the two which have been most influential have been the _Collected Explanations of the Analects_ (_Lunyu Jijie_) by He Yan (c. 195–249) and several colleagues, and the _Collected Commentaries of the Analects_ (_Lunyu Jizhu_) by Zhu Xi (1130–1200). In his work, He Yan collected, selected, summarized, and rationalized what he believed to be the most insightful of all preceding commentaries on the _Analects_ which had been produced by earlier Han and Wei dynasty (220–265 AD) scholars. His personal interpretation of the _Lunyu_ was guided by his belief that Daoism
Daoism
and Confucianism complemented each other, so that by studying both in a correct manner a scholar could arrive at a single, unified truth. Arguing for the ultimate compatibility of Daoist and Confucian teachings, he argued that "Laozi was in agreement with the Sage" (sic). The _Explanations_ was written in 248 AD, was quickly recognized as authoritative, and remained the standard guide to interpreting the _Analects_ for nearly 1,000 years, until the early Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(1271–1368). It is the oldest complete commentary on the _Analects_ that still exists.

He Yan's commentary was eventually displaced as the definitive, standard commentary by Zhu Xi's commentary. Zhu Xi's work also brought together the commentaries of earlier scholars (mostly from the Song dynasty), along with his own interpretations. Zhu's work took part in the context of a period of renewed interest in Confucian studies, in which Chinese scholars were interested in producing a single "correct" intellectual orthodoxy that would "save" Chinese traditions and protect them from foreign influences, and in which scholars were increasingly interested in metaphysical speculation.

In his commentary Zhu made a great effort to interpret the _Analects_ by using theories elaborated in the other Four Books, something that He Yan had not done. Zhu attempted to give an added coherence and unity to the message of the _Analects_, demonstrating that the individual books of the Confucian canon gave meaning to the whole, just as the whole of the canon gave meaning to its parts. In his preface, Zhu Xi stated, "he _Analects_ and the _ Mencius _ are the most important works for students pursuing the Way The words of the _Analects_ are all inclusive; what they teach is nothing but the essentials of preserving the mind and cultivating nature." From the first publication of the _Commentaries_, Zhu continued to refine his interpretation for the last thirty years of his life. In the fourteenth century, the Chinese government endorsed Zhu's commentary, and until 1905 it was read and memorized along with the _Analects_ by all Chinese aspiring to literacy and employment as government officials.

CONTENTS

Very few reliable sources about Confucius
Confucius
exist besides that of the Analects. The principal biography available to historians is included in Sima Qian
Sima Qian
's _ Shiji
Shiji
_, but, because the _Shiji_ contains a large amount of (possibly legendary) material not confirmed by extant sources, the biographical material on Confucius
Confucius
found in the _Analects_ makes the _Analects_ arguably the most reliable source of biographical information about Confucius. Confucius
Confucius
viewed himself as a "transmitter" of social and political traditions originating in the early Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
(c. 1000–800 BC), and claimed not to have originated anything (_Analects_ 7.1), but Confucius' social and political ideals were not popular in his time.

SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY

Confucius' discussions on the nature of the supernatural (_Analects_ 3.12; 6.20; 11.11) indicate that he believed while "ghosts" and "spirits" should be respected, they are best kept at a distance. Instead human beings should base their values and social ideals on moral philosophy, tradition, and a natural love for others. Confucius' social philosophy largely depended on the cultivation of _ren_ by every individual in a community. Later Confucian philosophers explained _ren_ as the quality of having a kind manner, similar to the English words "humane", "altruistic", or "benevolent", but, of the sixty instances in which Confucius
Confucius
discusses _ren_ in the _Analects_, it is clear that very few have these later meanings. Confucius
Confucius
instead used the term _ren_ to describe an extremely general and all-encompassing state of virtue, one which no living person had attained completely. (This use of the term _ren_ is peculiar to the _Analects_.)

Throughout the _Analects_, Confucius' students frequently request that Confucius
Confucius
define _ren_ and give examples of people who embody it, but Confucius
Confucius
generally responds indirectly to his students' questions, instead offering illustrations and examples of behaviours that are associated with _ren_ and explaining how a person could achieve it. According to Confucius, a person with a well-cultivated sense of _ren_ would speak carefully and modestly (_Analects_ 12.3); be resolute and firm (_Analects_ 12.20), courageous (_Analects_ 14.4), free from worry, unhappiness, and insecurity (_Analects_ 9.28; 6.21); moderate their desires and return to propriety (_Analects_ 12.1); be respectful, tolerant, diligent, trustworthy and kind (_Analects_ 17.6); and love others (_Analects_ 12.22). Confucius
Confucius
recognized his followers' disappointment that he would not give them a more comprehensive definition of _ren_, but assured them that he was sharing all that he could (_Analects_ 7.23).

To Confucius, the cultivation of _ren_ involved depreciating oneself through modesty while avoiding artful speech and ingratiating manners that would create a false impression of one's own character (_Analects_ 1.3). Confucius
Confucius
said that those who had cultivated _ren_ could be distinguished by their being "simple in manner and slow of speech". He believed that people could cultivate their sense of _ren_ through exercising the Golden Rule : "Do not do to others what you would not like done to yourself"; "a man with _ren_, desiring to establish himself, helps others establish themselves; desiring to succeed himself, helps others to succeed" (_Analects_ 12.2; 6.28). He taught that the ability of people to imagine and project themselves into the places of others was a crucial quality for the pursuit of moral self-cultivation (_Analects_ 4.15; see also 5.12; 6.30; 15.24). Confucius
Confucius
regarded the exercise of devotion to one\'s parents and older siblings as the simplest, most basic way to cultivate _ren_. (_Analects_ 1.2).

Confucius
Confucius
believed that _ren_ could best be cultivated by those who had already learned self-discipline, and that self-discipline was best learned by practicing and cultivating one's understanding of _li_ : rituals and forms of propriety through which people demonstrate their respect for others and their responsible roles in society (_Analects_ 3.3). Confucius
Confucius
said that one's understanding of _li_ should inform everything that one says and does (_Analects_ 12.1). He believed that subjecting oneself to _li_ did not mean suppressing one's desires, but learning to reconcile them with the needs of one's family and broader community. By leading individuals to express their desires within the context of social responsibility, Confucius
Confucius
and his followers taught that the public cultivation of _li_ was the basis of a well-ordered society (_Analects_ 2.3). Confucius
Confucius
taught his students that an important aspect of _li_ was observing the practical social differences that exist between people in daily life. In Confucian philosophy these "five relationships" include: ruler to ruled; father to son; husband to wife; elder brother to younger brother; and friend to friend.

_Ren_ and _li_ have a special relationship in the _Analects_: _li_ manages one's relationship with one's family and close community, while _ren_ is practiced broadly and informs one's interactions with all people. Confucius
Confucius
did not believe that ethical self-cultivation meant unquestioned loyalty to an evil ruler. He argued that the demands of _ren_ and _li_ meant that rulers could oppress their subjects only at their own peril: "You may rob the Three Armies of their commander, but you cannot deprive the humblest peasant of his opinion" (_Analects_ 9.25). Confucius
Confucius
said that a morally well-cultivated individual would regard his devotion to loving others as a mission for which he would be willing to die (_Analects_ 15.8).

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

Confucius' political beliefs were rooted in his belief that a good ruler would be self-disciplined, would govern his subjects through education and by his own example, and would seek to correct his subjects with love and concern rather than punishment and coercion. "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity among them be sought by punishments, they will try to escape punishment and have no sense of shame. If they are led by virtue, and uniformity sought among them through the practice of ritual propriety, they will possess a sense of shame and come to you of their own accord" (_Analects_ 2.3; see also 13.6). Confucius' political theories were directly contradictory to the Legalistic political orientations of China's rulers, and he failed to popularize his ideals among China's leaders within his own lifetime.

Confucius
Confucius
believed that the social chaos of his time was largely due to China's ruling elite aspiring to, and claiming, titles of which they were unworthy. When the ruler of the large state of Qi asked Confucius
Confucius
about the principles of good government, Confucius responded: "Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the minister being a minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son" (_Analects_ 12.11). Confucius' analysis of the need to raise officials' behavior to reflect the way that they identify and describe themselves is known as the rectification of names , and he stated that the rectification of names should be the first responsibility of a ruler upon taking office (_Analects_ 13.3). Confucius
Confucius
believed that, because the ruler was the model for all who were under him in society, the rectification of names had to begin with the ruler, and that afterwards others would change to imitate him (_Analects_ 12.19).

Confucius
Confucius
judged a good ruler by his possession of _de _ ("virtue"): a sort of moral force that allows those in power to rule and gain the loyalty of others without the need for physical coercion (_Analects_ 2.1). Confucius
Confucius
said that one of the most important ways that a ruler cultivates his sense of _de_ is through a devotion to the correct practices of _li_. Examples of rituals identified by Confucius
Confucius
as important to cultivate a ruler's _de_ include: sacrificial rites held at ancestral temples to express thankfulness and humility; ceremonies of enfeoffment, toasting, and gift exchanges that bound nobility in complex hierarchical relationships of obligation and indebtedness; and, acts of formal politeness and decorum (i.e. bowing and yielding) that identify the performers as morally well-cultivated.

EDUCATION

The importance of education and study is a fundamental theme of the _Analects_. For Confucius, a good student respects and learns from the words and deeds of his teacher, and a good teacher is someone older who is familiar with the ways of the past and the practices of antiquity (_Analects_ 7.22). Confucius
Confucius
emphasized the need to find balance between formal study and intuitive self-reflection (_Analects_ 2.15). When teaching he is never cited in the _Analects_ as lecturing at length about any subject, but instead challenges his students to discover the truth through asking direct questions , citing passages from the classics, and using analogies (_Analects_ 7.8). He sometimes required his students to demonstrate their understanding of subjects by making intuitive conceptual leaps before accepting their understanding and discussing those subjects at greater levels of depth. (_Analects_ 3.8)

His primary goal in educating his students was to produce ethically well-cultivated men who would carry themselves with gravity, speak correctly, and demonstrate consummate integrity in all things (_Analects_ 12.11; see also 13.3). He was willing to teach anyone regardless of social class, as long as they were sincere, eager, and tireless to learn (_Analects_ 7.7; 15.38). He is traditionally credited with teaching three thousand students, though only seventy are said to have mastered what he taught. He taught practical skills , but regarded moral self-cultivation as his most important subject.

CHAPTERS

The traditional titles given to each chapter are mostly an initial two or three incipits . In some cases a title may indicate a central theme of a chapter, but it is inappropriate to regard a title as a description or generalization of the content of a chapter. Chapters in the _Analects_ are grouped by individual themes, but the chapters are not arranged in a way as to carry a continuous stream of thoughts or ideas. The themes of adjacent chapters are completely unrelated to each other. Central themes recur repeatedly in different chapters, sometimes in exactly the same wording and sometimes with small variations.

Chapter 10 contains detailed descriptions of Confucius' behaviors in various daily activities. Voltaire
Voltaire
and Ezra Pound believed that this chapter demonstrated how Confucius
Confucius
was a mere human. Simon Leys , who recently translated the _Analects_ into English and French, said that the book may have been the first in human history to describe the life of an individual, historic personage. Elias Canetti
Elias Canetti
wrote: "Confucius' _Analects_ is the oldest complete intellectual and spiritual portrait of a man. It strikes one as a modern book; everything it contains and indeed everything it lacks is important."

Within these incipits a large number of passages in the Analects begin with the formulaic _ziyue_, "The Master said," but without punctuation marks in classical Chinese, this does not confirm whether what follows _ziyue_ is direct quotation of actual sayings of Confucius, or simply to be understood as "the Master said that.." and the paraphrase of Confucius
Confucius
by the compilers of the Analects.

BOOK TITLE TRANSLATION NOTES

1. Xue Er 學而 Studying

2. Wei Zheng 為政 The practice of government This chapter explores the theme that political order is best gained through the non-coercive influence of moral self-cultivation rather than through force or excessive government regulation.

3. Ba Yi 八佾 Eight lines of eight dancers apiece Ba Yi was a kind of ritual dance practiced in the court of the Zhou king. In Confucius' time, lesser nobles also began staging these dances for themselves. The main themes of this chapter are: criticism of ritual impropriety (especially among China's political leadership), and the need to combine learning with nature in the course moral self-cultivation.

Chapters 3–9 may be the oldest in the _Analects_.

4. Li Ren 里仁 Living in brotherliness This chapter explores the theme of _ren_, its qualities, and the qualities of those who have it. A secondary theme is the virtue of filial piety.

5. Gongye Chang 公冶長 Gongye Chang The main theme of this chapter is Confucius' examination of others' qualities and faults in order to illustrate the desirable course of moral self-cultivation. This chapter has traditionally been attributed to the disciples of Zigong, a student of Confucius. Gongye Chang was Confucius' son-in-law.

6. Yong Ye 雍也 There is Yong Yong is Ran Yong, also called Zhou Gong, a student of Confucius.

7. Shu Er 述而 Transmission Transmission, not invention .

8. Taibo 泰伯 Taibo Wu Taibo was the legendary founder of the state of Wu . He was the oldest son of King Tai and the great-grandfather of King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
.

9. Zi Han 子罕 The Master shunned Confucius
Confucius
seldom spoke of advantage.

10. Xiang Dang 鄉黨 Among the Xiang and the Dang A "xiang" was a group of 12,500 families; a "dang" a group of 500 families. This chapter is a collection of maxims related to ritual.

11. Xian Jin 先進 Those of former eras The former generations. This chapter has traditionally been attributed to the disciples of Min Ziqian, also known as Min Sun, a student of Confucius.

12. Yan Yuan 顏淵 Yan Yuan Yan Hui was a common name of Zi Yuan, a favorite disciple of Confucius.

13. Zilu 子路 Zilu Zilu was a student of Confucius.

14. Xian Wen 憲問 Xian asked This chapter has traditionally been attributed to the disciples of Yuan Xian, also called both Yuan Si and Zisi, a student of Confucius.

15. Wei Ling Gong 衛靈公 Duke Ling of Wey Duke Ling ruled from 534–493 BC in the state of Wey .

16. Ji Shi 季氏 Chief of the Ji Clan Ji Sun was an official from one of the most important families in Lu. This chapter is generally believed to have been written relatively late; possibly compiled from the extra chapters of the Qi version of the _Analects_.

17. Yang Huo 陽貨 Yang Huo Yang was an official of the Ji clan, an important family in Lu.

18. Weizi 微子 Weizi Weizi was the older half-brother of Zhou , the last king of the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
, and was founder of the state of Song . The writer of this chapter was critical of Confucius.

19. Zizhang 子張 Zizhang Zizhang was a student of Confucius. This chapter consists entirely of sayings by Confucius' disciples.

20. Yao Yue 堯曰 Yao spoke Yao was one of the traditional Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors of ancient China. This chapter consists entirely of stray sentences resembling the style and content of the _ Shujing _.

NOTABLE TRANSLATIONS

* Legge, James, trans. (1861). _Confucian Analects, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean_. The Chinese Classics. I. London: Trübner. Revised second edition (1893), Oxford: Clarendon Press, reprinted by Cosimo in 2006. ISBN 978-1-60520-643-1 * Lyall, Leonard A., trans. (1909). _The Sayings of Confucius_. London: Longmans, Green and Co. OCLC
OCLC
1435673 . * Soothill, William Edward, trans. (1910). _The Analects
Analects
of Confucius_. Yokohama: Fukuin Printing. ; rpt. London: Oxford University Press (1937). * Couvreur, Séraphin, trans. (1930). _Entretiens de Confucius_ . Les Quatre Livres (in French) (3rd ed.). Sien Hsien: Mission Catholique. * Waley, Arthur, trans. (1938). _The Analects_. London: George Allen and Unwin. Rpt. (2000), New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-41204-2 * (in Japanese) Yoshikawa, Kōjirō 吉川幸次郎 (1978). _Rongo_ 論語 , 3 vols. Tokyo: Asahi Shinbun. Rpt. 2 vols, Asahi Shinbun (1996). * Lau, D. C., trans. (1979). _Confucius, The Analects
Analects
(Lun yü)_. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ; rpt. with Chinese text, Hong Kong: Chinese University Press (1979). * Cheng, Anne, trans. (1981). _Entretiens de Confucius_ (in French). Paris: Éditions du Seuil. * Ryckmans, Pierre, trans. (1987). _Les Entretiens de Confucius_ (in French). Paris: Gallimard. English version published as Simon Leys, trans. (1997), _The Analects
Analects
of Confucius_ (New York: W. W. Norton). * Huang, Chi-chung, trans. (1997). _The Analects
Analects
of Confucius_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195112764 . * Brooks, E. Bruce; Brooks, Taeko, trans. (2001). _The Original Analects: Sayings of Confucius
Confucius
and His Followers_. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231104302 . * Watson, Burton, trans. (2007). _The Analects
Analects
of Confucius_. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14164-2 .

SEE ALSO

* _China portal

* Kongzi Jiayu _, sayings of Confucius
Confucius
not included in the _Analects_ * Chinese classic texts * Sacred text * Virtue jurisprudence * Disciples of Confucius
Confucius
* Hadith
Hadith
* Mahāvākyas * _ The Maxims of Ptahhotep _

REFERENCES

FOOTNOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Knechtges & Shih (2010) , p. 645. * ^ wiktionary:Appendix:Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese
Old Chinese
reconstruction * ^ Kim & Csikszentmihalyi (2010) , p. 25. * ^ Kim & Csikszentmihalyi (2013) , p. 26. * ^ Bryan W. Van Norden (2002). _ Confucius
Confucius
and the Analects
Analects
: New Essays_. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780195350821 . * ^ Slingerland (2003) , pp. xiii-xiv. * ^ Lee Dian Rainey (2010). _ Confucius
Confucius
and Confucianism: The Essentials_. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. ISBN 9781444323603 . * ^ Robert Eno (2015). "The Analects
Analects
of Confucius" (PDF). _Indiana University_. * ^ Els 21–23 * ^ Kim & Csikszentmihalyi (2010) , pp. 25–26. * ^ Waley 23 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gardner 7, 15–16 * ^ _A_ _B_ Els 20 * ^ _A_ _B_ Waley 24 * ^ "Qi version of \' Analects
Analects
of Confucius\' discovered in Haihunhou tomb". The Institute of Archaeology. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017. * ^ Els 1–2 * ^ Els 6, 10–11, 20–21 * ^ Gardner 7 * ^ Gardner 8, 18–19 * ^ Gardner 8, 13–14 * ^ Gardner 18–20, 46 * ^ Gardner 7–8, 21, 46 * ^ Lau ix * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Riegel "2. Confucius' Social Philosophy" * ^ Waley 27–29 * ^ Gardner 52–53 * ^ Slingerland 34 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Riegel "3. Confucius' Political Philosophy" * ^ _A_ _B_ Riegel 4 " Confucius
Confucius
and Education" * ^ Slingerland 19–20 * ^ Canetti 173 * ^ Roger T. Ames _The Analects
Analects
of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation_ 2010 p. 285 "A large number of passages in the Analects begin with the formulaic ziyue 子曰, "The Master said," but because there are no punctuation marks in classical Chinese, we must ask if whatever follows ziyue is a literal transcription of speech, or a paraphrase of it, or a method of transmitting ideas in a written language which existed in important ways independently of the spoken language." * ^ Slingerland 8 * ^ Slingerland 17 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Waley 21 * ^ Slingerland 29 * ^ Slingerland 39 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Legge 16 * ^ Legge 119

WORKS CITED

* Canetti, Elias. _The Conscience of Words_. Trans. Joachim Neugroschel. Publisher: Farrar Straus Giroux. 1984. ISBN 0374518815 . * Cheng, Anne (1993). "_Lun yü_ 論語". In Loewe, Michael . _Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide_. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China; Institute for East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. pp. 313–23. ISBN 1-55729-043-1 . * Gardner, Daniel K. _Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition_. New York: Columbia University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12865-0 * Els, Paul van. "Confucius\' sayings entombed: On Two Han Dynasty _Analects_ Manuscripts". _ Analects
Analects
Studies_. Leiden: Brill. 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012. * Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through Western Han". In Owen, Stephen. _The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1: To 1375_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–115. ISBN 978-0-521-11677-0 . * Knechtges, David R. ; Shih, Hsiang-ling (2010). "_Lunyu_ 論語". In Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping. _Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part One_. Leiden: Brill. pp. 645–50. ISBN 978-90-04-19127-3 . * Lau, D.C. "Introduction". In _The Analects_. Trans. D.C. Lau. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. 2002. ISBN 962-201-980-3 . Retrieved June 26, 2012. * Legge, James. "Prolegomena". In _The Confucian Analects, The Great Learning, and The Doctrine of the Mean_. Trans. James Legge. New York, NY: Cosimo. 2009. ISBN 978-1-60520-644-8 . Retrieved June 28, 2012. * Riegel, Jeffrey. "Confucius", _The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy_. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. Spring 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2012. * Kim, Tae Hyun; Csikszentmihalyi, Mark (2013). "Chapter 2". In Olberding, Amy. _Dao Companion to the Analects_. Springer. pp. 21–36. ISBN 9400771126 . * Slingerland, Edward (2003). _Analects: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries_. Indianapolis
Indianapolis
: Hackett . ISBN 9781603843454 . * Waley, Arthur. "Terms". In _The Analects
Analects
of Confucius_. Trans. Arthur Waley. New York: Vintage Books. 1938.

FURTHER READING

* Van Norden, Bryan W. _ Confucius
Confucius
and the Analects