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The Amazon basin
Amazon basin
is the part of South America
South America
drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi), or roughly 40 percent of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela.[1] Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Plant life 3 Animal life

3.1 Mammals 3.2 Birds 3.3 Reptiles 3.4 Amphibians 3.5 Fish 3.6 Insects

4 Climate
Climate
and seasons 5 Human lifestyle 6 River commerce 7 Agriculture 8 Languages 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Geography[edit] The Amazon River
Amazon River
rises in the Andes
Andes
Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River
Marañón River
in Peru. It is usually considered to be the second longest river in the world.[2] However, a team of Brazilian scientists has claimed that the Amazon is the longest river in the world.[3] It covers about 6,400 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon and its tributaries form the largest volume of water. The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches and soy beans field. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá
Yerupajá
at 6,635 m (21,768 ft). The Amazon basin
Amazon basin
formerly flowed west to Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean.[4] Politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia
Colombia
and parts of Bolivia, Ecuador
Ecuador
and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant life[edit]

Aerial view of part of the Amazon rainforest.

Plant growth is dense and its variety of animal inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall and the dense and extensive evergreen and coniferous forests. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the dense roof canopy by plants. The ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here. Orchids and bromeliads exploit trees and other plants to get closer to the sunlight. They grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites but as epiphytes. Species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include Brazil
Brazil
nut, rubber tree and Assai palm.[5][6] Animal life[edit]

South American jaguar

Mammals[edit] More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents. Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot, capybara and South American tapir. Birds[edit] Main article: Birds of the Amazon About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin.[7] The biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the cotinga family, to which the Guianan cock-of-the-rock
Guianan cock-of-the-rock
belong. Birds such as toucans, and hummingbirds are also found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the clay cliffs of the Amazon River. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an almost daily basis,[8] the exception being rainy days.[9] Reptiles[edit] The green anaconda inhabits the shallow waters of the Amazon and the emerald tree boa and boa constrictor live in the Amazonian tree tops. Many reptiles species are illegally collected and exported for the international pet trade. Live animals are the fourth largest commodity in the smuggling industry after drugs, diamonds, and weapons.[10] Amphibians[edit] More than 1,500 species of amphibians swim and are found in the Amazon. Unlike temperate frogs which are mostly limited to habitats near water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and relatively few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor. The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since almost half of their respiration is carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters. The differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat.

Red-bellied piranha
Red-bellied piranha
(Pygocentrus nattereri) is a species of piranha. This species lives in the Amazon River
Amazon River
basin, coastal rivers of northeastern Brazil, and the basins of the Paraguay, Paraná and Essequibo Rivers.

Fish[edit] About 2,500 fish species are known from the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
and it is estimated that more than 1,000 additional undescribed species exist.[11] This is more than any other river basin on Earth, and Amazonia is the center of diversity for Neotropical fishes.[12] About 45% (more than 1,000 species) of the known Amazonian fish species are endemic to the basin.[13] The remarkable species richness can in part be explained by the large differences between the various parts of the Amazon basin, resulting in many fish species that are endemic to small regions. For example, fauna in clearwater rivers differs from fauna in white and blackwater rivers, fauna in slow moving sections show distinct differences compared to that in rapids, fauna in small streams differ from that in major rivers, and fauna in shallow sections show distinct differences compared to that in deep parts.[14][15][16] By far the most diverse orders in the Amazon are Characiformes
Characiformes
(43% of total fish species in the Amazon) and Siluriformes
Siluriformes
(39%), but other groups with many species include Cichlidae
Cichlidae
(6%) and Gymnotiformes
Gymnotiformes
(3%).[11] In addition to major differences in behavior and ecology, Amazonian fish vary extensively in form and size. The largest, the arapaima and piraiba can reach 3 m (9.8 ft) or more in length and up to 200 kg (440 lb) in weight, making them some of the largest strict freshwater fish in the world.[17][18] The bull shark and common sawfish, which have been recorded far up the Amazon, may reach even greater sizes, but they are euryhaline and often seen in marine waters.[19][20] In contrast to the giants, there are Amazonian fish from several families that are less than 2 cm (0.8 in) long. The smallest are likely the Leptophilypnion sleeper gobies, which do not surpass 1 cm (0.4 in) and are among the smallest fish in the world.[21] The Amazon supports very large fisheries, including well-known species of large catfish (such as Brachyplatystoma, which perform long breeding migrations up the Amazon), arapaima and tambaqui, and is also home to many species that are important in the aquarium trade, such as the oscar, discus, angelfish, Corydoras
Corydoras
catfish and neon tetra.[11] Although the true danger they represent often is greatly exaggerated, the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
is home to several feared fish species such as piranhas (including the famous red-bellied), electric eel, river stingrays and candiru. Several cavefish species in the genus Phreatobius
Phreatobius
are found in the Amazon, as is the cave-dwelling Astroblepus pholeter
Astroblepus pholeter
in the far western part of the basin (Andean region).[22] The Tocantins basin, arguably not part of the Amazon basin, has several other cavefish species.[22] The deeper part of the major Amazonian rivers are always dark and a few species have adaptions similar to cavefish (reduced pigement and eyes). Among these are the knifefish Compsaraia and Orthosternarchus, some Cetopsis
Cetopsis
whale catfish (especially C. oliveirai), some Xyliphius and Micromyzon banjo catfish,[23] and the loricariid catfish Loricaria
Loricaria
spinulifera, L. pumila, Peckoltia pankimpuju, Panaque bathyphilus and Panaqolus
Panaqolus
nix (these five also occur in "normal" forms of shallower waters).[24][25][26] The perhaps most unusual habitat used by Amazonian fish is land. The splash tetra is famous for laying its eggs on plants above water, keeping them moist by continuously splashing on them,[27] the South American lungfish
South American lungfish
can survive underground in a mucous cocoon during the dry season,[28] some small rivulid killifish can jump over land between water sources (sometimes moving relatively long distances, even uphill) and may deliberately jump onto land to escape aquatic predators,[29][30] and an undescribed species of worm-like Phreatobius
Phreatobius
catfish lives in waterlogged leaf litter near (not in) streams.[31][32] Some of the major fish groups of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
include:

Order Gymnotiformes: Neotropical electric fishes Order Characiformes: characins, tetras and relatives Family Potamotrygonidae: river stingrays Family Arapaimidae: bonytongues Family Loricariidae: suckermouth catfishes Family Callichthyidae: armored catfishes Family Pimelodidae: pimelodid catfishes Family Trichomycteridae: pencil catfishes Family Auchenipteridae: driftwood catfishes Subfamily Cichlinae: pike cichlids, peacock cichlids and relatives Subfamily Geophaginae: Eartheaters and Neotropical dwarf cichlid Subfamily Poeciliinae: guppies and relatives

Insects[edit] See also: List of butterflies of the Amazon River
Amazon River
basin and the Andes More than 90% of the animal species in the Amazon are insects,[33] of which about 40% are beetles (Coleoptera constituting almost 25% of all known types of animal life-forms[34][35][36]). Whereas all of Europe
Europe
has some 321 butterfly species, the Manú National Park in Peru
Peru
(4000 hectare-survey) has 1300 species, while Tambopata National Reserve
Tambopata National Reserve
(5500 hectare-survey) has at least 1231 species. Climate
Climate
and seasons[edit] The Amazon River
Amazon River
basin has a low-water season, and a wet season during which, the rivers flood the adjacent, low-lying forests. The climate of the basin is generally hot and humid. In some areas, however, the winter months (June–September) can bring cold snaps, fueled by Antarctic
Antarctic
winds travelling along the adjacent mountain range. Human lifestyle[edit]

A floating village in Iquitos, Peru

Amazonia is sparsely populated. There are scattered settlements inland, but most of the population lives in a few larger cities on the banks of the Amazon and other major rivers, such as in Iquitos, Peru, and Manaus
Manaus
and Belém
Belém
(Brazil). In many regions, the forest has been cleared for soya bean plantations and ranching (the most extensive non-forest use of the land); some of the inhabitants harvest wild rubber latex, and Brazil
Brazil
nuts. This is a form of extractive farms, where the trees are not cut down. These are relatively sustainable operations in contrast to lumbering or agriculture dependent on clearing the rainforest. The largest organization fighting for the indigenous peoples in this area is COICA. It is a supra organization encompassing all indigenous rights organizations working in the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
area, and covers the people living in several countries. River commerce[edit] The river is the principal path of transportation for people and produce in the regions, with transport ranging from balsa rafts and dugout canoes to hand built wooden river craft and modern steel hulled craft. Agriculture[edit] Seasonal floods excavate and redistribute nutrient-rich silt onto beaches and islands, enabling dry-season riverside agriculture of rice, beans, and corn on the river's shoreline without the addition of fertilizer, with additional slash and burn agriculture on higher floodplains. Fishing provides additional food year round, and free-range chickens need little or no food beyond what they can forage locally. Charcoal
Charcoal
made largely from forest and shoreline deadfall is produced for use in urban areas. Exploitation of bush meat, particularly deer and turtles is common.

Deforestation[citation needed]and increased road-building bring human encroachment upon wild areas, increased resource extraction and threats to biodiversity.

Extensive deforestation, particularly in Brazil, is leading to the extinction of known and unknown species, reducing biological diversity and adversely impacting soil, water, and air quality. A final part of the deforestation process is the large-scale production of charcoal for industrial processes such as steel manufacturing. Soils within the region are generally shallow and cannot be used for more than a few seasons without the addition of imported fertilizers and chemicals. Languages[edit] The most widely spoken language in the Amazon is Portuguese, followed closely by Spanish. On the Brazilian side Portuguese is spoken by at least 98% of the population, whilst in the Spanish-speaking countries a large number of speakers of indigenous languages are present, though Spanish is predominant. There are hundreds of native languages still spoken in the Amazon, most of which are spoken by only a handful of people, and thus are critically endangered. One of the more widely spoken indigenous languages in the Amazon is Nheengatu, which descends from the ancient Tupi language, originally spoken in the coastal and central regions of Brazil. It was brought to its present location along the Rio Negro by Brazilian colonizers who, until the mid-17th century, primarily used Tupi rather than the official Portuguese to communicate. Besides modern Nheengatu, other languages of the Tupi family are spoken there, along with other language families like Jê, Arawak, Karib, Arawá, Yanomamo, Matsés
Matsés
and others. See also[edit]

Geography portal Earth
Earth
sciences portal Latin America
Latin America
portal Brazil
Brazil
portal

Amazon biome Amazon Conservation Association Amazon Conservation Team Deforestation
Deforestation
of the Amazon rainforest Jaguars south of the Amazon River Llanos de Moxos Llanos de Moxos
Llanos de Moxos
(archaeology) Panthera onca onca Peruvian jaguar Ucayali Peneplain

References[edit]

^ Goulding, M., Barthem, R. B. and Duenas, R. (2003). The Smithsonian Atlas of the Amazon, Smithsonian Books ISBN 1-58834-135-6 ^ Parsons, James J. (25 December 2013). "Amazon River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ Roach, John (18 June 2007). "Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say". National Geographic.  ^ "Amazon river flowed into the Pacific millions of years ago". Mongabay. 24 October 2006. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ Amazon, Plants. "Amazon plants and trees".  ^ "The Coolest Plants in the Amazon Rainforest". Rainforest Cruises.  ^ Butler, Rhett (31 July 2012). "Diversities of Image". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ Munn, C. A. 1994. Macaws: winged rainbows. National Geographic, 185, 118–140. ^ Brightsmith D. J. (2004). "Effects of weather on parrot geophagy in Tambopata, Peru". Wilson Bulletin. 116: 134–145. doi:10.1676/03-087b.  ^ "Amazon Reptiles". Mongabay.com.  ^ a b c Junk, W.J.; M.G.M. Soares; and P.B. Bayley (2007), "Freshwater fishes of the Amazon River
Amazon River
Basin: their biodiversity, fisheries, and habitats", Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10 (2): 153–173, doi:10.1080/14634980701351023 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ James S. Albert; Roberto E. Reis (8 March 2011). Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-520-26868-5. Retrieved 28 June 2011.  ^ Reis R.E., Albert J.S., Di Dario F., Mincarone M.M., Petry P., Rocha L.A. (2016). " Fish
Fish
biodiversity and conservation in South America". Journal of Fish
Fish
Biology. 89 (1): 12–47. doi:10.1111/jfb.13016. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Stewart D. J., Ibarra M. (2002). "Comparison of Deep-River and Adjacent Sandy-Beach Fish
Fish
Assemblages in the Napo River basin, Eastern Ecuador". Copeia. 2002 (2): 333–343. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2002)002[0333:codraa]2.0.co;2.  ^ Mendonça, F. P., W. E. Magnusson, J. Zuanon and C. M. Taylor. (2005) Relationships between habitat characteristics and fish assemblages in small streams of Central Amazonia. Copeia 2005(4): 751–764 ^ Duncan, W.P.; and Fernandes, M.N. (2010). Physicochemical characterization of the white, black, and clearwater rivers of the Amazon Basin and its implications on the distribution of freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae). PanamJAS 5(3): 454–464. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). " Arapaima
Arapaima
gigas" in FishBase. September 2017 version. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Brachyplatystoma filamentosum" in FishBase. September 2017 version. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Carcharhinus leucas" in FishBase. September 2017 version. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Pristis pristis" in FishBase. September 2017 version. ^ Roberts, T.R. (2013). "Leptophilypnion, a new genus with two new species of tiny central Amazonian gobioid fishes (Teleostei, Eleotridae)". Aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology. 19 (2): 85–98.  ^ a b Romero, Aldemaro, ed. (2001). The Biology of Hypogean Fishes. Developments in environmental biology of fishes. 21. ISBN 978-1402000768.  ^ Fenolio, Danté (2016). "Life in the Dark: Illuminating Biodiversity in the Shadowy Haunts of Planet Earth". Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1421418636.  ^ Lujan, Nathan. K.; Chamon, Carine. C. (2008). Two new species of Loricariidae
Loricariidae
(Teleostei: Silurifomes) from main channels of the upper and middle Amazon Basin, with discussion of deep water specialization in loricariids. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 19. pp. 271–282.  ^ Thomas, M.R.; and L.H.R. Py-Daniel (2008). "Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria
Loricaria
(Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin". Neotrop. ichthyol. 6 (3): 379–394. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252008000300011. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Cramer, C.A.; and L.H.R. Py-Daniel (2015). "A new species of Panaqolus
Panaqolus
(Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio Madeira basin with remarkable intraspecific color variation". Neotrop. ichthyol. 13 (3): 461–470. doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20140099. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Howard, B.C. (27 September 2013). Fish
Fish
That Lay Eggs Out of the Water: Freshwater Species of the Week. National Geographic. Retrieved 30 April 2017. ^ SeriouslyFish. "Lepidosiren paradoxa". Retrieved 30 April 2017.  ^ Vermeulen, F. "The genus Rivulus". itrainsfishes.net. Retrieved 6 May 2017.  ^ Turko, A.J.; and P.A. Wright (2015). "Evolution, ecology and physiology of amphibious killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes)". Journal of Fish
Fish
Biology. 87: 815–835. doi:10.1111/jfb.12758. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Planet Catfish. "Cat-eLog: Heptapteridae: Phreatobius: Phreatobius sp. (1)". Planet Catfish. Retrieved 30 April 2017.  ^ Henderson, P.A.; and I. Walker (1990). "Spatial organization and population density of the fish community of the litter banks within a central Amazonian blackwater stream". Journal of Fish
Fish
Biology. 37: 401–411. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05871.x. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Amazon Insects". Mongabay.com.  ^ Powell (2009) ^ Rosenzweig, Michael L. (1995). Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49952-1.  ^ Hunt, T.; Bergsten, J.; Levkanicova, Z.; Papadopoulou, A.; John, O. St.; Wild, R.; Hammond, P. M.; Ahrens, D.; Balke, M.; Caterino, M. S.; Gomez-Zurita, J.; Ribera, I.; Barraclough, T. G.; Bocakova, M.; Bocak, L.; Vogler, A. P.; et al. (2007). "A Comprehensive Phylogeny of Beetles Reveals the Evolutionary Origins of a Superradiation". Science. 318 (5858): 1913–1916. Bibcode:2007Sci...318.1913H. doi:10.1126/science.1146954. PMID 18096805. 

EDITED ALSO BY Kartikeya Bhardwaj Further reading[edit]

Dematteis, Lou; Szymczak, Kayana (June 2008). Crude Reflections/Cruda Realidad: Oil, Ruin and Resistance in the Amazon Rainforest. City Lights Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87286-472-6.  Acker, Antoine. "Amazon" (2015). University Bielefeld – Center for InterAmerican Studies. ncert.com

External links[edit]

Herndon and Gibbon Lieutenants United States Navy The First North American Explorers of the Amazon Valley, by Historian Normand E. Klare. Actual Reports from the explorers are compared with present Amazon basin
Amazon basin
conditions. Scientists find Evidence Discrediting Theory Amazon was Virtually Unlivable by The Washington Post "The Course of the River of the Amazons, Based on the Account of Christopher d’Acugna" from 1680

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lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Coordinates: 2°18′35″S 54°53′17″W / 2.3096°S 54.8881°W /

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