Amalgamation (politics)
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

A merger, consolidation or amalgamation, in a political or administrative sense, is the combination of two or more political or administrative entities, such as
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are ge ...
(in other words
cities A city is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a minuscule number of dwellings grouped ...
,
town A town is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a minuscule number of dwellings group ...
s, etc.),
counties A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
,
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, counties, several municipality, municipa ...
s, etc., into a single entity. This term is used when the process occurs within a sovereign entity. Unbalanced growth or outward expansion of one neighbor may necessitate an administrative decision to merge (see
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is defined as "the spreading of urban developments (such as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city." Urban sprawl has been described as the unrestricted growt ...
). In some cases, common perception of continuity may be a factor in prompting such a process (see
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas which through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cas ...
). Some cities (see below) that have gone through amalgamation or a similar process had several administrative sub-divisions or jurisdictions, each with a separate person in charge.
Annexation Annexation (Latin ''ad'', to, and ''nexus'', joining), in international law, is the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state, usually following military occupation of the territory. It is generally held to be an illegal act ...
is similar to amalgamation, but differs in being applied mainly to two cases: #The units joined are sovereign entities before the process, as opposed to being units of a single political entity. #A city's boundaries are expanded by adding territories not already incorporated as cities or villages.


Notable municipal mergers

The act of merging two or more
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are ge ...
into a single new municipality may be done for a variety of reasons, including urban growth, reducing the cost of local government and improving the efficiency of municipal service delivery.


Belgium

In 1977, the 2,359
municipalities of Belgium Belgium comprises 581 municipalities ( nl, gemeenten; french: communes; german: Gemeinden), 300 of them grouped into five provinces of Belgium, provinces in Flanders and 262 others in five provinces in Wallonia, while the remaining 19 are in th ...
were merged to 596 new municipalities.


Brazil

In 1975, the state of Guanabara and the state of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil were merged. The former consisted of only the territorial limits of the city of Rio de Janeiro, formerly the
Federal District A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include Capital districts and territo ...
as Brazilian capital until 1960 when it was moved to newly built
Brasília Brasília (; ) is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of Forms of government, government of the Federal District (Brazil), Federal District. The city is located at the top of the Brazilian highlands in the country's Central-West Region, Braz ...
. When merged, Guanabara became the municipality of Rio de Janeiro within the new state. In geographical terms, it would seem the state of Rio would have incorporated Guanabara; but, as the administrative and financial resources of the former capital were significant and even larger than the rest of the state, the change was more correctly referred to as a merger (''fusão'').


Canada

In
Canada Canada is a country in North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over , making it the world ...
, the 1990s saw the forced amalgamation of several municipal entities in the provinces of
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia ( ; ; ) is one of the thirteen Provinces and territories of Canada, provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime Canada, Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic Canada, Atlantic provinces. Nova Scoti ...
,
Ontario Ontario ( ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.Ontario is located in the geographic Eastern Canada, eastern half of Canada, but it has historically and politically been considered to be part of Central Canada. Located ...
and
Quebec Quebec ( ; )According to the Government of Canada, Canadian government, ''Québec'' (with the acute accent) is the official name in Canadian French and ''Quebec'' (without the accent) is the province's official name in Canadian English is ...
into larger new municipalities. Even in cases where a central city merged with its suburbs, the amalgamated city was legally a new municipality, even if it was given the central city's name. The process created what was labeled a ''megacity'' by the media, although none of the created municipalities fit in the definition of a megacity in the international sense and some of them have fewer than a million inhabitants. ;New Brunswick * Municipal amalgamations in New Brunswick ;Nova Scotia * Municipal amalgamations in Nova Scotia ;Ontario In the early 1970s, the various towns, villages, and townships surrounding
Metropolitan Toronto The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was an Regional municipality, upper-tier level of municipal government in Ontario, Canada, from 1953 to 1998. It was made up of the Old Toronto, old city of Toronto and numerous townships, towns and vill ...
that were undergoing suburbanization were amalgamated into various new municipalities; among them
Mississauga Mississauga ( ), historically known as Toronto Township, Ontario, Toronto Township, is a city in the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario. It is situated on the shores of Lake Ontario in the Regional Municipality ...
and
Vaughan Vaughan () (2021 population 323,103) is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located in the Regional Municipality of York, just north of Toronto. Vaughan was the fastest-growing municipality in Canada between 1996 and 2006 with its population increas ...
. Later, the provincial government of
Mike Harris Michael Deane Harris (born January 23, 1945) is a Canadian retired politician who served as the 22nd premier of Ontario from 1995 to 2002 and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario (PC Party) from 1990 to 2002. During his time ...
undertook an extensive province-wide program of municipal mergers between 1996 and 2002. The province had 815 municipalities in 1996; by 2002, this had been reduced to just 447. The
list of municipalities in Ontario Ontario is the Population of Canada by province and territory, most populous provinces and territories of Canada, province in Canada with 14,223,942 residents as of Canada 2021 Census, 2021 and is List of Canadian provinces and territories by ...
is updated regularly. *
Toronto Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most pop ...
– In 1967, the towns of
Leaside Leaside (/'liːˌsaɪd/) is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located northeast of Downtown Toronto, in the vicinity of Eglinton Avenue East and Bayview Avenue. The area takes its name from William Lea and the Lea family ...
,
Mimico Mimico is a neighbourhood (and a former municipality) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, being located in the south-west area of Toronto on Lake Ontario. It is in the south-east corner of the former Township (and later, City) of Etobicoke, and was an in ...
, New Toronto and
Weston Weston may refer to: Places Australia * Weston, Australian Capital Territory, a suburb of Canberra * Weston, New South Wales * Weston Creek, a residential district of Canberra * Weston Park, Canberra, a park Canada * Weston, Nova Scotia * W ...
and the villages of Forest Hill, Long Branch and
Swansea Swansea (; cy, Abertawe ) is a coastal City status in the United Kingdom, city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, second-largest city of Wales. It forms a Principal areas of Wales, principal area, officially known as the City ...
amalgamated into the city and various boroughs comprising
Metropolitan Toronto The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was an Regional municipality, upper-tier level of municipal government in Ontario, Canada, from 1953 to 1998. It was made up of the Old Toronto, old city of Toronto and numerous townships, towns and vill ...
. In 1998, the former boroughs within Metropolitan Toronto were merged into a new City of Toronto. *
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town in Cambridgeshire, England. It is located on the River Cam approximately north of London. As of the 2021 United Kingdom census, the population of Cambridge was 145,700. Cam ...
– In 1973, the provincial government created the new City of Cambridge by amalgamating the City of Galt, the towns of Preston and Hespeler. *
Thunder Bay Thunder Bay is a city in and the seat of Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada. It is the most populous municipality in Northwestern Ontario and the second most populous (after Greater Sudbury) municipality in Northern Ontario; its population i ...
– On January 1, 1970, the twin cities of Fort William, and Port Arthur, merged into one city. *
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, Department (country subdivision), department, or other subnational entity, usually as i ...
– In 2001, the municipalities of Ottawa,
Cumberland Cumberland ( ) is a historic counties of England, historic county in the far North West England. It covers part of the Lake District as well as the north Pennines and Solway Firth coast. Cumberland had an administrative function from the 12th c ...
, Osgoode, Rideau, Goulbourn, West Carleton, Nepean, Kanata,
Gloucester Gloucester ( ) is a cathedral city and the county town of Gloucestershire in the South West of England. Gloucester lies on the River Severn, between the Cotswolds to the east and the Forest of Dean to the west, east of Monmouth and east of the ...
, Vanier and Rockcliffe Park amalgamated into a new City of Ottawa. *
Greater Sudbury Sudbury, officially the City of Greater Sudbury is the largest city in Northern Ontario by population, with a population of 166,004 at the 2021 Canadian Census. By land area, it is the largest in Ontario and the List of the largest cities and to ...
– resulted from the merger of the former
Regional Municipality of Sudbury The Regional Municipality of Sudbury was a Regional municipality, Regional Municipality that existed in Ontario, Canada, from 1973 to 2000, and was primarily centred on the city of Urban neighbourhoods of Sudbury, Sudbury. It served as an upper-ti ...
in 2001; the regional municipality itself was created by a series of municipal amalgamations in 1973. *
Hamilton Hamilton may refer to: People * Hamilton (name), a common British surname and occasional given name, usually of Scottish origin, including a list of persons with the surname ** The Duke of Hamilton, the premier peer of Scotland ** Lord Hamilton ...
– In 2001, the former City of Stoney Creek and the former towns of Ancaster, Dundas, Flamborough and Glanbrook merged to create the new City of Hamilton. * Temiskaming Shores – In 2004, the towns of New Liskeard and Haileybury, along with the township of Dymond, merged to create the new town of Temiskaming Shores. ;Quebec *
Gatineau Gatineau ( ; ) is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, Ontario. Gatineau is the largest city in the Outaouais administrative region and is part of Canada's Nat ...
– five municipalities in southwestern Quebec (Gatineau, Hull, Aylmer,
Buckingham Buckingham ( ) is a market town in north Buckinghamshire, England, close to the borders of Northamptonshire and Oxfordshire, which had a population of 12,890 at the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 Census. The town lies approximately west of ...
and Masson-Angers) were merged into a new city of Gatineau in 2002. *
Longueuil Longueuil () is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is the seat of the Montérégie, Montérégie administrative region and the central city of the urban agglomeration of Longueuil. It sits on the South Shore (Montreal), south shore of t ...
*
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, second-most populous city in Canada and List of towns in Quebec, most populous city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian ...
– In the Montreal Merger on January 1, 2002, the Parti Québécois provincial government merged all municipalities on the
Island of Montreal The Island of Montreal (french: Île de Montréal) is a large island in southwestern Quebec, Canada, that is the site of a number of municipalities including most of the city of Montreal and is the most populous island in Canada. It is the main ...
into a new City of Montreal. On January 1, 2006, a partial demerger occurred. *
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2021, the city had a population of 549,459, and the Communauté métrop ...
* Rouyn-Noranda * Saguenay – The cities of
Chicoutimi Chicoutimi () is the most populous list of boroughs in Quebec, borough (arrondissement) of the city of Saguenay, Quebec, Saguenay in Quebec, Canada. It is situated at the confluence of the Saguenay River, Saguenay and Chicoutimi River, Chicouti ...
, Jonquière, La Baie and Laterrière, along with the municipalities of Lac-Kénogami and Shipshaw and part of the township of Tremblay, were amalgamated into the City of Saguenay in 2002. *
Sherbrooke Sherbrooke ( ; ) is a city in southern Quebec, Canada. It is at the confluence of the Saint-François River, Saint-François and Magog River, Magog rivers in the heart of the Estrie administrative region. Sherbrooke is also the name of a territ ...
*
Trois-Rivières Trois-Rivières (, – 'Three Rivers') is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice River, Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence River, Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Sain ...
*
Val-d'Or Val-d'Or (, , ; "Golden Valley" or "Valley of Gold") is a city in Quebec, Canada with a population of 32,752 inhabitants according to the Canada 2021 Census. The city is located in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue List of regions of Quebec, region ne ...
;Manitoba *
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is centred on the confluence of the Red River of the North, Red and Assiniboine River, Assiniboine rivers, near the Longitude, longitudinal centre of Nort ...
: in 1971, the municipalities of Transcona, St. Boniface, St. Vital, West Kildonan, East Kildonan,
Tuxedo Black tie is a semi-formal wear, semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for clothing, attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is often referred to synecdochically ...
,
Old Kildonan Old Kildonan is the northernmost city ward of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Before the ''City of Winnipeg Act'' of 1972, it was an independent Unincorporated area#Canada, unincorporated municipality called the Municipality of Old Kildonan; prior ...
, North Kildonan,
Fort Garry Fort Garry, also known as Upper Fort Garry, was a Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trade, fur trading business for much of its existence, ...
, Charleswood, and St. James were amalgamated via the City of Winnipeg Act. The word ''unicity'' is used more commonly than megacity to describe that particular amalgamation.


China

The two previously independent cities
Hankou Hankou, Postal romanization, alternately romanized as Hankow (), was one of the three towns (the other two were Wuchang and Hanyang) merged to become modern-day Wuhan city, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han Riv ...
and
Wuchang Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary great ...
, as well as the county of Hanyang, were merged into one city by the name
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei, Hubei Province in the China, People's Republic of China. It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China, with a population of over eleven million, the List of cities in China ...
in 1927. Wuhan was named China's first
direct-controlled municipality A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for city, cities used by unitary states, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries. A direct-controlled municipality is similar to, but not the same ...
, and was intended to serve as the capital of China.


Denmark

In 1970, mergers brought the number of
municipalities of Denmark Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Danish Realm, Kingdom ...
from 1,098 to 277. In 2007, the (by then) 270 municipalities were consolidated into 98 municipalities, most of them the result of mergers.


Finland

An ongoing series of mergers has reduced the number of
municipalities of Finland The municipalities ( fi, kunta; sv, kommun) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental, self-governing administrative units of the country. The entire country is incorporated into municipalities and legall ...
from 432 in 2006 to 311 in 2017.


Germany

Several states of
West Germany West Germany is the colloquial term used to indicate the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 O ...
carried out municipal merger programmes in the 1960s and 1970s. In
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ), commonly shortened to BW or BaWü, is a states of Germany, German state () in Southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the southern part of Germany's western border with France. With more than 11.07 million inha ...
, the number of municipalities dropped from 3,379 to 1,110 between 1968 and 1975; in
Bavaria Bavaria ( ; ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no ), is a state in the south-east of Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the sec ...
, from roughly 7,000 to roughly 2,000 between 1972 and 1978; in
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a States of Germany, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. Two other major histor ...
, from 2,642 to 421 between 1972 and 1977; in
North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; li, Noordrien-Wesfale ; nds, Noordrhien-Westfalen; ksh, Noodrhing-Wäßßfaale), commonly shortened to NRW (), is a States of Germany, state (''Land'') in Western Germany. With more tha ...
, from 2,365 to 396 between 1967 and 1975; and in
Saarland The Saarland (, ; french: Sarre ) is a state of Germany in the south west of the country. With an area of and population of 990,509 in 2018, it is the smallest German state in area apart from the city-states of Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg, ...
, from 345 to 50 in 1974. In the Bavarian town of Ermershausen, citizens occupied the town hall to resist the merger with Maroldsweisach – unsuccessfully, although Ermershausen was reconstituted as an independent municipality in 1994 – and
Horgau Horgau is a Municipalities of Germany, municipality in the district of Augsburg (district), Augsburg in Bavaria in Germany. ''Districts (villages) of the municipality Horgau:'' Horgau, Horgauergreut, Auerbach (Horgau), Auerbach, Bieselbach, Horga ...
, also in Bavaria, successfully appealed its merger with Zusmarshausen to the Constitutional Court of Bavaria (''Bayerischer Verfassungsgerichtshof''). Mergers have also taken place in the former
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a country that existed from its creation on 7 October 1949 until German reunification, its dissolution on 3 October 1990. In t ...
after 1990, for example in
Brandenburg Brandenburg (; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska ) is a states of Germany, state in the northeast of Germany bordering the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony, as well as the country of Poland. With an ar ...
in 2003.


Greece

The
Kallikratis Plan The Kallikratis Programme ( el, Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης, Prógramma Kallikrátis) is the common name of Greece, Greek law 3852/2010 of 2010, a major administrative reform in Greece. It brought about the second major reform of t ...
replaced the 1033
municipalities and communities of Greece The municipalities of Greece ( el, δήμοι, translit=dímoi ) are the lowest level of government within the organizational structure of the state. As of 2021, there are 332 municipality, municipalities, further divided into 1036 municipal uni ...
with 325 new municipalities in 2011.


Hungary

Budapest Budapest (, ; ) is the capital and most populous city of Hungary. It is the ninth-largest city in the European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of ...
, the capital and largest city in Hungary, was formed from the merger of the cities of Buda and Pest across the river Danube in 1873.


Israel

In 2003 the cities of Baqa al-Gharbiyye and Jatt joined to form the city of Baqa-Jatt, but the merger was dissolved in 2010.


Japan


Malaysia

On 21 April 2018, The Negeri Sembilan state government declared of Seremban Municipal Council (MPS) and Nilai Municipal Council (MPN) were to become Seremban City Council (MBS) effective in January 2019.


New Zealand

In November 2010, the Seven Councils of Auckland City: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council has seen amalgamated to form Auckland City Council.


Philippines

In the Philippines,
Iloilo City Iloilo City, officially the City of Iloilo ( hil, Siyudad/Dakbanwa sang Iloilo; fil, Lungsod ng Iloilo), is a 1st class Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, highly urbanized city in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines on t ...
is a consolidation of former towns, which are now the geographical or
administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ind ...
consisting of: Villa de Arevalo, Iloilo City Proper, Jaro (an independent city before),
La Paz La Paz (), officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Spanish pronunciation: ), is the seat of government of the Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bolivia. With an estimated 816,044 residents as of 2020, La Paz is the List of Bolivian cities ...
,
Mandurriao Mandurriao () is one of the seven districts of Iloilo City Iloilo City, officially the City of Iloilo ( hil, Siyudad/Dakbanwa sang Iloilo; fil, Lungsod ng Iloilo), is a 1st class Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, highly urbani ...
, and Molo. The district of Lapuz, a former part of La Paz, was declared a separate district in 2008.City to recognize Lapuz as separate district from La Paz
Thenewstoday.info (December 22, 2008). Retrieved on November 7, 2011.


Portugal

Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a Sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes ...
was one of the first countries in the world to make an enlarged modern administrative reform, particularly during the 19th century. In the early 19th century, the country was divided into more than 800 municipalities. In 1832, during Portuguese Civil War, a law from Mouzinho da Silveira, minister from the liberal
government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group that claims to be a country A country is a distinct part of the world, such as a state (polity), state, nation, or other polity, political entity. It may be a sovereign sta ...
(which then ruled only in the
Azores ) , motto =( en, "Rather die free than subjected in peace") , anthem= ( en, "Anthem of the Azores") , image_map=Locator_map_of_Azores_in_EU.svg , map_alt=Location of the Azores within the European Union , map_caption=Location of the Azores wi ...
) simplified the public administration, and reduced the number of municipalities to 796. In 1836, after the liberal victory, Passos Manuel, minister from the government of the Marquess of Sá da Bandeira made a profound administrative reform which reduced significantly the number of municipalities, fixing it to 351. Passos Manuel's reform followed a trend very decentralist, creating an elected municipal administration. In 1855, another series of mergers reduced the number of municipalities to 254. In the rest of the 19th century, some series of mergers occurred (particularly during the 1890s), meanwhile other municipalities were restored. Thereafter, the changes to the municipal map focused mainly on the restoration and creation of new municipalities, particularly in the 20th century. Nowadays, there are 308 municipalities in Portugal. The last alteration to the municipal map, occurred in 1998, with the creation of the municipalities of Odivelas (in
Lisbon district Lisbon District ( pt, Distrito de Lisboa, ) is a districts of Portugal, district located along the western coast of Portugal. The district capital is the city of Lisbon, which is also the national capital. From its creation until 1926, it inclu ...
),
Trofa Trofa () is a municipality in the north of the Grande Área Metropolitana do Porto, Porto metropolitan area in Portugal, 18 km from central Porto. The population in 2011 was 38,999, in an area of 72.02 km². Trofa has a strong industrial ...
(in
Porto district The Districts of Portugal, District of Porto ( pt, Distrito do Porto ) is located on the north-west coast of Portugal. The district capital is the city of Porto, the second largest city in the country. It is bordered by the Aveiro (district), Ave ...
) and Vizela (in
Braga district The Districts of Portugal, district of Braga ( pt, Distrito de Braga ) is a district in the northwest of Portugal. The district capital is the city of Braga, and it is bordered by the district of Viana do Castelo District, Viana do Castelo in t ...
). In 2013, more than 1,000
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bisho ...
es/
freguesia ''Freguesia'' (), usually translated as " parish" or "civil parish", is the third-level administrative subdivision of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a Sovereign state, c ...
s were merged.


Sweden

Many rural
municipalities of Sweden The municipalities of Sweden ( sv, Sveriges kommuner) are its lower-level local government Legal entity, entities. There are 290 municipalities which are responsible for a large proportion of local services, including schools, emergency service ...
were merged in 1952; the number of them decreasing from 2,281 to 816. Another series of mergers, this time also including cities and market towns, reduced the total number of municipalities from roughly 1,000 in the early 1960s to 278 in 1974. As of 2013, Sweden has 290 municipalities.


United States

In United States politics, such a merged entity may be called a
consolidated city–county In local government in the United States, United States local government, a consolidated city-county is formed when one or more city, cities and their surrounding County (United States), county (List of parishes in Louisiana, parish in Louisiana, ...
. *
City of Greater New York The City of Greater New York was the term used by many politicians and scholars for the expanded City of New York created on January 1, 1898, by consolidating the existing City of New York with Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New ...
– The amalgamation of the five boroughs (
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City, is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five Boroughs of New York City, boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the List of co ...
,
The Bronx The Bronx () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state, state of New York (state), New York. It is south of Westchester County, New York, Westchester County; north and east of the ...
,
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Kings County is the most populous Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county i ...
,
Queens Queens is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Located on Long Island, it is the largest New York City borough by area. It is bordered by the boro ...
, and
Staten Island Staten Island ( ) is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Richmond County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Located in the city's southwest portion, the borough is separated from New Jersey b ...
) of New York. *
Unigov Unigov is the colloquial name adopted by the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, to describe its consolidated city–county government. By an act of the Indiana General Assembly, Indianapolis consolidated with the government of Marion County, Indian ...
– The local government amalgamation of
Indianapolis Indianapolis (), colloquially known as Indy, is the List of U.S. state and territorial capitals, state capital and List of U.S. states' largest cities by population, most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the county seat, seat of ...
,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...
. * In
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, Princeton Borough and Princeton Township became one municipality (
Princeton, New Jersey Princeton is a municipality with a Borough (New Jersey), borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. It was established on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of ...
), in January 2013, after voters passed a referendum in early November 2011, supported by residents of both municipalities.


See also

*
Municipal annexation Municipal annexation is the legal process by which a city or other municipality acquires land as its jurisdictional territory (as opposed to simply owning the land the way individuals do). In the United States and Canada, it refers to the incorpor ...
*
Urban agglomeration An urban area, built-up area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cit ...
*
Combined statistical area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) term for a combination of adjacent metropolitan (MSA) and micropolitan statistical areas (µSA) across the 50 US states and the territory of Puerto R ...
*
Conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas which through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cas ...
* Ecumenopolis *
Ekistics Ekistics is the science of human settlementsKonstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis, Doxiadis, Konstantinos ''Ekistics'' 1968 including regional, city, Residential community, community planning and dwelling design. Its major incentive was the emergence o ...
* List of double placenames *
Independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, p ...
, the opposite of a
consolidated city–county In local government in the United States, United States local government, a consolidated city-county is formed when one or more city, cities and their surrounding County (United States), county (List of parishes in Louisiana, parish in Louisiana, ...
*
City-state A city-state is an independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as ...
*
Megalopolis A megalopolis () or a supercity, also called a megaregion, is a group of metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban area, urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories ...
*
Megacity A megacity is a very large city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edi ...
*
Metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban area, urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing Industry (economics), industries, commercial areas, Transport infrastructure, transport net ...
*
Metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. A big ci ...


References

{{Authority control Urban planning Political geography *